Brittany (administrative region)
Brittany is one of the 18 regions of France. It is named after the historic and geographic region of Brittany, of which it constitutes 80%; the capital is Rennes. Bathed by the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south, it is located in the West of France, bordering the Normandy and Pays de la Loire regions. Bro Gozh ma Zadoù is the anthem of Brittany, it is sung to the same tune as that of the national anthem of Wales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, has similar words. As a region of France, Brittany has a Regional Council, most elected in 2015; the region of Brittany was created in 1941 on 80% of the territory of traditional Brittany. The remaining 20% is now called the department of Loire-Atlantique, included in the region of Pays de la Loire, whose capital, was the historical capital of the Duchy of Brittany. Part of the reason Brittany was split between two present-day regions was to avoid the rivalry between Rennes and Nantes. Although Nantes was the principal capital of the Duchy of Brittany until the sixteenth century, Rennes had been the seat of the Duchy's supreme court of justice between 1560 and 1789.
Rennes had been the administrative capital of the Intendant of Brittany between 1689 and 1789, Intendances were the most important administrative units of the kingdom of France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As for the provincial States of Brittany, a legislative body which had met every two years in a different city of Brittany, that had met in Rennes only between 1728 and 1789, although not in the years 1730, 1758, 1760. Despite that, the Chambre des comptes had remained in Nantes until 1789. However, from 1381 until the end of the fifteenth century Vannes had served as the administrative capital of the Duchy, remaining the seat of its Chambre des comptes until the 1490s, the seat of the its Parlement until 1553 and again between 1675 and 1689. Although there were previous plans to create regions out of the departments, like the Clémentel plan or the Vichy regionalisation programme, these plans had no effect or else were abolished in 1945; the current French regions were created by gathering departments together.
In Brittany, this led to the creation of the new region of Brittany, which included only four out of the five historical Breton departments. The term région was created by the Law of Decentralisation, which gave regions their legal status; the first direct elections for regional representatives took place on 16 March 1986. A majority of the population in administrative Brittany and in Nantes continue to protest against the division of the traditional territory of Brittany, hoping to see the department of Loire-Atlantique reunited with the administrative region of Brittany. However, such a reunification raises other questions: first, what to do with the remainder of the present region of Pays de la Loire, second, which city should be chosen as the capital of such a reunified Brittany. See History of BrittanyBrittany, lying in the northwest corner of France, is one of the great historic provinces of France; the most Atlantic of France's regions, Brittany is proud of its Celtic heritage, that sets it apart from the rest of France.
It enjoys a mild climate somewhat warmer though not drier than the climate of the southwest of England. The name "Brittany" derives from the Britons who, back in the Dark Ages, came south across the English Channel to seek refuge from the Anglo Saxon invaders who were pushing them out of a large part of the island of Great Britain. In this historic past, other Britons fled to the west and south west of their own island, to Wales and Cornwall. Today, the French administrative region of Brittany covers four "departments", the Côtes d'Armor in the north, Finistère in the far west, Morbihan in the south, Ille et Vilaine in the east, bordering on Normandy and the Loire valley area. Another department used to belong to the historic province of Brittany, this was the Loire Atlantique, the area round the city of Nantes which used once to be the Breton capital, but is today no longer in the region; the capital city of the modern Brittany region is Rennes, located in the central eastern part of the region.
Other important cities in the region are Brest, one of the two most important French naval ports, St Malo, an imposing walled city on the north coast, Vannes, the capital of the Morbihan, with an attractive old town centre. Quimper, the capital of the Finistère, St. Brieuc, the capital of the Côtes d'Armor, are less important. Lorient, in the Morbihan, was once a major shipping port trading with – as its name suggests – the Orient, it is the venue for Brittany's annual Interceltiques music and culture festival. Despite its limited size, Brittany is quite a diverse region; the south coast, facing onto the Bay of Biscay, is flatter, much milder, has a number of large sandy beaches. There are a lot of inlets on the south coast, such as La Trinité sur Mer, which in the past have been ports and commercial harbours, but today are more popular with yachtsmen and a dwindling fishing industry; the sea here
Aloe written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants. The most known species is Aloe vera, or "true aloe", so called because it is cultivated as the standard source of so-called "aloe vera" for assorted pharmaceutical purposes. Other species, such as Aloe ferox are cultivated or harvested from the wild for similar applications; the APG IV system places the genus in the family Asphodelaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae. Within the subfamily it may be placed in the tribe Aloeae. In the past, it has been assigned to the family Aloaceae or to a broadly circumscribed family Liliaceae; the plant Agave americana, sometimes called "American aloe", belongs to the Asparagaceae, a different family. The genus is native to tropical and southern Africa, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula, various islands in the Indian Ocean. A few species have become naturalized in other regions. Most Aloe species have a rosette of large, fleshy leaves. Aloe flowers are tubular yellow, pink, or red, are borne, densely clustered and pendant, at the apex of simple or branched, leafless stems.
Many species of Aloe appear to be stemless, with the rosette growing directly at ground level. They are sometimes striped or mottled; some aloes native to South Africa are tree-like. The APG IV system places the genus in the family Asphodelaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae. In the past it has been assigned to the families Liliaceae and Aloeaceae, as well as the family Asphodelaceae sensu stricto, before this was merged into the Asphodelaceae sensu lato; the circumscription of the genus has varied widely. Many genera, such as Lomatophyllum, have been brought into synonymy. Species at one time placed in Aloe, such as Agave americana, have been moved to other genera. Molecular phylogenetic studies from 2010 onwards, suggested that as circumscribed, Aloe was not monophyletic and should be divided into more defined genera. In 2014, John Charles Manning and coworkers produced a phylogeny in which Aloe was divided into six genera: Aloidendron, Aloiampelos, Aloe and Gonialoe. Over 500 species are accepted in the genus Aloe, plus more synonyms and unresolved species, subspecies and hybrids.
Some of the accepted species are: In addition to the species and hybrids between species within the genus, several hybrids with other genera have been created in cultivation, such as between Aloe and Gasteria, between Aloe and Astroloba. Aloe species are cultivated as ornamental plants both in gardens and in pots. Many aloe species are decorative and are valued by collectors of succulents. Aloe vera is used both internally and externally on humans as alternative medicine; the plants can be made into types of special soaps or used in other skin care products. Numerous cultivars with mixed or uncertain parentage are grown. Of these, Aloe ‘Lizard Lips’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Historical use of various aloe species is well documented. Documentation of the clinical effectiveness is available, although limited. Of the 500+ species, only a few were used traditionally as herbal medicines, Aloe vera again being the most used species. Included are A. perryi and A. ferox.
The Ancient Greeks and Romans used Aloe vera to treat wounds. In the Middle Ages, the yellowish liquid found inside the leaves was favored as a purgative. Unprocessed aloe that contains aloin is used as a laxative, whereas processed juice does not contain significant aloin; some species Aloe vera, are used in alternative medicine and first aid. Both the translucent inner pulp and the resinous yellow aloin from wounding the aloe plant are used externally for skin discomforts; as an herbal medicine, Aloe vera juice is used internally for digestive discomfort. According to Cancer Research UK, a deadly product called T-UP is made of concentrated aloe, promoted as a cancer cure, they say "there is no evidence that aloe products can help to prevent or treat cancer in humans". On May 9, 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule banning the use of aloin, the yellow sap of the aloe plant, for use as a laxative ingredient in over-the-counter drug products. Most aloe juices today do not contain significant aloin.
According to W. A. Shenstone, two classes of aloins are recognized: nataloins, which yield picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, do not give a red coloration with nitric acid; this second group may be divided into a-barbaloins, obtained from Barbados Aloe, reddened in the cold, b-barbaloins, obtained from Aloe Socotrina and Zanzibar Aloe, reddened by ordinary nitric acid only when warmed or by fuming acid in the cold. Nataloin forms bright-yellow scales, barbaloin prismatic crystals. Aloe species contain a trace of volatile oil, to which their odour is due. Aloe perryi, A. barbadensis, A. ferox, hybrids of this species with A. africana and A. spicata are listed as natural flavoring substances in the US government Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Aloe socotrina is said to be used in yellow Chartreuse. Aloe rubrolutea occurs as a charge in heraldry
Fuchsia is a genus of flowering plants that consists of shrubs or small trees. The first, Fuchsia triphylla, was discovered on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola about 1696–1697 by the French Minim monk and botanist, Charles Plumier, during his third expedition to the Greater Antilles, he named the new genus after German botanist Leonhart Fuchs. The fuchsias are most related to the northern hemisphere genus Circaea, the two lineages having diverged around 41 million years ago. 110 species of Fuchsia are recognized. One species, F. magellanica, extends as far as the southern tip of South America, occurring on Tierra del Fuego in the cool temperate zone, but the majority are tropical or subtropical. Most fuchsias are shrubs from 0.2 to 4 m tall, but one New Zealand species, the kōtukutuku, is unusual in the genus in being a tree, growing up to 12–15 m tall. Fuchsia leaves are opposite or in whorls of three to five, simple lanceolate, have serrated margins, 1–25 cm long, can be either deciduous or evergreen, depending on the species.
The flowers are decorative. They have four shorter, broader petals. A few have yellowish tones; the ovary is inferior and the fruit is a small dark reddish green, deep red, or deep purple berry, containing numerous small seeds. The fruit of all fuchsia species and cultivars is edible, with the berry of F. splendens among the best-tasting. Its flavor is reminiscent of citrus and black pepper, it can be made into jam; the fruits of some other fuchsias leave a bad aftertaste. The majority of Fuchsia species are native to South America. A small additional number are found in New Zealand and on Tahiti. Philip A. Munz in his A Revision of the Genus Fuchsia classified the genus into seven sections of 100 species. More recent scientific publications those by the botanists Dennis E. Breedlove of the University of California and Paul E. Berry of the University of Michigan, recognize 108 species and 122 taxa, organized into 12 sections. In New Zealand and Tahiti, section Skinnera now consists of only three species as F. × colensoi has been determined to be a occurring hybrid between F. excorticata and F. perscandens.
F. procumbens has been placed into its own section, Procumbentes. Two other new sections are each with one species; the Plant List, a cooperative endeavor by several leading botanical institutions to maintain a working list of all plant species, lists most accepted Fuchsia species and synonyms. The vast majority of garden hybrids have descended from a few parent species. Mexico and Costa Rica; this section contains three species. Fuchsia decidua Fuchsia fulgens Fuchsia splendens F. splendens var. splendens F. splendens var. cordifolia Mexico to Panama. Flowers on the six species in this section have flat petals and short stamens and are reflexed into the tube. Fruits contain few seeds. Northern Argentina to Colombia and Venezuela, Hispaniola. With sixty-four recognized species, Sect. Fuchsia is the largest section within the genus; the flowers are perfect, with convolute petals. The stamens are erect and may not be exserted from the corolla; the fruit has many seeds. Venezuela to Bolivia; the fifteen species in this section are characterised by a nectary, fused with the base of the flower tube and petals that are or lacking.
Panama and Costa Rica. Fuchsia jimenezii Coastal central Chile; this section is made up of a single species with pendulous axillary pedicels. The leaves are sparse; the sepals are reflexed and shorter than the tube. Fuchsia lycioides Peru. Fuchsia pachyrrhiza New Zealand. Fuchsia procumbens Southern Argentina and Chile, Southeastern Brazil; the nine species in this section have hypanthium. The hypanthium is cylindrical and is no longer than the sepals; the stamens are exserted beyond the corolla. Mexico to Panama; these two species bear flowers in an corymb-like panicle. Fuchsia arborescens Fuchsia paniculata Fuchsia paniculata subsp. Mixensis Fuchsia paniculata subsp. Paniculata New Zealand and Tahiti; the three living species have a floral tube with a swelling above the ovary. The sepals curve back on the petals are small or nearly absent. A new fossil species from the Early Miocene in New Zealand was described in October, 2013. †Fuchsia antiqua Fuchsia cyrtandroides Fuchsia excorticata Fuchsia perscandens Fuchsia × colensoi – a natural hybrid Venezuela and Colombia.
Fuchsia verrucosa Fuchsias are popular garden shrubs, once planted can live for years with a minimal amount of care. The British Fuchsia Society maintains a list of hardy fuchsias that have been proven to survive a number of winters throughout Britain and to be back in flower each year by July. Enthusiasts report that hundreds and thousands of hybrids survive and prosper throughout Britain. In the United States, the Northwest Fuchsia Society maintains an extensive list of fuchsias that have p
Echium is a genus of 60 species of flowering plant in the family Boraginaceae. The type species is Echium vulgare. Species of Echium are native to North Africa, mainland Europe and the Macaronesian islands where it reaches its maximum diversity; the Latin genus name comes from the Greek word ` ekhis'. Some sources say. Others claim, it is claimed that the plant roots when eaten with wine could provide a folk cure for a snake bite. Many species are used as ornamental and garden plants and may be found in suitable climates throughout the world. In Crete Echium italicum is called pateroi or voidoglosses and its tender shoots are eaten boiled or steamed. Echium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora onosmella and orange swift; the seed oil from Echium plantagineum contains high levels of alpha linolenic acid, gamma linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, making it valuable in cosmetic and skin care applications, with further potential as a functional food, as an alternative to fish oils.
Some species have become invasive in southern Africa and Australia. For example, Echium plantagineum, has become a major invasive species in Australia. Echium aculeatum Poir. Echium albicans Lag. & Rodr. Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.: Gol-e-Gavzaban or Gol Gavzaban Echium anchusoides Bacch. Brullo & Selvi Echium angustifolium Lam. Echium arenarium Guss. Echium asperrimum Lam. Echium auberianum Webb et Berth. Slopes of the Teide Volcano on Tenerife Island in the Canary Islands Echium bethencourtii Santos. Echium biebersteinii Lacaita. Echium boissieri Steudel. Echium bonnetii Coincy. Echium brevirame Sprague et Hutch. Echium callithyrsum Webb ex Bolle. Echium candicans L. fil.: pride of Madeira. Echium creticum L. Echium decaisnei Webb. Echium flavum Desf. Echium gaditanum Boiss. Echium gentianoides Webb ex Coincy Echium giganteum L. fil. Echium glomeratum Poir. Echium handiense Svent. Echium hierrense Webb ex Bolle Echium horridum Batt. Echium humile Desf. Echium hypertropicum Webb. Echium italicum L.: pale viper's-bugloss Echium judaeum Lacaita.
Echium khuzistanicum Mozaff. Echium lancerottense Lems et Holz. Echium × lemsii G. Kunkel. Echium leucophaeum Webb ex Sprague et Hutch. Echium longifolium Delile. Echium lusitanicum L. Echium modestum Ball. Echium nervosum Dryand. in W. T. Aiton Echium onosmifolium Berthel. Echium orientale L. Echium pabotii Mouterde. Echium parviflorum Moench: small-flowered viper's-bugloss Echium petiolatum Barratte & Coincy. Echium pininana Webb et Berth.: giant viper's-bugloss Echium pitardii A. Chev. Echium plantagineum L.: purple viper's-bugloss, Patterson's curse, Salvation Jane Echium rauwolfii Delile. Echium rosulatum Lange: lax viper's-bugloss Echium rubrum Forssk. Echium russicum J. F. Gmel. Echium sabulicola Pomel. Echium salmanticum Lag. Echium simplex DC. Echium spurium Lojac. Echium stenosiphon Webb. Echium strictum L.f. Echium suffruticosum Barratte. Echium sventenii Bramw. Echium x taibiquense P. Wolff & Rosinski. Echium tenue Roth. Echium thyrsiflorum Masson ex Link. Echium triste Svent. Echium tuberculatum Hoffmanns.
& Link. Echium velutinum Coincy. Echium virescens DC. Echium vulcanorum A. Chev. Echium vulgare L: viper's bugloss Echium webbii Coincy. Echium wildpretii Pears. Ex Hook. fil. Echium wildpretii subsp. Trichosiphon
A cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae, a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales. The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek κάκτος, kaktos, a name used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identity is not certain. Cacti occur in a wide range of sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in dry environments being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. Cacti show many adaptations to conserve water. All cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water. Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of most cacti where this vital process takes place. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are modified leaves; as well as defending against herbivores, spines help prevent water loss by reducing air flow close to the cactus and providing some shade. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis.
Cacti are native to the Americas, ranging from Patagonia in the south to parts of western Canada in the north—except for Rhipsalis baccifera, which grows in Africa and Sri Lanka. Cactus spines are produced from specialized structures called areoles, a kind of reduced branch. Areoles are an identifying feature of cacti; as well as spines, areoles give rise to flowers, which are tubular and multipetaled. Many cacti have short growing seasons and long dormancies, are able to react to any rainfall, helped by an extensive but shallow root system that absorbs any water reaching the ground surface. Cactus stems are ribbed or fluted, which allows them to expand and contract for quick water absorption after rain, followed by long drought periods. Like other succulent plants, most cacti employ a special mechanism called "crassulacean acid metabolism" as part of photosynthesis. Transpiration, during which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water escapes, does not take place during the day at the same time as photosynthesis, but instead occurs at night.
The plant stores the carbon dioxide it takes in as malic acid, retaining it until daylight returns, only using it in photosynthesis. Because transpiration takes place during the cooler, more humid night hours, water loss is reduced. Many smaller cacti have globe-shaped stems, combining the highest possible volume for water storage, with the lowest possible surface area for water loss from transpiration; the tallest free-standing cactus is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m, the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm in diameter at maturity. A grown saguaro is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U. S. gallons of water during a rainstorm. A few species differ in appearance from most of the family. At least superficially, plants of the genus Pereskia resemble other trees and shrubs growing around them, they have persistent leaves, when older, bark-covered stems. Their areoles identify them as cacti, in spite of their appearance, too, have many adaptations for water conservation.
Pereskia is considered close to the ancestral species from. In tropical regions, other cacti grow as forest epiphytes, their stems are flattened leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or no spines, such as the well-known Christmas cactus or Thanksgiving cactus. Cacti have a variety of uses: many species are used as ornamental plants, others are grown for fodder or forage, others for food. Cochineal is the product of an insect. Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World – such as some Euphorbiaceae – bear a striking resemblance to cacti, may incorrectly be called "cactus" in common usage; the 1,500 to 1,800 species of cacti fall into one of two groups of "core cacti": opuntias and "cactoids". Most members of these two groups are recognizable as cacti, they have fleshy succulent stems. They have small, or transient leaves, they have flowers with ovaries that lie below the sepals and petals deeply sunken into a fleshy receptacle. All cacti have areoles—highly specialized short shoots with short internodes that produce spines, normal shoots, flowers.
The remaining cacti fall into only two genera and Maihuenia, are rather different, which means any description of cacti as a whole must make exceptions for them. Pereskia species superficially resemble other tropical forest trees; when mature, they have woody stems that may be covered with bark and long-lasting leaves that provide the main means of photosynthesis. Their flowers may have superior ovaries, areoles that produce further leaves; the two species of Maihuenia have globe-shaped bodies with prominent leaves at the top. Cacti show a wide variety of growth habits, which are difficult to divide into clear, simple categories. Arborescent cactiThey can be tree-like, meaning they have a single more-or-less woody trunk topped by several to many branches. In the genus Pereskia, the branches are covered with leaves, so the species of this genus may not be recognized as cacti. In most other cacti, the branches are more cactus-like, bare of leaves and bark, cov
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth, south of the Equator. It contains parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania, its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, it contains 32.7% of Earth's land. Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September. September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox; the South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region. Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic, colder than the Arctic; this is because the Southern Hemisphere has more ocean and much less land. The differences are attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday.
The Sun rotating through the north causes an apparent right-left trajectory through the sky unlike the left-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun, while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer, the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect; the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. This zone includes the southern tip of South Africa; the Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation and this, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars.
Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, New Zealand has members of the related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora; the eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and biofuel uses. 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing only 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. Of those 800 million people, 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 141 million live on the island of Java, the most populous island in the world; the most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 261 million people. Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, followed by Javanese; the largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Sydney.
The most important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, where the Bovespa Index is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere are Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,850 and a Human Development Index of 0.939, the second highest in the world as of 2016. New Zealand is well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,385 and a Human Development Index of 0.915, putting it at #13 in the world in 2016. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Burundi and Mozambique at the lowest ends of the Human Development Index, at 0.404 and 0.418 respectively. The nominal GDP per capitas of these two countries don't go above US$550 per capita, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders.
The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, southern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, Hinduism, concentrated on the island of Bali and neighboring islands. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. However, there is some evidence that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants on