International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The river system comprises three branches that are sourced by runoff from the Henderson and Audaer Ranges. The river flows generally east from the Great Dividing Range to the Coral Sea, the Endeavour River has a catchment area of 1,315 square kilometres. In recent years, tilapia fish, which are considered a species in Australia, have infested the river. The river basin remains largely unmodified and the quality is rated as good. James Cook, RN named the river in 1770 after he was forced to beach his ship, HMS Endeavour, for repairs in the river mouth, joseph Banks named the river the Endeavours River but the form Cook used, Endeavour River, has stuck. Botanical specimens were collected by Alan Cunningham after he arrived on the HMS Mermaid. Modern Cooktown which has a population of about 2,000, is located at the mouth of the Endeavour River. It is one of the northernmost towns on the East Coast of Australia and was founded in 1873, around the site of Cooks landing, some of the relatively undisturbed natural features near the mouth of the river have been reserved in the Endeavour River National Park.
List of rivers of Queensland Tilapia as exotic species Captain Cooks Journal During the First Voyage Round the World at Project Gutenberg
The Endeavour Strait is a strait running between the Australian mainland Cape York Peninsula and Prince of Wales Island in the extreme south of the Torres Strait, in northern Queensland, Australia. It was named in 1770 by explorer James Cook, after his own vessel, The Endeavour, the Endeavour Strait is approximately 48 kilometres in length from its northernmost tip to its southern extremities, and varies from 3.2 to 9.7 kilometres in breadth. The strait is, on average, between thirteen and fifteen metres deep, and its floor is carpetted with a moderately thick layer of coral.5 metres. The danger that this shallow western point presents was a barrier that the Dutch explorers of Australia never overcame in their earlier sea explorations of the region, the shallow western end of Endeavour Strait was responsible for the wrecking of the cutter, America, in November 1844. Today, the strait is travelled sparsely by passing small vessels, theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia
The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory. The part of Western Australia north of latitude 26° south—a definition widely used in law, the 26th Parallel defines the southern border of the NT, whereas much of the southern border of Queensland is defined by 29° south. Although it comprises half of the total area of Australia. However, it includes several sources of Australian exports, being coal from the Great Dividing Range in Queensland/New South Wales and it includes major natural tourist attractions, such as Uluru, the Great Barrier Reef and the Kakadu National Park. Almost all of Northern Australia is an ancient craton that has not experienced geological upheaval since the end of the Precambrian. The only exception to this generalisation is the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, the vast craton in the north and west contains a number of quite rugged mountain ranges, of which the highest are the MacDonnell and Musgrave Ranges on the southern border of the Northern Territory.
These rise to over 1,500 metres, but the most spectacular features are the deep gorges of rivers such as the Finke. Most of the craton, however, is flat and generally low-lying with an average elevation of around 400 metres. The climate of the north of Australia ranges from arid in the south to monsoonal in the Top End, on the eastern coast, the climate is much more humid and ranges from humid sub-tropical to humid tropical in the Wet Tropics. For instance, in Burketown, the months May to September are rainless in over fifty percent of years, temperatures in summer are generally unpleasantly hot apart from the eastern coastal belt. Maximum temperatures elsewhere between October and April range from 30 °C in the south in April to around 40 °C in the inland Pilbara, further north, maxima are consistently around 32 °C but extreme humidity makes conditions very unpleasant. On the coast, maxima in January range from 29 °C in the south to 32 °C, with minima generally around 21 °C. In July, temperatures show a range, from 31 °C in the north to around 19 °C in the south.
The above generalisations, mask the variability of the climate throughout the whole region. With the exception of the north of the Northern Territory. For example, at Charters Towers, the rainfall over the wet season can vary from less than 100 millimetres in 1901/1902 to over 2,000 millimetres in 1973/1974. Tropical cyclones may cross the coast anywhere in Northern Australia but are most frequent between Derby and Onslow on the west side and between Cooktown and Rockhampton on the east. Inland, variability of rainfall is related to the penetration of the monsoon, with high rainfall in seasons like 1973/1974, 1975/1976
The Mossman River is a river located in the Cape York Peninsula of Far North Queensland, Australia. The headwaters of the rise under Devils Thumb on the Mount Carbine Tableland in the Great Dividing Range. The river eventually discharges into Trinity Bay and the Coral Sea between Newell and Cooya Beach, the river descends 1,050 metres over its 24-kilometre course. The river has a catchment area of 472 square kilometres of which an area of 16 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands, the river was named by the explorer George Dalrymple in 1873 after Hugh Mosman who discovered gold in Charters Towers. Dalrymple wrote I named this river the Mossman River, after Mossman, an explorer and mining man, member of a very prominent mining family
Regions of Queensland
The Regions of Queensland refer to the geographic areas of the Australian state of Queensland. Due to its size and decentralised population, the state is often divided into regions for statistical. Each region varies somewhat in terms of its economy, climate, flora and official perceptions and definitions of the various regions differ somewhat depending on the government agency or popular group by which they are being applied. Various Queensland state government departments adopt different definitions of regions for administrative purposes, the Queensland government Trade and Investment Queensland defines seven regions. These are. South East Queensland is commonly considered to be a single region and it contains two statistical regions listed above and Moreton. The region has a population of 2,847,029 people, the area contains Brisbane, the states capital city, as well as the Logan City, Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast and the Lockyer Valley. The region is the administrative and commercial centre and focus of tourism within Queensland.
The Brisbane region comprises the greater Brisbane metropolitan area, centred on the City of Brisbane and including the Logan, Moreton Bay, the metropolitan area has a population of 1,945,639, representing 45% of the States population. It is the main commercial and administrative centre and contains the states largest domestic. The Gold and Sunshine Coasts, located south and north of Brisbane respectively, are two of the Queenslands most popular tourist regions, containing many hotels and resorts, each region has an airport which caters primarily to tourists. The remaining parts of the region are located inland, west of Brisbane, the region has a population of 901,390, representing 21. 0% of Queenslands population. The Darling Downs South West region is located about 160 kilometres west of Brisbane and borders the states of New South Wales and South Australia. The region consists of the agricultural area west of the Great Dividing Range and south to the New South Wales state border. It has an area of 410,129 square kilometres and contains the government areas of Toowoomba, Southern Downs, Western Downs, Balonne, Murweh, Paroo.
In 2008, the region had a population of 257,749, Economic activities include cattle grazing, cotton farming, and natural resource extraction such as natural gas and opal mining. The Wide Bay–Burnett region is located north-east of the Darling Downs and north of the Sunshine Coast and it consists of the Bundaberg, Fraser Coast, North Burnett and South Burnett local government areas. Major centres include Bundaberg, Hervey Bay, the area is rich in sugar cane farms and mills and has a significant tourism industry – it includes Fraser Island, a popular tourist destination and worlds largest sand island. Its population in 2008 was 276,752, despite its vast land area of 497,714 square kilometres, it only had a population of 200,172
The Daintree River is a river that rises in the Daintree Rainforest near Cape Tribulation in Far North Queensland, Australia. The river is located about 100 kilometres northwest of Cairns in the UNESCO World Heritage–listed Wet Tropics of Queensland, the area is now primarily a tourist attraction. The river rises on the slopes of the Great Dividing Range within the Daintree National Park below Black Mountain at an elevation of 1,270 metres AHD . The river flows in highly meandering course generally north, than east and east, at this convergence point, an abundance of wildlife congregate, particularly fish. The mouth of the Daintree River opens onto a giant sandbar that shifts with each changing tide, the river descends 1,270 metres over its 127-kilometre course. The catchment area of the river occupies an 2,107 square kilometres of which an area of 33 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands, the river is surrounded by mountains and deep valleys. In March 1996, record flood levels swamped roads and properties throughout the Daintree region, statistics gathered at the time recorded 606 millimetres of rain falling in 24 hours.
In 2011, two new causeways were completed over Cape Tribulation Road, making the drive mostly floodproof in all, in particular, the notorious bottleneck at Cooper Creek was raised 3 metres. People are drawn to the area for its ancient vegetation, scenic surroundings, there is no bridge to enable crossing the river, so access is limited to the Daintree River Ferry, a commercial ferry that traverses the river for the purpose of tourism. Other features that surround the river include Black Mountain, Daintree Range, Thornton Peak, the Daintree River is home to a dazzling array of tropical life. The Kuku Yulanji is the people who once inhabited the regions surrounded by the Daintree River. It has been estimated that the tribe resided on the banks of the Daintree river for over 9,000 years, due to the ever-shifting deep centre of the sandbar, entering the Daintree River has always been a problem for ship captains. The area was missed by Captain Cook when passing in the voyage where his ship was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef, the Daintree River was discovered by Europeans in 1873 after they were attracted to nearby regions due to its vast natural reserves of gold.
The river is part of the much larger Daintree Rainforest, region in Northern Queensland encompassing 894,000 hectares, the river and its surroundings are home to some of the most primitive forms of animal and plant life in the world. The surrounding mountains and valleys provided protection from the forces to adapt to change by sheltering several species of plants. A notable example is the primitive She-oak Gymnostoma australianum and this pine-like tree is the only remaining species in the Gymnostoma group of plants in Australia, and is now restricted to very isolated pockets north of the Daintree River. The genus was widespread throughout Gondwana, and its relatives are still found in parts of the Pacific. Of the five species of possum found in north Queensland rainforests
The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format and its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbanes inner northern suburbs, and it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbanes eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales, the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier, the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased steadily to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859, the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon who was assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and he persuaded James Swan, a printer of Langs Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him.
Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of policy, including transportation of convicts. Lyon took over control in late 1847, but had money problems. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, in June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, and transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to The Brisbane Newspaper Company. He was the director until retired in November 1873, when the paper was auctioned. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, although called managing editor, actual writing and editing was by William Augustine OCarroll. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and he succeeded William OCarroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887.
Lukins roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880, charles Hardie Buzacott, former Postmaster General in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16, managing director, the first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdochs Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdochs News Limited acquired newspaper control, the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right of center newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007, the Courier-Mail generally supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an interim Australian bioregion. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea and it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, the sea is characterised by its warm and stable climate, with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the worlds largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, all previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, and fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are particularly rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs, in addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows, the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. The Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South, the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering. The geological formation processes are proceeding, as partly evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea, on 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami. The epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara and it was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude 5.0 or greater. The resulting tsunami killed at least 52 people and destroyed more than 900 homes, the sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations.
They include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia, the Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro which includes the East Australian Current and it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea. This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is strongest around February and weakest around August, the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation and this irregularity results in concomitant fluctuations of the sea water composition near the river delta. The surface water temperature varies on the south of the sea from 19 °C in August to 24 °C in February and it is rather warm and stable at 27–28 °С in the north all through the year
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Gulf of Carpentaria
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea. The northern boundary is defined as a line from Slade Point, Queensland in the northeast, to Cape Arnhem. At its mouth, the Gulf is 590 km wide, the north-south length exceeds 700 km. It covers a area of about 300,000 km². The general depth is between 55 and 66 metres and does not exceed 82 metres, the tidal range in the Gulf of Carpentaria is between two and three metres. The Gulf and adjacent Sahul Shelf were dry land at the peak of the last ice age 18,000 years ago when sea level was around 120 m below its present position. At that time a large, shallow lake occupied the centre of what is now the Gulf, the Gulf hosts a submerged coral reef province that was only recognised in 2004. The first known European explorer to visit the region was the Dutch Willem Janszoon in his 1605–6 voyage and his fellow countryman, Jan Carstenszoon, visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
Abel Tasman explored the coast in 1644, the region was explored and charted by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and 1803. The land bordering the Gulf is generally flat and low-lying, to the west is Arnhem Land, the Top End of the Northern Territory, and Groote Eylandt, the largest island in the Gulf. To the east is the Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait which joins the Gulf to the Coral Sea, the area to the south is known as the Gulf Country. The climate is hot and humid with two seasons per year, the dry season lasts from about April until November and is characterized by very dry southeast to east winds, generated by migratory winter high pressure systems to the south. The wet season lasts from December to March, most of the years rainfall is compressed into these months, and during this period, many low-lying areas are flooded. The Gulf is prone to tropical cyclones during the period between November and April, the gulf experiences an average of three cyclones each year that are thought to transport sediments in a clockwise direction along the Gulfs coast.
In many other parts of Australia, there are dramatic climatic transitions over fairly short distances, in September and October the Morning Glory cloud appears in the Southern Gulf. The best vantage point to see this phenomenon is in the Burketown area shortly after dawn and it has been hypothesized that the Gulf experienced a major asteroid impact event in 536 A. D. The Gulf of Carpentaria is known to contain fringing reefs and isolated coral colonies, this has not always been the case. Their existence points to an earlier, late Quaternary phase of reef growth under cooler-climate
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water, small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the term river as applied to geographic features. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location, examples are run in parts of the United States, burn in Scotland and northeast England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always, Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the study of rivers while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Extraterrestrial rivers of liquid hydrocarbons have recently found on Titan. Channels may indicate past rivers on other planets, specifically outflow channels on Mars and rivers are theorised to exist on planets, a river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.
The water in a river is confined to a channel. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred, especially in areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become greatly developed by housing. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i. e. against the direction of flow. Likewise, the term describes the direction towards the mouth of the river. The term left bank refers to the bank in the direction of flow. The river channel typically contains a stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water. Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide and they occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare