Russian colonization of the Americas
The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas. Russian colonial possessions in the Americas are collectively known as Russian America. Russian expansion eastward began in 1552, in 1639 Russian explorers reached the Pacific Ocean. In 1725, Emperor Peter the Great ordered navigator Vitus Bering to explore the North Pacific for potential colonization; the Russians were interested in the abundance of fur-bearing mammals on Alaska's coast, as stocks had been depleted by over hunting in Siberia. Bering's first voyage was foiled by thick fog and ice, but in 1741 a second voyage by Bering and Aleksei Chirikov made sight of the North American mainland. Russian promyshlenniki developed the maritime fur trade, which instigated several conflicts between the Aleuts and Russians in the 1760s; the fur trade proved to be a lucrative enterprise, capturing the attention of other European nations.
In response to potential competitors, the Russians extended their claims eastward from the Commander Islands to the shores of Alaska. In 1784, with encouragement from Empress Catherine the Great, explorer Grigory Shelekhov founded Russia's first permanent settlement in Alaska at Three Saints Bay. Ten years the first group of Orthodox Christian missionaries began to arrive, evangelizing thousands of Native Americans, many of whose descendants continue to maintain the religion. By the late 1780s, trade relations had opened with the Tlingits, in 1799 the Russian-American Company was formed in order to monopolize the fur trade serving as an imperialist vehicle for the Russification of Alaska Natives. Angered by encroachment on their land and other grievances, the indigenous peoples' relations with the Russians deteriorated. In 1802, Tlingit warriors destroyed several Russian settlements, most notably Redoubt Saint Michael, leaving New Russia as the only remaining outpost on mainland Alaska; this failed to expel the Russians, who reestablished their presence two years following the Battle of Sitka.
In 1808, Redoubt Saint Michael was rebuilt as New Archangel and became the capital of Russian America after the previous colonial headquarters were moved from Kodiak. A year the RAC began expanding its operations to more abundant sea otter grounds in Northern California, where Fort Ross was built in 1812. By the middle of the 19th century, profits from Russia's American colonies were in steep decline. Competition with the British Hudson's Bay Company had brought the sea otter to near extinction, while the population of bears and foxes on land was nearing depletion. Faced with the reality of periodic Native American revolts, the political ramifications of the Crimean War, unable to colonize the Americas to their satisfaction, the Russians concluded that their American colonies were too expensive to retain. Eager to release themselves of the burden, the Russians sold Fort Ross in 1842, in 1867, after less than a month of negotiations, the United States accepted Emperor Alexander II's offer to sell Alaska.
The purchase of Alaska for $7.2 million ended Imperial Russia's colonial presence in the Americas. Many indigenous peoples protested the sale, arguing that they were the rightful owners of the land and that Russia had no right to sell Alaska. Europeans first sighted the Alaskan coastline in 1732, he did not land. The first European landfall took place in southern Alaska in 1741 during the Russian exploration by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov. Captain Sterling Romanov and his wife Anna Romanov founded the first Russian colony in the Americas. Between 1774 and 1800 Spain led several expeditions to Alaska in order to assert its claim over the Pacific Northwest; these claims were abandoned at the turn of the 19th century. Count Nikolay Rumyantsev funded Russia's first naval circumnavigation under the joint command of Adam Johann von Krusenstern and Nikolai Rezanov in 1803–1806, was instrumental in the outfitting of the voyage of the Riurik's circumnavigation of 1814–1816, which provided substantial scientific information on Alaska's and California's flora and fauna, important ethnographic information on Alaskan and Californian natives.
Imperial Russia was unique among European empires for having no state sponsorship of foreign expeditions or territorial settlement. The first state-protected trading company for sponsoring such activities in the Americas was the Shelikhov-Golikov Company of Grigory Shelikhov and Ivan Larionovich Golikov. A number of other companies were operating in Russian America during the 1780s. Shelikhov petitioned the government for exclusive control, but in 1788 Catherine II decided to grant his company a monopoly only over the area it had occupied. Other traders were free to compete elsewhere. Catherine's decision was issued as the imperial ukase of September 28, 1788; the Shelikhov-Golikov Company formed the basis for the Russian-American Company. Its charter was laid out in a 1799, by the new Tsar Paul I, which granted the company monopolistic control over trade in the Aleutian Islands and the North America mainland, south to 55° north latitude; the RAC was Russia's first joint stock company, came under the direct authority of the Ministry of Commerce of Imperial Russia.
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The Sitka Channel is a strait that separates Japonski Island from Baranof Island in Alaska. The Sitka Channel, or more referred to as The Channel by locals, is a notable feature of Sitka, Alaska that separates vital portions of infrastructure located on the peripheral Japonski Island from the rest of the community; until 1972 the commute was only achievable through a ferry service but in that year the John O'Connell Bridge was constructed. The Sitka Channel features numerous wharfs, seafood processing plants, harbors serving its thriving seafood industries as well as port facilities for the United States Coast Guard vessel USCG Maple
The Alexander Archipelago is a 300-mile long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska. It contains about 1,100 islands, which are the tops of the submerged coastal mountains that rise steeply from the Pacific Ocean. Deep channels and fjords cut them off from the mainland; the northern part of the Inside Passage is sheltered by the islands. The islands have irregular, steep coasts and dense evergreen and temperate rain forests, most are accessible only by boat or aeroplane; the vast majority of the islands are part of the Tongass National Forest. In order of land area, the largest islands are Prince of Wales Island, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Revillagigedo Island, Kupreanof Island, Kuiu Island, Etolin Island, Dall Island, Wrangell Island, Mitkof Island, Zarembo Island, Kosciusko Island, Kruzof Island, Annette Island, Gravina Island, Yakobi Island. All the islands are rugged, densely forested, have an abundance of wildlife.
The Tlingit and Kaigani Haida people are native to the area. The Tsimshian people found on Annette Island are not from the area, having immigrated to the region from British Columbia in the late 19th century. Ketchikan on Revillagigedo Island and Sitka on Baranof Island are the largest towns on the islands; the most populous neighborhoods of the largest town in the region, are on the mainland, though portions of the city lie on Douglas Island, a part of the archipelago. Tourism and logging are the main industries of the islands; the first European to visit the archipelago was the Russian navigator Aleksei Chirikov in 1741, who sighted the coasts of Noyes and Baker Islands, as well as Baranof, Chichagof and Yakobi Islands. In 1774 Juan José Pérez Hernández sighted the south coast of Dall Island, while Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra entered Bucareli Bay off Prince of Wales Island the following year. In 1792 Jacinto Caamaño sighted Revillagigedo Island and the Gravina Islands, discovering Clarence Strait.
George Vancouver and his men made an extensive survey of the archipelago in 1793 and 1794, circumnavigating both Revillagigedo and Admiralty Islands, charting the entirety of Kuiu Island, the east sides of Baranof and Chichagof Islands, Etolin, Zarembo and Kupreanof Islands. Within a decade the Russians had traversed Peril Strait separating Chichagof and Baranof Islands, in the following decades found the straits and passages separating several of the other major islands. An 1844 Russian chart shows Kupreanof separated from Mitkof Island and Etolin, Wrangell and Zarembo Islands separated from each other; the archipelago was a locus of the Maritime Fur Trade during the early 19th century. Control of the islands passed from Russia to the United States with the Alaska Purchase in 1867. According to Donald Orth's Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, the Alexander Archipelago received its name from the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1867; the island chain is named for Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
On an 1860 map of Russian America, the island group is called the King George III Archipelago. Alexander Archipelago wolf Bell Island British Columbia Coast Boundary Ranges Catherine Island Hunter Bay Kadin Island William Henry Bay "Alexander Archipelago". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey
Baranof Island sometimes called Baranov Island, Shee or Sitka Island is an island in the northern Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle, in Alaska. The name Baranof was given in 1805 by Imperial Russian Navy captain U. F. Lisianski to honor Alexander Andreyevich Baranov, it was called Sheet’-ká X'áat'l by the native Tlingit people. It is the smallest of the ABC islands of Alaska; the island has a land area of 1,607 square miles, larger than the state of Delaware. It measures 105 miles by 30 miles at perpendicular widest point, respectively, it has a shoreline of 617 miles. Baranof Island hosts the highest mountain in the Alexander Archipelago, is the eighth largest island in Alaska, the tenth largest island in the United States, the 137th largest island in the world, its center is near 57°0′N 135°0′W. Most of the island lies within the limits of Tongass National Forest. A large part has been designated as the South Baranof Wilderness. A little bay called; the escort carrier USS Ommaney Bay bears its name.
The population of the island was 8,532 at the 2000 census. The entire area of the island is part of the City and Borough of Sitka; the only part of Baranof, not in Sitka is a tiny sliver of land at the extreme southeast corner, in the Petersburg Borough, includes the town of Port Alexander. This section had a 2000 census population of 81 persons; the towns of Baranof Warm Springs, Port Armstrong, Port Walter are located on the eastern side of the island. Goddard, a now-abandoned settlement about 16 miles south of Sitka, features a few private homes and hot springs with two public bathhouses. There are five year-round salmon hatcheries, one located just north of Port Alexander at Port Armstrong, another located just north of Baranof Warm Springs at Hidden Falls, two are located in the city of Sitka one at the Sitka Sound Science Center, another in the Sawmill Cove Business Park; the latter is accessible by private road from Sitka. All of these communities, except for Port Alexander and Port Armstrong, are under the jurisdiction of the City and Borough of Sitka, of which, Sitka serves as the borough seat.
Fishing, seafood processing, tourism are important industries on the island, famous for brown bears and Sitka deer. The first European settlement on the island was established in 1799 by Alexander Baranov, the chief manager and first governor of the Russian-American Company for whom the island and Archipelago are named; the island was the center of Russian activity in North America during the period from 1804 to 1867 and was the headquarters of the Russian fur-trading interest. Around 1900, Baranof Island was subject to many small-scale mining ventures centered on Sitka and on the north side of the island around Rodman Bay. Canneries, whaling stations, fox farms were established on Baranof Island and smaller islands around it, though most had been abandoned by the beginning of World War II; the remains of these outposts are still evident. In February 1924 the Alaska Territorial Game Commission hired Charlie Raatakainen to transplant mainland goats from near Juneau to Bear Mountain. Raatakainen hired a group of Finns aboard his boat the Pelican to complete the job, though one of the group died in the process.
The 1939 Slattery Report on Alaskan development identified the island as one of the areas where new settlements would be established through immigration. This plan was never implemented. Louis L'Amour's novel "Sitka" describes the conflict between the Russian fur trading empire and Yankee settlers; the Yiddish Policemen's Union is a 2007 alternate-history novel by Michael Chabon about a Jewish Yiddish-speaking territory in Sitka, including most of Baranov Island. The novel proceeds from the counter-factual premise that the Slattery Report had been implemented. Local Author John Straley has written a number of mystery novels set around Baranof Island. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States List of geographic features on Baranof Island Tlingit Geographical Place Names for the Sheet’Ka Kwaan — Sitka Tribe of Alaska, an interactive map of Sitka Area native place names
Hokkaido known as Ezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, its only ordinance-designated city. About 43 km north of Hokkaido lies Russia. To its east and north-east are the disputed Kuril Islands; the Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 AD, is said to be the first mention of Hokkaido in recorded history. According to the text, Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the Mishihase and Emishi. One of the places Hirafu went to was called Watarishima, believed to be present-day Hokkaido. However, many theories exist in relation to the details of this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common belief that the Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people. During the Nara and Heian periods, people in Hokkaido conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central government.
From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo. Hokkaido subsequently became known as Ezogashima; the Ezo relied upon hunting and fishing and obtained rice and iron through trade with the Japanese. During the Muromachi period, the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula; as more people moved to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader and defeated the opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the Matsumae-han, granted exclusive trading rights with the Ainu in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods; the Matsumae family's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the Edo period in 1868; the Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the context of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval military leaders in northern Honshū maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the imperial court and its proxies, the Kamakura Shogunate and Ashikaga Shogunate.
Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within medieval institutional order, taking shogunal titles, while in other times they assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese identity. In fact, many of the feudal strongmen were descended from Emishi military leaders, assimilated into Japanese society; the Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese people, whereas the Emishi of northern Honshu were a distinctive group related to the Ainu. The Emishi were conquered and integrated into the Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th century, as result began to lose their distinctive culture and ethnicity as they became minorities. By the time the Matsumae clan ruled over the Ainu most of the Emishi were ethnically mixed and physically closer to Japanese than they were to Ainu; this dovetails nicely with the "transformation" theory that native Jōmon peoples changed with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku rather than the "replacement" theory which posits that one population was replaced by another.
There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against the feudal rule. The last large-scale resistance was Shakushain's Revolt in 1669–1672. In 1789, a smaller movement, the Menashi–Kunashir rebellion, was crushed. After that rebellion, the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred to distinguished groups, the Matsumae were unequivocally Japanese. In 1799–1821 and 1855–1858, the Edo Shogunate took direct control over Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from Russia. Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa Shogunate realized there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi; the Shogunate made the plight of the Ainu easier, but did not change the overall form of rule. Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island, but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under control of Hakodate Prefectural Government.
When establishing the Development Commission, the Meiji Government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; the primary purpose of the development commission was to secure Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East beyond Vladivostok. Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture, his first step was to journey to the United States and recruit Horace Capron, President Grant's Commissioner of Agriculture. From 1871 to 1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876, William S. Clark arrived to found an agricultural college in Sapporo. Although he only remained a year, Clark left a lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity
Ketchikan is a city in the Ketchikan Gateway Borough, United States, the southeasternmost city in Alaska. With a population at the 2010 census of 8,050, it is the fifth-most populous city in the state, tenth-most populous community when census-designated places are included; the surrounding borough, encompassing suburbs both north and south of the city along the Tongass Highway, plus small rural settlements accessible by water, registered a population of 13,477 in that same census. Estimates put the 2017 population at 13,754 people. Incorporated on August 25, 1900, Ketchikan is the earliest extant incorporated city in Alaska, because consolidation or unification elsewhere in Alaska resulted in dissolution of those communities' city governments. Ketchikan is located on Revillagigedo Island, so named in 1793 by Captain George Vancouver. Ketchikan is named after Ketchikan Creek, which flows through the town, emptying into the Tongass Narrows a short distance southeast of its downtown. "Ketchikan" comes from the Tlingit name for the creek, Kitschk-hin, the meaning of, unclear.
It may mean "the river belonging to Kitschk". In modern Tlingit this name is rendered as Kichx̱áan. Ketchikan Creek served as a summer fish camp for Tlingit natives for untold years before the town was established by Mike Martin in 1885, he was sent to the area by an Oregon canning company to assess prospects. He established the saltery Clark & Martin and a general store with Nova Scotia native George Clark, foreman at a cannery that burned down. Ketchikan has the world's largest collection of standing totem poles, found throughout the city and at four major locations: Saxman Totem Park, Totem Bight State Park, Potlatch Park, the Totem Heritage Center. Most of the totems at Saxman Totem Park and Totem Bight State Park are recarvings of older poles, a practice that began during the Roosevelt Administration through the Civilian Conservation Corps; the Totem Heritage Center displays preserved 19th-century poles rescued from abandoned village sites near Ketchikan. Ketchikan's GPS geographic coordinates are latitude 55.342 and longitude -131.648.
The city is located in southernmost Southeast Alaska on Revillagigedo Island, 700 miles northwest of Seattle, Washington, 235 miles southeast of Juneau, 88 miles northwest of Prince Rupert, B. C. Canada, it is surrounded by the Tongass National Forest, managed by the United States Forest Service from its headquarters in the Ketchikan Federal Building downtown, to the south by the Tongass Narrows, a narrow east-west saltwater channel, part of the Inside Passage. Due to its steep and forested terrain, Ketchikan is long and narrow with much of the built-up area being located along, or no more than a few city blocks from, the waterfront. Elevations of inhabited areas range from just above sea level to about 300 feet. Deer Mountain, a 3,001-foot peak, rises east of the city's downtown area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles. 4.4 square miles of it is land and 1.5 square miles of it is water. The ½-mile wide channel called the Tongass Narrows separates Ketchikan from Gravina Island, where Ketchikan International Airport is located.
Ketchikan has a mild maritime or oceanic climate, characterized by heavy cloud cover and high humidity through much of the year and abundant rainfall throughout the year. This location's climate is classified as, likened to the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness in northern Scotland and Stavanger and adjacent coastal areas, such as Askøy, in Western Norway, though with much more rain, earning it the nickname of the "Rain Capital of Alaska". Winters are cool but milder than its latitude alone may suggest: January has a 24-hour average of 33.6 °F with an average daytime high of 38.9 °F and overnight low of 28.6 °F. Summers are mild, as August's temperature averages 58.4 °F with an average daytime high of 65.2 °F and overnight low of 51.6 °F. Rainfall averages 153 inches per year, falling more in autumn and winter. On average, the growing season lasts about 6.3 months or 191 days, extending from about April 19 to about October 27. The climate is so moderated that Tallahassee, Florida has recorded an all-time record minimum—−2 °F in February 1899—lower than that of Ketchikan, although Tallahassee averages around 22 °F warmer over the year.
Further east and away from moderating maritime influence, winters on these parallels in inland North America are much colder. The record high temperature in Ketchikan was 89 °F on June 20, 1958, August 14, 1977; the record low temperature was −1 °F on December 15, 1964, January 5, 1965. On January 14, 2018 Ketchikan recorded a high temperature of 67°F, the highest recorded temperature in Alaska in the month of January; the wettest year was 1949 with 202.55 inches and the driest year was 1995 with 88.45 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 42.69 inches during October 1974 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.71 inches on October 11, 1977. The most snowfall in one month was 45.1 inches in January 1971. Ketchikan first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Kichikan." Of its 40 residents, 26 were
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar