Abe was instrumental in the eventual signing of the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, and other unequal treaties shortly afterwards. Abe Masahiro was born in his familys residence outside Edo Castle and he was the 5th son of Abe Masakiyo, the 5th daimyō of Fukuyama Domain. Upon his fathers death in 1826, his elder brother Masayasu became daimyō of Fukuyama, Abe was moved to the domains naka-yashiki in Hongō, however, in 1836, Masayasu adopted his brother as heir. Abe became clan leader and daimyō of Fukuyama upon his brothers retirement in on December 25,1836, in early 1837, he left Edo and made the long journey to Fukuyama to formally enter his domain. This would be the time that Abe set foot in his domain. Abe was appointed to the post of sōshaban on September 1,1838, on May 15,1840, he received the post of jisha-bugyō. One of his acts was to order the destruction of the Nichiren sect temple of Kannō-ji, in September 1843, Abe became rōjū at the young age of 25, moving his residence to the Abe familys estate at Tatsunokuchi, outside Edo Castle.
He became rōjū shuza in September 1845, after Mizuno Tadakuni lost his standing over the failure of the Tenpō reforms, Abe held this position throughout the administrations of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyoshi and Tokugawa Iesada, working to unify shogunal politics. He supervised the reconstruction of the enceinte of Edo Castle in 1852. Perry arrived with four warships at Uraga, at the mouth of Edo Bay on July 8,1853, despite years of debate on the isolation policy, Perrys letter created great controversy within the highest levels of the Tokugawa shogunate. Attempting to legitimize any decision taken, Abe polled all of the daimyō for their opinions. The results of the poll failed to provide Abe with an answer, as of the 61 known responses,19 were in favor of accepting the American demands, and 19 were equally opposed. Of the remainder,14 gave vague responses expressing concern of war,7 suggested making temporary concessions. Perry returned again on February 13,1854, with a larger force of eight warships.
Negotiations began on March 8 and proceeded for around one month, the main controversy centered on the selection of the ports to open, with Perry adamantly rejecting Nagasaki. The Convention of Kanagawa was signed at Kanagawa, adjacent to the site of the city of Yokohama on March 31. Abe did not sign the treaty himself or participate in the negotiations in person, similar treaties were concluded with Russia, the Netherlands, and Great Britain soon afterwards. Abe came under criticism from the tozama daimyō, the Imperial Court, in September 1855 he was forced to resign his post, and was replaced by Hotta Masayoshi in October 1855
Edo, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868, during this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a floating world. From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the became the de facto capital and center of political power. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with a population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was repeatedly devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous, an estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires mostly begun by accident, between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25–50 years or so by fire, earthquakes, or war. In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo, the emperor moved his residence to Tokyo, making the city the formal capital of Japan, Keiō4, On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo.
Keiō4, On the 27th day of the 8th month, Keiō4, On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2, On the 23rd day of the 10th month, ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. During the Edo period, the Shogunate appointed administrators with jurisdiction over the police, and beginning with the rule of Tokugawa Yoshimune), the machi bugyō heard criminal and civil suits, and performed other administrative functions. The city was out as a castle town around Edo Castle. Kyotos character was defined by the Imperial Court, the nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history, Osaka was the countrys commercial center. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin, the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture, some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period.
The Sumida River, called the Great River, ran along the edge of the city. The shogunates official rice-storage warehouses, other buildings and some of the citys best-known restaurants were located here. The Japan Bridge marked the center of the commercial center. Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here, shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō
It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the base for the modern Chinese state. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria, in the late sixteenth century, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Banners, military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Jurchen clans into an entity, which he renamed as the Manchus. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, in 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia, the early rulers maintained their Manchu ways, and while their title was Emperor, they used khan to the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus.
They adapted the ideals of the system in dealing with neighboring territories. The Qianlong reign saw the apogee and initial decline in prosperity. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War, European powers imposed unequal treaties, free trade, the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea, New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a conservative leader.
Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformist monarchists such as Kang Youwei, after the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. The Wuchang Uprising on October 11,1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution, General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on February 12,1912. Nurhaci declared himself the Bright Khan of the Later Jin state in both of the 12–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan. His son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636, there are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng. The character Qīng is composed of water and azure, both associated with the water element and this association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water
Japanese warship Kasuga
Kasuga Maru was a Japanese wooden paddle steamer warship of the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period, serving with the navy of Satsuma Domain, and with the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy. She was originally named Keangsoo, and was a dispatch vessel built for the Imperial Chinese Navy. She was constructed in 1862 by Whites at Cowes, she formed part of the Lay-Osborn Floatilla during the Taiping Rebellion, Keangsoo was the largest of the vessels which made up the Lay-Osborn Floatilla. She was 241.5 feet long overall, had a beam of 29 feet and her engines produced an average cruising speed of 16.9 knots, while on two boilers she could operate at an average speed of 14.2 knots. The main armament on the vessel were two mounted smoothbore muzzle-loading 68-pounder guns and her secondary armament consisted of four 18-pounder long guns. Keangsoo was a dispatch vessel, laid down at Whites shipyard at Cowes on the Isle of Wight in 1862. Whites had become known for winning contracts with the Ottoman Navy during the 1850s.
Prince Gong of the Qing Dynasty gave permission for Lay to proceed with this task, while some, such as HMS Africa were purchased from the Royal Navy, Keangsoo was one of three dispatch vessels alongside Tietsin and Kwangtung which were procured as new builds. Keangsoo underwent trials in May 1863 while underway to China, however and Osborne agreed that Osborne would only accept orders from Lay, and he in turn would only pass orders on from the Chinese Government if he agreed with them on an individual basis. The ships reached Shanghai in September, and the Chinese refused to provide stores or funds since Osborne would not accept a new Chinese commander, when the authorities attempted to bribe the enlisted men from the fleet to join them, Osborne sent it to Chefoo. Following the intervention of a British minister, the fleet was ordered to depart for India with Osborne taking Keangsoo, Kwangtung and the yacht Thule to Bombay. The Keangsoo was laid up alongside the remaining vessels of the flotilla.
She was acquired by her Captain Forbes once again, following the end of the conflict in 1865. While at Nagasaki, Keangsoo was purchased by Matsukata Masayoshi, a leading Satsuma samurai, on November 3,1867, for the amount of 160,000 ryō, whence she was renamed Kasuga Maru. With a speed of 17 knots, and six cannons, she was faster than anything in the Tokugawa shogunate Navy, and Matsukata intended to convert her into a warship. However, already alarmed by the high cost, as the price was four times the budget Matsukata had been authorized and she was assigned to be used as a cargo ship. In disgust, Matsukata gave up command of the ship he had bought, only to see it converted into a warship just a few months under the command of his assistant, Akatsuka Genroku. Kasuga Maru entered Hyōgo harbour in January 1868, where she was blockaded by three ships of the Tokugawa Navy, Kaiyō Maru, Banryū Maru and Shōkaku Maru
Japanese warship Kanrin Maru
Kanrin Maru was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam corvette. She was ordered in 1853 from the Netherlands, the only Western country with which Japan had diplomatic relations throughout its period of sakoku, by the Shoguns government and she was delivered on September 21,1857 by Lt. Willem Huyssen van Kattendijke of the Dutch navy. The ship was used at the newly established Naval School of Nagasaki in order to build up knowledge of Western warship technology. Kanrin Maru, as a steam warship, represented a new technological advance in warship design which had been introduced in the West only ten years earlier with HMS Rattler. The ship was built by the shipyard of Fop Smit at Kinderdijk in the Netherlands and she allowed Japan to get its first experience with some of the newest advances in ship design. Kanrin Maru was accompanied by a United States Navy ship, the Powhatan, the official objective of the mission was to send the first ever Japanese embassy to the US, and to ratify the new treaty of Friendship and Navigation between the United States and Japan.
By the end of 1867, the Bakufu was attacked by pro-imperial forces, enomoto Takeaki finally made a rendition in May 1869, and after the end of the conflict, Kanrin Maru was used by the new Imperial government for the development of the northern island of Hokkaido. She was lost there in a typhoon in 1871, at Esashi, in 1990, a ship replica twice the size of the original was ordered for manufacture in the Netherlands, according to the original plans. The ship was visible in the park of Huis Ten Bosch in Kyūshū. It is now used as a ship to the Naruto whirlpools from Minami Awaji harbour. H. Huygens, Z. M. schroef-schooner Bali, in, Verhandelingen en berigten betrekkelijk het zeewezen en de zeevaartkunde,17, pp. 178–183, esp. p.182 Steam and Shellfire. The steam warship 1815-1905 Conways History of the ship ISBN 0-7858-1413-2 The origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy
Naval Battle of Hakodate
It was one of the last stages of Battle of Hakodate during the Boshin War, and occurred near Hakodate in the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. The naval forces of the Ezo Republic were grouped around the warship Kaiten, the fleet originally consisted of eight steamships, Banryū, Japanese gunboat Chiyoda, Chōgei, Kaiyō Maru, Kanrin Maru and Shinsoku. However, Kaiyō Maru and Shinsoku had been lost in an engagement in front of Esashi. The loss of two major units seriously weakened the Ezo Republic side. For the operation, an Imperial Japanese Navy fleet had been constituted around the recently acquired ironclad warship Kōtetsu. Other Imperial ships were Kasuga, Hiryū, Teibō, Yōshun, Mōshun, the nascent Imperial government started with a much weaker navy than that of the Ezo Republic, both in terms of vessel strength and training. In addition, the Imperial government received the support of two transportation ships chartered by the United States for the transportation of its troops, the Imperial fleet supported the deployment of troops on the island of Hokkaidō, destroyed onshore fortifications and attacked the rebel ships.
On 4 May Chiyodagata was captured by Imperial forces after having been abandoned in a grounding and on 7 May Kaiten was heavily hit, Banryū managed to sink the Imperial forces Chiyodagata, but Banryū sank in turn because of heavy damage. The Imperial Japanese Navy won the engagement, ultimately leading to the surrender of the Republic of Ezo at the end of May 1869, ships of foreign navies — the British HMS Pearl and the French Coetlogon — were standing by neutrally during the conflict. The French captain Jules Brunet who had trained the rebels and helped organize their defenses, the future Admiral of the fleet Heihachiro Togo participated in the battle on the Imperial side as a young third-class officer, onboard Kasuga. Ballard C. B. Vice-Admiral G. A, the Influence of the Sea on the Political History of Japan. Jentschura, Dieter Jung, Peter Mickel, warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. United States Naval Institute, Maryland, USA,1977, onodera Eikō, Boshin Nanboku Senso to Tohoku Seiken
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Bakumatsu refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended. Between 1853 and 1867 Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku, the major ideological-political divide during this period was between the pro-imperial nationalists called ishin shishi and the shogunate forces, which included the elite shinsengumi swordsmen. Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of Bakumatsu to seize personal power, the second was to be expressed in the phrase sonnō jōi, or revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians. The turning point of the Bakumatsu was during the Boshin War, frictions with foreign shipping led Japan to take defensive actions from the beginning of the 19th century. Western ships were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling activities and they were hoping for Japan to become a base for supply or at least a place where shipwrecks could receive assistance. The violent demands made by the British frigate Phaeton in 1808 shocked many in Japan, in 1825, the Edict to expel foreigners at all cost was issued by the Shogunate, prohibiting any contacts with foreigners, it remained in place until 1842.
Meanwhile, Japan endeavoured to learn about foreign sciences through rangaku and these domains studied the manufacture of Western weapons. By 1852 Satsuma and Saga had reverbatory furnaces to produce the necessary for firearms. Following the Morrison incident involving the Morrison under Charles W. King in 1837, after the victory of the British over the Chinese in the 1840 Opium War, many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel Western intrusions. To resist Western military forces, Western guns were studied and demonstrations made in 1841 by Takashima Shūhan to the Tokugawa Shogunate, a national debate was already taking place about how to better avoid foreign domination. Some like Egawa claimed that it was necessary to use the techniques to repel them. Others, such as Torii Yōzō argued that only traditional Japanese methods should be employed and reinforced, Egawa argued that just as Confucianism and Buddhism had been introduced from abroad, it made sense to introduce useful Western techniques.
A theoretical synthesis of Western knowledge and Eastern morality would be accomplished by Sakuma Shōzan and Yokoi Shōnan, after 1839, traditionalists tended to prevail. Students of Western sciences were accused of treason, put under house arrest, forced to commit ritual suicide, Perrys four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay in July 1853, the bakufu was thrown into turmoil. Commodore Perry was fully prepared for hostilities if his negotiations with the Japanese failed and he gave them two white flags, telling them to hoist the flags when they wished a bombardment from his fleet to cease and to surrender. To demonstrate his weapons, Perry ordered his ships to several buildings around the harbor. The ships of Perry were equipped with new Paixhans shell guns, fortifications were established at Odaiba in Tokyo Bay in order to protect Edo from an American incursion. Industrial developments were soon started in order to build modern cannons