Albert I, Prince of Monaco
Albert I was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 10 September 1889 until his death. He devoted much of his life to oceanography. Alongside his expeditions, Albert I made reforms on political and social levels, bestowing a constitution on the Principality in 1911. Born Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi on 13 November 1848 in Paris, the son of Prince Charles III, Countess Antoinette de Mérode-Westerloo, a Belgian noblewoman, maternal aunt of Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Princess della Cisterna, Duchess consort of Aosta and Queen consort of Spain; as a young man, Prince Albert served in the Spanish Navy, during the Franco-Prussian War, he joined the French Navy where he was awarded the Legion of Honor. In addition to his interest in oceanographic studies, Albert had a keen interest in the origins of man and in Paris, he founded the "Institute for Human Paleontology", responsible for a number of archeological digs; the "Grimaldi Man" found in the Baousse-Rousse cave was named in his honour.
Albert's intellectual achievements gained him worldwide recognition and in 1909, the British Academy of Science made him a member. On 21 September 1869 at the Château de Marchais in Champagne, Prince Albert was married to Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton, of Lanarkshire, Scotland, a daughter of the 11th Duke of Hamilton and his wife, Princess Marie of Baden; the couple met for the first time in August 1869 at a ball hosted by the Emperor and Empress of France. Caroline had tried to make a match between Albert and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the first cousin of Queen Victoria, sought the help of Napoléon III and his wife, Empress Eugénie; the Emperor convinced Caroline that Queen Victoria would never allow a relative of hers to marry into a family who were making a living out of gambling. He suggested Mary, his third cousin and sister of his good friend, the 12th Duke of Hamilton, as a suitable alternative. Mary was a granddaughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and related by blood to the French Imperial family through her maternal grandmother Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Emperor Napoléon I's adopted daughter and second cousin of Napoléon III's mother, Hortense de Beauharnais.
The Hamiltons were well aware of the extent of Monaco's estate, no bigger than theirs, but were sufficiently impressed by its status as an independent principality. The couple married at Château de Marchais on 21 September 1869. Within a year of their marriage, the couple's only child was born, but Mary, from the hills of Scotland, disliked Monaco and everything Mediterranean. While Albert was away fighting in the Franco-Prussian war, she left Monaco permanently; the couple divorced and their marriage was annulled by the Church on 3 January 1880, although a special provision was made by the Vatican to allow Louis to remain legitimate in the eyes of the Church. Civilly, the marriage was dissolved on 28 July 1880 by the Order of Prince Charles III; that same year, the former Princess of Monaco remarried in Florence, Italy, to a Hungarian nobleman, Prince Tassilo Festetics von Tolna. On 10 September 1889, Albert ascended the throne of Monaco on the death of his father; that same year in Paris, on 30 October, he married the Dowager Duchess de Richelieu, née Marie Alice Heine.
The American daughter of a New Orleans building contractor of German-Jewish descent, Alice Heine had married the Duc de Richelieu but had been widowed by age 21 and left with a young son, Armand. Her marriage to Prince Albert proved an equal blessing for him and the tiny principality of Monaco, since Alice brought a strong business acumen, well in advance of her youth. Having helped put her husband's principality on a sound financial footing, she would devote her energies to making Monaco one of Europe's great cultural centers, with an opera, a ballet under the direction of the famed Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. Despite the initial success of the marriage of Prince Albert and Princess Alice, in 1902, they separated without issue, though did not divorce. According to Anne Edwards' book The Grimaldis of Monaco, this was due to the Princess's friendship with the composer Isidore de Lara. By the same token, the courtesan Caroline Otero, La Belle Otero, who had served him as a high class prostitute between 1893 and 1897, recalled Albert fondly in her memoirs and claimed that he was not a virile man and suffered from erection difficulty.
Princess Alice had La Belle Otero banned from the province in 1897 for being seen with her husband. In March 1910, there were mass protests against his rule; the Monegasque demanded a constitution and a parliament to rein in the absolute monarch or else they would overthrow him and establish a republic. They were dissatisfied about economy. There was severe unemployment as the country lacked factories and farmland and the casinos did not allow citizens to work there. On 5 January 1911, Prince Albert I granted Monaco a constitution, but the document had little real meaning in terms of reducing autocratic rule and was soon suspended by the Prince when World War I broke out. In 1911, Prince Albert created the Monte Carlo Rally, an automobile race designed to draw tourists to Monaco and the Casino. Despite his military service, or because of it, the Prince became a pacifist, establishing the International Institute of Peace in Monaco as a place to develop a peaceful settlement for conflict through arbitration.
In the tension-filled times leading up to World War I, Prince Albert made numerous attempts to dissuade Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II from
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, or prehistorically. Occurring grottoes are small caves near water that are flooded or liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features; the Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes. Whether in tidal water or high up in hills, grottoes are made up of limestone geology, where the acidity of standing water has dissolved the carbonates in the rock matrix as it passes through what were small fissures. See karst topography, cavern; the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, Latin crypta. It is related by a historical accident to the word grotesque. In the late 15th century, Romans accidentally unearthed Nero's Domus Aurea on the Palatine Hill, a series of rooms, decorated with designs of garlands, slender architectural framework and animals; the rooms had sunk underground over time.
The Romans who discovered this historical monument found it strange because it was uncovered from an "underworld" source. This led the Romans of that era to give it the name grottesca, from. Grottoes were popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollo's oracles at Delphi and Clarus; the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural. At the great Roman sanctuary of Praeneste south of Rome, the oldest portion of the primitive sanctuary was situated on the second lowest terrace, in a grotto in the natural rock where a spring developed into a well. According to tradition, Praeneste's sacred spring had a native nymph, honored in a grotto-like watery nymphaeum. Tiberius, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology channeling Polyphemus' cave in the Odyssey; the numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient: in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated before Minoan palace-building.
Farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced the Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century. Two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo. Before the Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor; the Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a small garden building, built in 1573–4 as a garden feature in the extensive grounds of the Villa "Riposo" of Bernardo Vecchietti. It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner; the outsides of garden grottoes are designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang.
Inside, they are decorated as a temple or with fountains and imitation gems and shells. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, but they became fashionable in the cool drizzle of the Île-de-France. In Kuskovo in the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths. Courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola, a little theater designed in the grotto manner, they were combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de' Medici's château in Paris, the Tuileries, was renowned. There are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles. In England, an early garden grotto was built at Wilton House in the 1630s by Isaac de Caus. Grottoes were suitable for less formal gardens too. Pope's Grotto, created by Alexander Pope, is all that survives of one of the first landscape gardens in England, at Twickenham.
Pope was inspired after seeing grottoes in Italy during a visit there. Efforts are under way to restore his grotto. There are grottoes in the landscape gardens of Painshill Park, Clandon Park and Stourhead. Scott's Grotto is a series of interconnected chambers, extending 67 ft into the chalk hillside on the outskirts of Ware, Hertfordshire. Built during the late 18th century, the chambers and tunnels are lined with shells and pieces of coloured glass; the Romantic generation of tourists might not visit Fingal's Cave, on the remote isle of Staffa in the Scottish Hebrides, but they have heard of it through Felix Mendelssohn's "Hebrides Overture", better known as "Fingal's Cave", inspired by his visit. In the 19th century, when miniature Matterhorns and rock-gardens became fashionable, a grotto was found, such as at Ascott House. In Bavaria, Ludwig's Linderhof contains an abstraction of the grotto under Venusberg, which figured in Wagner's Tannhäuser. Although grottoes have fallen from fashion since the British Pic
Louis Vatrican was a Monegasque agronomist. Louis Vatrican was born on 7 May 1904 in Monaco. Vatrican served as the director of the Jardin Exotique de Monaco from 1933 to 1969. Vatrican added succulents from Africa to the existing South American succulents, some of which died in 1985-86. After he retired in 1969, Vatrican was succeeded by Marcel Kroenlein; the Vatricania guentherii, a cactus endemic to South America, was named in his honor in 1950 by Curt Backeberg. Vatrican died on 7 June 2007 in Monaco
Les Moneghetti is the northcentral Ward in the Principality of Monaco. Moneghetti was incorporated in La Condamine. Situated in an area where the Alps drop into the Mediterranean Sea, its parish church, Sacred Heart, contains the headquarters of the Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco. Monaco's only railway station, Gare de Monaco-Monte-Carlo, is located in Les Moneghetti; the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is barracked in Les Moneghetti
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other
A footbridge is a bridge designed for pedestrians. While the primary meaning for a bridge is a structure which links "two points at a height above the ground", a footbridge can be a lower structure, such as a boardwalk, that enables pedestrians to cross wet, fragile, or mashy land. Bridges range from stepping stones–possibly the earliest man-made structure to "bridge" water–to elaborate steel structures. Another early bridge would have been a fallen tree. In some cases a footbridge can be both functional and a beautiful work of art. For rural communities in the developing world, a footbridge may be a community's only access to medical clinics, schools and markets. Simple suspension bridge designs have been developed to be sustainable and constructed in such areas using only local materials and labor. An enclosed footbridge between two buildings is sometimes known as a skyway. Bridges providing for both pedestrians and cyclists are referred to as greenbridges and form an important part of a sustainable transport system.
Footbridges are situated to allow pedestrians to cross water or railways in areas where there are no nearby roads. They are located across roads to let pedestrians cross safely without slowing traffic; the latter is a type of pedestrian separation structure, examples of which are found near schools. The simplest type of a bridge is stepping stones, so this may have been one of the earliest types of footbridge. Neolithic people built a form of a boardwalk across marshes, of which the Sweet Track, the Post Track are examples from England, that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would have used log bridges; some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest timber bridges is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden crossing upper Lake Zürich in Switzerland. C; the first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zürich, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the Roman Empire built a 6-metre-wide wooden bridge.
Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a'new' wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide. On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. A clapper bridge is an ancient form of bridge found on the moors of Devon and in other upland areas of the United Kingdom including Snowdonia and Anglesey, Cumbria and Lancashire, it is formed by large flat slabs of stone granite or schist, supported on stone piers, or resting on the banks of streams. Although credited with prehistoric origin, most were erected in medieval times, some in centuries. A famous example is found in the village of Postbridge. First recorded in the 14th century, the bridge is believed to have been built in the 13th century to enable pack horses to cross the river. Nowadays clapper bridges are only used as footbridges; the Kapellbrücke is a 204-metre-long footbridge crossing the River Reuss in the city of Lucerne in Switzerland.
It is the oldest wooden covered bridge in Europe, one of Switzerland's main tourist attractions. The bridge was built c. 1365 as part of Lucerne's fortifications. An early example of a skyway is the Vasari Corridor, an elevated, enclosed passageway in Florence, central Italy, which connects the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti. Beginning on the south side of the Palazzo Vecchio, it joins the Uffizi Gallery and leaves on its south side, crossing the Lungarno dei Archibusieri and following the north bank of the River Arno until it crosses the river at Ponte Vecchio, it was built in five months by order of Duke Cosimo I de' Medici in 1565, to the design of Giorgio Vasari. Bank Bridge is a famous 25 metre long pedestrian bridge crossing the Griboedov Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Like other bridges across the canal, the existing structure dates from 1826; the special popularity of the bridge was gained through angular sculptures of four winged lions crowning the abutments. They were designed by sculptor Pavel Sokolov, who contributed lions for Bridge of Lions.
Design of footbridges follows the same principles as for other bridges. However, because they are significantly lighter than vehicular bridges, they are more vulnerable to vibration and therefore dynamics effects are given more attention in design. International attention has been drawn to this issue in recent years by problems on the Pont de Solférino in Paris and the Millennium Bridge in London. To ensure footbridges are accessible to disabled and other mobility-impaired people, careful consideration is nowadays given to provision of access lifts or ramps, as required by relevant legislation; some old bridges in Venice are now equipped with a stairlift so that residents with a disability can cross them. Types of footbridges include: Beam Bridge Boardwalk Clapper bridge Duckboards, Timber trackway, Plank road, Corduroy road Moon bridge Simple suspension bridge Simple truss Stepping stones Zig-zag bridgeThe residential-scale footbridges all span a short distance and can be used for a broad range of applications.
Complicated engineering is not needed and the footbridges are built with available materials and basic tools. Different types of design footbridges incl