David Chiu (politician)
David Chiu is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 17th Assembly District, which encompasses the eastern half of San Francisco, Chiu is a member of the California Asian & Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus. The eldest child of Hakka Taiwanese American immigrant parents, Chiu was born in Cleveland and grew up in Boston, where he attended Boston College High School. In the mid-1990s, Chiu served as Democratic Counsel to the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee’s Constitution Subcommittee and he founded Grassroots Enterprise, an online communications technology company, and served as its chief operating officer. He served on the San Francisco Small Business Commission until he was elected supervisor in 2008, Chiu first ran for elected office in 2008, when he ran for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 3. He was backed by incumbent supervisor Aaron Peskin as well as Kamala Harris, Mark Leno, Leland Yee, on his first day in office on January 8,2009, Chiu was elected to a two-year term as president of the Board of Supervisors.
He was reelected president on January 8,2011, Chiu was reelected to his second and final term as supervisor in 2012, winning over 75% of the vote. He was reelected by his supervisors to serve an unprecedented third term as president of the board on January 8,2013. In addition to serving on the Board of Supervisors, Chiu served as a member of the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee, on February 28,2011, Chiu announced his mayoral candidacy at a morning rally at San Francisco City Hall. Over the course of the campaign, Chiu raised over $1.24 million from private and public sources and spent roughly the same amount. On Election Day, Chiu placed fourth behind incumbent Ed Lee with 17,921 first-place votes, despite the fourth-place finish, Chiu and third-place candidate Dennis Herrera appeared individually on more ballots overall than John Avalos, who came in second. He ran against fellow Democrat and supervisor David Campos, on January 22,2014, the San Francisco Chronicle column City Insider reported that Chiu reported having raised $450,000 for the Assembly race.
Polls showed him ahead of Campos, Chiu beat Campos in the San Francisco primary on Tuesday, June 3,2014, by approximately five percentage points. Chiu won 48% of the vote, while Campos pulled in 43%, on November 4, Chiu defeated Campos with 51. 9% of the vote, and Campos conceded on November 6. David Chiu was appointed by Speaker Toni Atkins to serve as assistant speaker pro tempore in the 2015–16 session, the assistant speaker pro tempore is the third highest ranking position in the state assembly
Japantown is a common name for official Japanese communities in big cities outside Japan. Alternatively, a Japantown may be called J-town, Little Tokyo, or Nihonmachi, Japantowns represented the Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. There was significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the period, however. For a brief period in the 16th-17th centuries, Japanese overseas activity and presence in Southeast Asia, sizeable Japanese communities, known as Nihonmachi, could be found in many of the major ports and political centers of the region, where they exerted significant political and economic influence. The Japanese had been active on the seas and across the region for centuries, traveling for commercial, religious, the 16th century, saw a dramatic increase in such travel and activity. The internal strife of the Sengoku period caused a great people, primarily samurai, commoner merchants.
As Toyotomi Hideyoshi and the Tokugawa shoguns issued repeated bans on Christianity, many fled the country, the features described below are characteristic of many modern Japantowns. Many historical Japantowns will exhibit architectural styles that reflect the Japanese culture, Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, chairs, the earliest Japanese architecture was seen in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses and stores that were adapted to a hunter-gatherer population. Influence from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores, the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate, until the arrival of The Black Ships and the Meiji period.
Many Japantowns will exhibit the use of the Japanese language in signage existing on road signs and on buildings as Japanese is the official, Japanese is relatively small but has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known largely on the basis of its state in the 8th century, the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, and kanji, imported from China. The Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are common. Japantowns were created because of the immigration of Japanese to America in the Meiji period. At that time, many Japanese were poor and sought opportunities in the United States
Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi is an American politician who is the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, representing Californias 12th congressional district. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi represents Californias 12th congressional district, the district was numbered as the 5th during Pelosis first three terms in the House, and as the 8th from 1993 to 2013. She served as the House Minority Whip from 2002 to 2003, Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian and first Italian-American to lead a major party in Congress. On November 17,2010, Pelosi was elected as the Democratic Leader by House Democrats, Pelosi is Italian-American and was born Nancy Patricia DAlesandro in Baltimore, Maryland. She is the youngest of six children of Annunciata M. Nancy, who was born in Campobasso, South Italy, on 25 March 1909, Congressman from Maryland and a Mayor of Baltimore. Pelosis brother, Thomas DAlesandro III, a Democrat, was mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971, Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age.
In her outgoing remarks as the 60th Speaker of the House and she graduated from the Institute of Notre Dame, a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore, and from Trinity College in Washington, D. C. in 1962 with a B. A. in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and she met Paul Frank Pelosi while she was attending Trinity College. They married in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7,1963, after moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics. She became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, in 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996. She was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30,1977, and for the California Democratic Party, Pelosi was appointed Finance Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, the campaign arm of the U. S.
Senate Democrats, in 1985. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986. Phillip Burton died in 1983 and was succeeded by his wife, in late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988. She picked Pelosi as her successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons contacts. Sala died on February 1,1987, just a month after being sworn in for a full term. Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country, Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who currently make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s. She won the seat in her own right in 1988 and has been reelected 10 more times with no substantive opposition and she has not participated in candidates debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross. The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2008 when anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan polled 16%, in the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees, and was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as Minority Leader
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina
London Nicole Breed is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 5, Breed was raised by her grandmother in public housing in the Western Addition. She is a graduate of Galileo High School, Breed earned a bachelors degree from the University of California Davis in 1997 and a masters degree in public administration from the University of San Francisco in 2012. Breed was named to the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency Commission in 2004, in 2010, Mayor Gavin Newsom appointed her to the San Francisco Fire Commission. She is Mayor Ed Lees closest ally on the Board of Supervisors, Breed authored legislation to allow the San Francisco City Attorney to pursue civil damages against graffiti taggers, instead of solely relying on criminal prosecutions to punish taggers. In 2016, City Attorney Dennis Herrera used these new penalties to win a civil judgment against serial tagger Terry Cozy that resulted in a $217,831.64 fine.
On January 8,2015 Breed was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, defeating fellow supervisor David Campos and she was re-elected to another two year term as president on January 9,2017. After the shooting of Mario Woods by San Francisco police officers, Breed, in February 2016, Breed announced her re-election bid to represent District 5. The top issues she identified in her announcement were development, public safety, environmental health and she is running against Dean Preston, a tenant rights lawyer and advocate for affordable housing rights
Geary Boulevard is a major east-west 5. Geary Boulevard terminates near Sutro Heights Park at 48th Avenue, close to the Cliff House above Ocean Beach at the Pacific Ocean, at 40th Avenue, Geary intersects with Point Lobos Avenue, which takes through traffic to the Cliff House, Ocean Beach and the Great Highway. It is a commercial artery through the Richmond District, it is lined with stores and restaurants. The boulevard borders Japantown between Fillmore and Laguna Streets, the roadway was originally called Point Lobos Avenue, a name which survives as a branch and extension of the current street. The modern name pays tribute to John W. Geary, the first mayor of San Francisco after California became a U. S. state, Geary Boulevard has the highest address and block numbers in San Francisco, with the last block being the 8300 block. In addition, although it is unsigned and contains no habitable structures, the right-of-way began as a dirt carriage track to the Cliff House and Ocean Beach, two popular local attractions.
For a time, a flat track paralleled the road where horsemen raced their mounts on Sundays, cable cars were operated on the street from 1880 to 1912 by the Geary Street and Ocean Railway. They initially ran from Market Street to Central, connecting to an extension running steam powered cars along Geary to 1st Avenue, in 1892, the cable car line was extended to 5th Avenue, where it turned south to reach Golden Gate Park directly. Despite its name, the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railway never actually reached the ocean, the B Geary line eventually reached Playland and Ocean Beach after turning south at 33rd Avenue and west on Balboa Avenue. This made the length of Geary from Market Street to 48th served by streetcars. If and when a streetcar line is built along Geary. The section of the boulevard between Franklin Street and Masonic Avenue was upgraded to an expressway in 1961. It features between four and eight lanes and two grade separations at Masonic and Fillmore, complete with frontage lanes.
Geary Boulevard lends its name to the open source email client Geary. There have been feasibility studies by Muni that have investigated the possibility of creating a rail line on Geary. A bus rapid transit line is being planned on Geary Boulevard between Van Ness and 33rd Avenue, with a target completion date is 2019-2020. The McLoughlin Gallery, an art gallery at 49 Geary Street Media related to Geary Boulevard
Great Migration (African American)
The Great Migration was the movement of 5 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast and West that occurred between 1915 and 1960. Until 1910, more than 90 percent of the African-American population lived in the American South, in 1900, only one-fifth of African-Americans living in the South were living in urban areas. By 1970, more than 80 percent of African-Americans lived in cities, in sheer numbers it outranks the migration of any other ethnic group—Italians or Irish or Jews or Poles—to. For blacks, the migration meant leaving what had always been their economic and social base in America, some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration, which saw about 1. Since 1965, a migration has gathered strength. Dubbed the New Great Migration, it has seen many African-Americans move to the South, as early as 1975 to 1980, seven southern states were net African-American migration gainers. African-American populations have continued to drop much of the Northeast, especially the state of New York and northern New Jersey.
James Gregory calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in his book, The Southern Diaspora, Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade. The pace accelerated with the outbreak of World War I and continued through the 1920s, by 1930, there were 1.3 million former southerners living in other regions. The Great Depression wiped out job opportunities in the industrial belt, especially for African Americans. A second and larger Great Migration began around 1940 as defense industries geared up for World War II. 1.4 million black southerners moved north or west in the 1940s, followed by 1.1 million in the 1950s, by the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. African-Americans moved from the 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana, based on the total populations in each of the four states, only Georgia showed a net decrease in its African American population in 1950 compared to 1920.
Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi showed net increases in their African American populations in 1950 compared to 1920, big cities were the principal destinations of southerners throughout the two phases of the Great Migration. In the first phase, eight major cities attracted two-thirds of the migrants, New York and Chicago, followed in order by Philadelphia, St. Louis, Detroit and Indianapolis. The Second great black migration increased the populations of cities while adding others as destinations. Cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Phoenix, there were clear migratory patterns that linked particular states and cities in the South to corresponding destinations in the North. Almost half of those who migrated from Mississippi during the first Great Migration, for example, ended up in Chicago, for the most part, these patterns were related to geography, with the closest cities attracting the most migrants
Ginza is a district of Chūō, located south of Yaesu and Kyōbashi, west of Tsukiji, east of Yūrakuchō and Uchisaiwaichō, and north of Shinbashi. It is a upscale shopping area of Tokyo, with numerous internationally renowned department stores, restaurants. Ginza is recognized by many as one of the most luxurious shopping districts in the world, Ginza was built upon a former swamp that was filled in during the 16th century. The name Ginza comes after the establishment of a mint established there in 1612. After a devastating fire in 1872 burnt down most of the area, the government planned the construction of fireproof brick buildings and larger, better streets connecting Shimbashi Station all the way to the foreign concession in Tsukiji. Designs for the area were provided by the Irish-born architect Thomas Waters and these bricktown buildings were initially offered for sale and were leased, but the high rent prevented many of them from being permanently occupied. Moreover, the construction was not adapted to the climate, the new Ginza was not popular with visiting foreigners, who were looking for a more Edo-styled city.
Isabella Bird visited in 1878 and in 1880 implied that Ginza was less like an Oriental city than like the outskirts of Chicago or Melbourne, philip Terry, the English writer of tour guides, likened it to Broadway, not in a positive sense. Nevertheless, the area flourished as a symbol of civilization and enlightenment thanks to the presence of newspapers and magazine companies, the area was known for its window displays, an example of modern marketing techniques. Everyone visited so the custom of killing time in Ginza developed strongly between the two world wars, most of these European-style buildings disappeared, but some older buildings still remain, most famously the Wakō building with the now-iconic Hattori Clock Tower. The building and the tower were originally built by Kintarō Hattori. Its recent history has seen it as a prominent outpost of western luxury shops, Ginza is a popular destination on weekends, when the main north-south artery is closed to traffic since the 1960s, under governor Ryokichi Minobe.
Many leading fashion houses flagship stores are located here, in the area with the highest concentration of shops in Tokyo. It is one of two locations in Tokyo considered by Chevalier and Mazzalovo to be the best locations for a goods store. Prominent are Chanel, Carolina Herrera, Gucci, flagship electronic retail stores like the Sony showroom and the Apple Store are here. Ricoh is headquartered in the Ricoh Building in Ginza, the neighborhood is a major shopping district. It is home to Wako department store, which is located in a building dating from 1894, the building has a clock tower. There are many department stores in the area, including Hankyu, each Saturday and Sunday, from 12,00 noon until 5,00 pm, the main street through Ginza is closed off to road traffic, allowing people to walk freely
Scott Wiener is an American politician and a member of the California State Senate. A Democrat, he represents the 11th Senate District, encompassing San Francisco, prior to his election to the State Senate in 2016, Wiener served on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 8. Wiener was born in Philadelphia and grew up in southern New Jersey and he clerked for Justice Alan B. Handler on the Supreme Court of New Jersey. In 1997, Wiener moved to San Francisco to work as an attorney at Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe. In 2002, he went to work as a deputy city attorney under San Francisco City Attorney Dennis Herrera, before running for the Board of Supervisors, Wiener served as chair of the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee. In 2015, Wiener was robbed of his phone on the corner of 16th. He immediately began to negotiate with the thieves, and got them to agree to accept $200 for the return of his phone. The foursome walked to a nearby ATM, where the transaction was caught on tape by the cameras at the ATM, a Wells Fargo security guard observed the robbery in progress, and called the police. A woman and a man were arrested and charged with second-degree robbery.
Wiener was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors on November 2,2010, after the two lowest candidates were dropped, Wiener won election with 18,239 votes, or 55. 4%, over the second-place finisher, attorney Rafael Mandelman. Wiener was re-elected on November 4,2014 on the first round of ranked choice voting, carrying a majority of the vote. Previously, landlords willing to rent out apartments to tenant on a temporary basis could not offer lower rents without locking these rates in at that rate under rent control. In 2012, Wiener passed legislation encouraging the production of student housing while restricting the conversion of existing rental stock to student housing and that same year, the Board passed legislation to allow the construction of residential units as small as 220 square feet, known as micro-apartments. In 2016, Wiener authored legislation to fast-track the approval of affordable housing projects, in 2016, Wiener introduced legislation to extend rent control protections to people living with HIV/AIDS.
His proposals include changing the transit-impact development fee and a measure to tie Muni funding to population growth. The latter measure, Prop B requires 75% of increased funding to improve Muni reliability, Prop B was passed on November 4,2014. Wiener has encouraged increases in the number of taxis in San Francisco and has supported expanding access to car-share programs, in 2013, the full Board of Supervisors passed Wieners legislative package to streamline pedestrian safety projects. Over his tenure as a Supervisor, Wiener has advocated against widening streets, in 2014, this led to a public disagreement with the San Francisco Fire Department around street design at new developments at Hunters Point and Candlestick Point
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president