Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils. Moorland nowadays means uncultivated hill land, but includes low-lying wetlands, it is related to heath although experts disagree on what distinguishes the types of vegetation. Moor refers to highland, high rainfall zones, whereas heath refers to lowland zones which are more to be the result of human activity. Moorland habitats occur in tropical Africa and western Europe and neotropical South America. Most of the world's moorlands are diverse ecosystems. In the extensive moorlands of the tropics biodiversity can be high. Moorland bears a relationship to tundra, appearing as the tundra retreats and inhabiting the area between the permafrost and the natural tree zone; the boundary between tundra and moorland shifts with climate change. Heathland and moorland are the most extensive areas of semi-natural vegetation in the British Isles.
The eastern British moorlands are similar to heaths but are differentiated by having a covering of peat. On western moors the peat layer may be several metres thick. Scottish "muirs" are heather moors, but have extensive covering of grass, cotton-grass, mosses and under-shrubs such as crowberry, with the wetter moorland having sphagnum moss merging into bog-land. There is uncertainty about. Oliver Rackham writes that pollen analysis shows that some moorland, such as in the islands and extreme north of Scotland, are natural, never having had trees, whereas much of the Pennine moorland area was forested in Mesolithic times. How much the deforestation was caused by climatic changes and how much by human activity is uncertain. A variety of distinct habitat types are found in different world regions of moorland; the wildlife and vegetation forms lead to high endemism because of the severe soil and microclimate characteristics. For example, in England's Exmoor is found the rare horse breed the Exmoor Pony, which has adapted to the harsh conditions of that environment.
In Europe, the associated fauna consists of bird species such as red grouse, hen harrier, golden plover, skylark, meadow pipit, ring ouzel, twite. Other species dominate in moorlands elsewhere. Reptiles are few due to the cooler conditions. In Europe, only the common viper is frequent, though in other regions moorlands are home to dozens of reptile species. Amphibians such as frogs are well represented in moorlands; when moorland is overgrazed, woody vegetation is lost, being replaced by coarse, unpalatable grasses and bracken, with a reduced fauna. Some hill sheep breeds, such as Scottish Blackface and the Lonk, thrive on the austere conditions of heather moors. Burning of moorland has been practised for a number of reasons, for example when grazing is insufficient to control growth; this is recorded in Britain in the fourteenth century. Uncontrolled burning caused problems, was forbidden by statute in 1607. With the rise of sheep and grouse management in the nineteenth century it again became common practice.
Heather is 12 years old when it will regenerate easily. Left longer, the woodier will hinder regrowth. Burning of moorland vegetation needs to be carefully controlled as the peat itself can catch fire, this can be difficult if not impossible to extinguish. In addition, uncontrolled burning of heather can promote alternative bracken and rough grass growth which produces poorer grazing; as a result, burning is now a controversial practice. Mechanical cutting of the heather has been used in Europe, but it is important for the material to be removed to avoid smothering regrowth. If heather and other vegetation are left for too long, a large volume of dry and combustible material builds up; this may result in a wildfire burning out a large area, although it has been found that heather seeds germinate better if subject to the brief heat of controlled burning. In terms of managing moorlands for wildlife, in the UK, vegetation characteristics are important for passerine abundance, whilst predator control benefits red grouse, golden plover, curlew abundances.
To benefit multiple species, many management options are required. However, management needs to be carried out in locations that are suitable for species in terms of physical characteristics such as topography and soil; the development of a sensitivity to nature and one's physical surroundings grew with the rise of interest in landscape painting, the works of artists that favoured wide and deep prospects, rugged scenery. To the English Romantic imagination, moorlands fitted this image enhancing the emotional impact of the story by placing it within a heightened and evocative landscape. Moorland forms the setting of various works of late Romantic English literature, ranging from the Yorkshire moorland in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett to Dartmoor in Arthur Conan Doyle's Holmesian mystery The Hound of the Baskervilles. Enid Blyton's Famous Five series featured the young protagonists adventuring across various moorlands where they confronted criminals or other individuals of interest.
Such a setting enhanced the plot as the drama unfolded away from the functioning world where the children could solve their own problems and f
A grain is a small, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant; the two main types of commercial grain crops are legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits and tubers; this durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize, soybeans and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Grains and cereal are synonymous with the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth is sold as "grain amaranth", amaranth products may be described as "whole grains"; the pre-Hispanic civilizations of the Andes had grain-based food systems but, at the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal.
All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn and wheat. All cereal crops are members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. Finger millet fonio foxtail millet Japanese millet Coix lacryma-jobi var. Ma-yuen kodo millet maize millet pearl millet proso millet sorghum barley oats rice rye spelt teff triticale wheat wild rice Starchy grains from broadleaf plant families: amaranth buckwheat chia quinoa kañiwa kiwicha Pulses or grain legumes, members of the pea family, have a higher protein content than most other plant foods, at around 20%, while soybeans have as much as 35%; as is the case with all other whole plant foods, pulses contain carbohydrate and fat. Common pulses include: chickpeas common beans common peas fava beans lentils lima beans lupins mung beans peanuts pigeon peas runner beans soybeans Oilseed grains are grown for the extraction of their edible oil. Vegetable oils provide some essential fatty acids.
They are used as fuel and lubricants. Black mustard India mustard rapeseed safflower sunflower seed flax seed hemp seed poppy seed Because grains are small and dry, they can be stored and transported more than can other kinds of food crops such as fresh fruits and tubers; the development of grain agriculture allowed excess food to be produced and stored which could have led to the creation of the first permanent settlements and the division of society into classes. Those who handle grain at grain facilities may encounter numerous occupational hazards and exposures. Risks include grain entrapment, where workers are submerged in the grain and unable to remove themselves.
Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France. It is named after a major waterway; the Bordeaux wine region is in the Gironde. Gironde is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Gascony. From 1793 to 1795, the department's name was changed to Bec-d'Ambès to avoid the association with the revolutionary party, the Girondists. Gironde is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Charente-Maritime and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. With an area of 10,000 km², Gironde is the largest department in metropolitan France. If overseas departments are included, Gironde's land area is dwarfed by the 83,846 km² of French Guiana. Gironde is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach, Europe's longest, attracting many surfers to Lacanau each year, it is the birthplace of Jacques-Yves Cousteau who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
The Great Dune of Pyla in Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux is the tallest sand dune in Europe. The President of the General Council is Jean-Luc Gleyze of the Socialist Party. Cantons of the Gironde department Communes of the Gironde department Arrondissements of the Gironde department Bordeaux wine regions General Council website Prefecture website Gironde at Curlie Tourism Office website
A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies to grapevines, while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. Certain plants always grow as vines. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on long stems; this has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy; this has been a successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism.
Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may enable plants to colonize large areas even without climbing high; this is the case with ground ivy. It is an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments; the evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: twining the stem around a support by way of adventitious, clinging roots with twining petioles using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots, leaves, or inflorescences using tendrils which produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite to the support using thorns or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches The climbing fetterbush is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns.
It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants; these may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria and common ivy, herbaceous vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns; the stem does not climb. The fronds unroll from the tip, theoretically never stop growing. A twining vine known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops are a commercially important example of a bine; the direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on.
This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean and bindweed, while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean and climbing honeysuckles. The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann; the term "vine" applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines. Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can be provided; some climbers climb by themselves. Vines differ in size and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method, he classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity.
They reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity; this climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. The environment where a vine can grow is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories suppor
Jardin botanique de Bordeaux
The Jardin botanique de Bordeaux is a municipal botanical garden located at Place Bardineau, Gironde, France. This historic garden has been supplemented by the Jardin botanique de la Bastide, located across the river. Although the garden's origins extend back to 1629 AD, with the creation of Bordeaux's first medicinal garden, today's botanical garden dates to 1858, it contains more than 3000 plant species, both those indigenous to Aquitaine and exotic plants from North America and Japan. It is organized as a systematic collection; the garden's seed collection contains 2,000 taxa, its herbarium contains about 85,000 specimens. Jardin botanique de la Bastide List of botanical gardens in France Jardin botanique de Bordeaux BGCI entry 1001 Fleurs entry Je Decouvre La France entry Philippe Prévost and Richard Zéboulon, Les plus beaux jardins du sud-ouest, éditions sud-ouest, ISBN 9782879014012
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side; the valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. Dunes occur along some coasts; some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds. Dunes can form under the action of water flow, on sand or gravel beds of rivers and the sea-bed; the modern word "dune" came into English from French c.
1790, which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne. Dunes are made of sand-sized particles, may consist of quartz, calcium carbonate, gypsum, or other materials; the upwind/upstream/upcurrent side of the dune is called the stoss side. Sand is pushed or bounces up the stoss side, slides down the lee side. A side of a dune that the sand has slid down is called a slip face; the Bagnold formula gives the speed. Five basic dune types are recognized: crescentic, star and parabolic. Dune areas may occur in three forms: simple and complex. Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds which are wider than they are long; the lee-side slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow from one direction, they form separate crescents. When the sand supply is greater, they may merge into barchanoid ridges, transverse dunes; some types of crescentic dunes move more over desert surfaces than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt.
The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in China's Taklamakan Desert. See lunettes and parabolic dues, for dunes similar to crescent-shaped ones. Abundant barchan dunes may merge into barchanoid ridges, which grade into linear transverse dunes, so called because they lie transverse, or across, the wind direction, with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridge crest. Seif dunes are linear dunes with two slip faces; the two slip faces make them sharp-crested. They are called seif dunes after the Arabic word for "sword", they may be more than 160 kilometres long, thus visible in satellite images. Seif dunes are associated with bidirectional winds; the long axes and ridges of these dunes extend along the resultant direction of sand movement. Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes. Formation is debated. Bagnold, in The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves into a bidirectional wind regime, one arm or wing of the crescent elongates.
Others suggest. In the sheltered troughs between developed seif dunes, barchans may be formed, because the wind is constrained to be unidirectional by the dunes. Seif dunes are common in the Sahara, they range up to 300 km in length. In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m. Linear loess hills known; these hills appear to have been formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation. Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the high center of the mound, they tend to accumulate in areas with multidirectional wind regimes. Star dunes grow upward rather than laterally, they dominate the Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara. In other deserts, they occur around the margins of the sand seas near topographic barriers. In the southeast Badain Jaran Desert of China, the star dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth.
Oval or circular mounds that lack a slipface. Dome dunes occur at the far upwind margins of sand seas. Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the direction of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes, source-bordering dunes and clay dunes, they may be composed of clay, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the basin floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune, deposited on the convex side. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long, 1 km wide, up to 50 metres high. They occur in southern and West Africa, in parts of the western United States Texas. U-shaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms are parabolic dunes; these dunes are formed from blowout dunes where the erosion
Water gardens known as aquatic gardens, are a type of water feature. They can be defined as any interior or exterior landscape or architectural element whose primary purpose is to house, display, or propagate a particular species or variety of aquatic plant; the primary focus is on plants, but they will sometimes house ornamental fish, in which case the feature will be a fish pond. Water gardening is gardening, concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. Although water gardens can be any size or depth, they are small and shallow less than twenty inches in depth; this is because most aquatic plants are depth sensitive and require a specific water depth in order to thrive. The particular species inhabiting each water garden will determine the actual surface area and depth required; when the aquatic flora and fauna are balanced, an aquatic ecosystem is created that will support sustainable water quality and clarity. Elements such as fountains, waterfalls, underwater lighting, lining treatments, edging details, in-water and bankside planting can add visual interest and help to integrate the water garden with the local landscape and environment.
Water gardens, water features in general, have been a part of public and private gardens since ancient Persian gardens and Chinese gardens. For instance, the Nanfang Caomu Zhuang records cultivating Chinese spinach on floating gardens. Water features have been present and well represented in every era and in every culture that has included gardens in their landscape and architectural environments. Up until the rise of the industrial age, when the modern water pump was introduced, water was not recirculated but was diverted from rivers and springs into the water garden, from which it exited into agricultural fields or natural watercourses. Water features were used to enable plant and fish production both for food purposes and for ornamental aesthetics. Though the term "water garden" is used to describe a particular type of natural or man-made water feature, used for a specific purpose, there are many other types and designs of water feature; the sixteenth century in Europe saw a renewed interest in Greek thought and philosophy, including the works of Hero of Alexandria about hydraulics and pneumatics.
His devices, such as temple doors operated by invisible weights or flowing liquids, mechanical singing birds powered by steam, motivated several European palaces to create similar clever devices to enhance their public image. In Italy several royal houses constructed large water gardens incorporating mechanical devices in water settings; the best-known is the Villa d'Este at Tivoli, constructed in 1550 AD. A hill cascaded with many fountains and grottoes, some with water-driven figures that moved or spouted water. Popularity spread across Europe with the well-known water garden at Hellbrunn Palace built with many water-powered human and animal performing figures and puppet theaters, folly fountains that erupted without notice to surprise visitors. On a constructed stream, placing rocks in the path of the water makes small patterns and waterfalls; the rocks disrupt the waterflow, causing splashing and bubbles that can make pleasant sounds and micro-habitats for plants and wildlife. Well-placed rocks can create splashing water that adds oxygen to prevent hypoxia: the more bubbles, the more dissolved oxygen in the water.
Water garden plants are divided into three main categories: submerged and floating. Submerged plants are those that live completely under the water, sometimes with leaves or flowers that grow to the surface such as with the water lily; these plants are placed in a pond or container 1–2 ft below the water surface. Some of these plants are called oxygenators because they create oxygen for the fish that live in a pond. Examples of submerged plants are: Water lily Hornwort Marginal plants are those that live with their roots under the water but the rest of the plant above the surface; these are placed so that the top of the pot is at or below the water level. Examples of these are: Iris or Flag Water-crowfoot Bulrush Cattail Taro Arrowhead Lotus Pickerelweed Floating plants are those that are not anchored to the soil at all, but are free-floating on the surface. In water gardening, these are used as a provider of shade to reduce algae growth in a pond; these are extremely fast growing/multiplying.
Examples of these are: Mosquito ferns Water-spangle Water-clover Water Lettuce Water Hyacinth Some areas of the United States do not allow certain of these plants to be sold or kept, as they have become invasive species in warmer areas of the country, such as Florida and California. Algae are found in all ponds. There are hundreds of species of algae that can grow in garden ponds, but they are noticed only when they become abundant. Algae grow in high densities in ponds because of the high nutrient levels that are typical of garden ponds. Algae attaches itself to the sides of the pond and remains innocuous; some species of algae, such as "blanket weed", can grow up to a foot a day under ideal conditions and can clog a garden pond. On the other hand, free floating algae are microscopic and are what cause pond water to appear green. Blanket weed, although unsightly, is a sign that the water is clean and well-balanced. Green water (free