Japanese warship Kasuga

Kasuga Maru was a Japanese wooden paddle steamer warship of the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period, serving with the navy of Satsuma Domain, with the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy. She was named Keangsoo, was a wooden dispatch vessel built for the Imperial Chinese Navy, she was constructed in 1862 by Whites at Cowes, she formed part of the Lay-Osborn Flotilla during the Taiping Rebellion. Keangsoo was the largest of the vessels, she was 241.5 feet long overall, had a beam of 29 feet and an average draft of 9.25 feet. She displaced 1,000 long tons; the propulsion system consisted of a 300-horsepower oscillating cylinder steam engine, built by Day & Co. of Southampton, equipped with four boilers. Her engines produced an average cruising speed of 16.9 knots, while on two boilers she could operate at an average speed of 14.2 knots. The main armament on the vessel were two mounted smoothbore muzzle-loading 68-pounder guns, her secondary armament consisted of four 18-pounder long guns. Keangsoo was a wooden dispatch vessel, laid down at Whites' shipyard at Cowes on the Isle of Wight in 1862 and launched on March 5, 1863.

Whites had become well known for winning contracts with the Ottoman Navy during the 1850s. She was the flagship of the Lay-Osborn Flotilla, the name given to a grouping of vessels, arranged to be sent to China by Horatio Nelson Lay the Inspector General of Customs for Imperial China, to help suppress the ongoing Taiping Rebellion. Prince Gong of the Qing Dynasty gave permission for Lay to proceed with this task, provided the funds to procure the ships. While some, such as HMS Africa were purchased from the Royal Navy, Keangsoo was one of three dispatch vessels alongside Tientsin and Kwangtung which were procured as new builds. Permission was given by the British Government to enlist British sailors for the Chinese flotilla, Captain Sherard Osborn was co-opted to command the fleet, with the ship under the direct command of Charles Stuart Forbes. Keangsoo underwent trials in May 1863 while underway to China. There was a problem in the command structure for the fleet, since the Chinese Government expected to receive the vessels directly under their own command, had assigned new commanding officers and names for the ships.

However and Osborn agreed that Osborn would only accept orders from Lay, he in turn would only pass orders on from the Chinese Government if he agreed with them on an individual basis. The ships reached Shanghai in September; the Chinese refused to provide stores or funds since Osborn would not accept a new Chinese commander. When the authorities attempted to bribe the enlisted men from the fleet to join them, Osborn sent it to Chefoo. Following the intervention of a British minister, the fleet was ordered to depart for India with Osborn taking Keangsoo, Kwangtung and the yacht Thule to Bombay; the Keangsoo was laid up alongside the other remaining vessels of the flotilla, since their sales were embargoed until the end of the American Civil War. She was acquired by her Captain Forbes once again, following the end of the conflict in 1865. While at Nagasaki, Keangsoo was purchased by Matsukata Masayoshi, a leading Satsuma samurai, on November 3, 1867, for the amount of 160,000 ryō, whence she was renamed Kasuga Maru.

With a speed of 17 knots, six cannons, she was faster than anything in the Tokugawa shogunate Navy, Matsukata intended to convert her into a warship. However alarmed by the high cost, as the price was four times the budget Matsukata had been authorized, he was overruled by the Shimazu clan elders, she was assigned to be used as a cargo ship. In disgust, Matsukata gave up command of the ship he had bought, only to see it converted into a warship just a few months under the command of his assistant, Akatsuka Genroku. Kasuga Maru entered Hyōgo harbour in January 1868, where she was blockaded by three ships of the Tokugawa Navy: Kaiyō Maru, Banryū Maru and Shōkaku Maru. Tōgō Heihachirō, future Admiral of the Fleet, joined the ship on January 3 as a third-class officer and a gunner; the night of January 3, Kasuga Maru escaped from Hyōgo harbour with two other ships. She was spotted by Kaiyō Maru; the two ships exchanged fire without any actual hits. The exchange was named the Naval Battle of Awa and was the first naval battle in Japan between two modern fleets.

Kasuga Maru returned to Kagoshima after that exchange. In March 1869, Kasuga Maru participated in the expedition against the last remnants of the pro-Tokugawa forces in Hokkaido, where they had formed the Republic of Ezo with the support of a few French military advisors such as Jules Brunet. While at Miyako Bay, the expedition suffered a surprise attack by the Bakufu ship Kaiten. Kaiten attacked the state-of-the art ironclad ship Kōtetsu, but she was repulsed by Gatling guns on board the Kōtetsu and cannon response by Kasuga Maru; the encounter has been named the Naval Battle of Miyako Bay. After these events Kasuga Maru participated in the Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay in May 1869, until the surrender of the last forces of the Republic of Ezo. In April 1870, Kasuga Maru was transferred from the Satsuma Domain to the Meiji government and assigned to the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy, was renamed Kasuga at that time. In 1872, un

The Orange Leader (Texas)

The Orange Leader is a morning newspaper published Wednesdays and Saturdays in Orange, covering Orange County. It is owned by Boone Newspapers. After buying two local weeklies in the region in 1980, Cox Enterprises bought the daily Leader in 1985 from owner/publisher James B. Quigley, who had led the paper since 1937. Harry G. Wood, the editor of the nearby Cox newspaper The Port Arthur News, was installed as publisher at that time. In 1991, Cox sold the Leader and the Port Arthur newspaper to American Publishing Company, which in turn dealt them to Community Newspaper Holdings in 1999. After cutting publication from seven days to three in 2011 and to two days, the pair was sold to Boone Newspapers Inc. in 2014. The Orange Leader Website

Carstairs railway station

Carstairs railway station serves the village of Carstairs in South Lanarkshire, Scotland and is a major junction station on the West Coast Main Line, situated close to the point at which the lines from London Euston and Edinburgh to Glasgow Central merge. Constructed by the Caledonian Railway, the station is operated today by Abellio ScotRail and is served by one TransPennine Express trains service per day between Manchester Airport and Glasgow Central. All other services by TransPennine Express and services operated by Avanti West Coast, Caledonian Sleeper, CrossCountry and London North Eastern Railway pass the station, but do not stop. Just south of the station, there is an important triangular junction where the West Coast Main Line divides; the north-westerly route goes via Motherwell to Glasgow and the north-easterly route goes towards Edinburgh, where the East Coast Main Line begins. The southbound route goes towards London Euston; the line between Edinburgh and Glasgow is the only part of the West Coast Main Line used by London North Eastern Railway services.

Carstairs is a marshalling point and the final boarding point in Scotland for the Lowland Caledonian Sleeper trains from Glasgow and Edinburgh to London Euston. Northbound WCML services pass the station on an avoiding line, away from the platform line, but northbound services coming off the chord from Edinburgh pass Platform 1: they can be signalled from Platform 2, but this happens. However, all southbound services must pass Platform 2, as there is no avoiding line on that side of the station; the Up Main and Down Platform lines are both signalled for bi-directional working, are used as passing loops for passenger and freight services. For example, the early morning departure for Glasgow Central from North Berwick will wait at the Down Platform as a fast TransPennine Express service from Manchester passes. There is the Down Passenger Loop and the Up Passenger Loop which are both used to stop freight services while faster passenger services pass, it is common for northbound freights to be stopped in both the Down Platform line and Down Passenger Loop and for fast passenger services to be passed between them on the Down Main.

The route through the station was electrified in 1974 electrification scheme that covered the West Coast Main Line between Weaver Junction and Glasgow Central. As part of this the station was re-signalled; the critical point was the connection from Edinburgh on a minimum radius curve to provide a connection into the Down Platform whilst avoiding the installation of a diamond crossing. The requirement for superelevation through the Up platform for 90 mph running required deep ballasting the side effect of which required the platform to be raised; the original station buildings were being retained therefore continuous railings were provided to prevent passengers inadvertently falling down from one level to the other. This height difference has now been removed as the original station buildings were demolished and replaced with a more modern alternative and the entire platform was levelled off; the only remnant of the original station buildings to remain was the integral footbridge, now adapted as a stand-alone structure.

The route to Edinburgh was not part of the 1970s scheme, however, it was included as part of the late 1980s ECML scheme, with electric services starting to use the line in 1989. Carstairs was an important junction station where northbound West Coast Main Line trains were split into separate portions for Glasgow and Stirling and Perth, for the corresponding combining of southbound trains. However, the introduction of push-pull operation on the WCML and the availability of surplus HST sets for Cross Country traffic eliminated this practice in the early 1990s. Apart from the sleeping car trains, express traffic through Carstairs now consists of fixed-formation trains which do not require to be remarshalled en route; as a result, few express trains now call at Carstairs. There were some local stopping services to Edinburgh and Glasgow, but they were infrequent, Before December 2012, only two trains per day to North Berwick called and only five trains to Glasgow There were large gaps in between trains with the two Edinburgh-bound trains calling at 07:49 and again at 15:40 as with the Glasgow trains a nine-hour gap from 07:55-18:41.

The following service calls at Carstairs, On Monday to Saturdays: There is a 2 hourly service to both Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley for most of the day with a few services extended to Ayr and North Berwick, the last northbound service from Edinburgh terminates at Motherwell, There is a few extra trains which call at peak times to/from Glasgow Central Low Level operated by ScotRail which operate to Motherwell and Dalmuir therefore a reduced service operates from the station on Saturday mornings, In addition, TransPennine Express provide one train per day to Glasgow Central and one train per day to Liverpool Lime Street via Preston. As of 2019, there is no Sunday service. Brailsford, Martyn, ed.. Railway Track Diagrams 1: Scotland & Isle of Man. Frome: Trackmaps. ISBN 978-0-9549866-9-8. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory o