Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a department in Southeastern France, located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Part of the province of Provence, it had a population of 161,916 in 2013, its main cities are Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Barcelonnette and Forcalquier. Inhabitants of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes, the former name of the department until 1970. Bounded in the east by Italy, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is surrounded by the departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Vaucluse, Drôme, Hautes-Alpes, it can be divided into three zones depending on the terrain, climate and economy: the plateaux and valleys of Haute-Provence, which comprise one-third of the area but two thirds of the population and the most important cities of the department with all of the economic activity apart from mountain tourism. The valley of the Durance, the artery of the department, cuts the rest of the department into two halves: the Lower Alps: an intermediate mountain area with valleys and remote villages the High Alps: including the valleys of Ubaye and the high Verdon where the economy is built around mountain tourism.
In the Haute-Ubaye, the mountain peaks exceed 3000 m above sea level and all the passes are close to or above 2000 m in altitude. In this part of the department is one of the highest roads in Europe: the main road D64 reaches an altitude of 2802 m near the Col de la Bonette and connects the region of Barcelonnette to the Tinée and Vésubie valleys; the relief of the land compartmentalises the region: the enclosed valleys are difficult to access so dividing the country into as many local areas which communicate little with the outside. In 1877, 55 communes only had access to trails or mule paths; the seismic hazard is moderate to medium with different faults such as the Durance located in the department. The main cities are Manosque, Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Forcalquier, Les Mées, Villeneuve, Sainte-Tulle, Gréoux-les-Bains and Castellane; the main river is the Durance. It is in the Durance valley that the most important traffic routes are found: the A51 autoroute and the railway main line.
All of the department is in the watershed of the Durance except for the extreme south-east which are drained by the Var. The main tributaries of the Durance in the department are the Ubaye, the Bléone, the Asse, the Verdon on the left bank, the Buëch, the Jabron, the Largue on the right bank; the Durance and its tributaries have a torrential character, with a transition between the snow regime of the high valleys and the mediterranean rainfall regime in the lower mountains and below. The summer low water levels are severe and violent floods occur when heavy rains fall, in autumn; the Durance, Verdon, Bléone and Buëch have had the construction of several dams and the diversion of parts of the river for irrigation and power generation in the 20th century. The climate of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is a Mediterranean climate degrading by altitude and latitude. In fact, while in the lower valleys and flat lands of Haute-Provence an inland Mediterranean climate prevails, by contrast in the hills it is more mixed with the valley of the Ubaye characteristic of the inner Alps, with a marked continentality: winters are harsh with stormy summers.
In between, the two influences mingle in the area of the Lower Alps. The characteristics of both climate trends are found throughout the department to a greater or lesser extent: dry air and little fog infrequent rainfall but heavy frequent thunderstorms in the mountains in summer High sunshine hours in all seasons high thermal amplitudes and annual fresh and bright winters hot summers tempered by altitude. Haute-Provence is therefore interesting for European astronomers looking for a cloudy night sky and untouched by light pollution. Many amateur observatories have been built and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence is one of the largest observatories in continental Europe, it is an active astronomy research centre. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is subdivided into 15 cantons and 198 communes; the population was once evenly distributed in the territory, including in the mountainous areas where mountain agriculture was well developed. From the middle of the 19th century, however, it began to decline due to a strong rural exodus.
There were more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1850 but it fell to less than 100,000 after the First World War. It was not until 1960 that the trend changed upwards quite from less than 90,000 in 1954 to nearly 140,000 in 1999 and 153,000 in 2005. However, if this figure is close to the number of inhabitants the department had 150 years earlier, the distribution and activity of the population are different; the population is now concentrated in the valley of the Durance and the South West of the department, agriculture employs less than before. Services tourism and local services, is now the main industry; the department has never developed: in 1870 there were 27 small mines. According to the general census of the population, 32.8% of available housing in the department are second homes. The department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is one of the least densely popu
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines and clothing. Richard Evans Schultes referred to as the "father of ethnobotany", explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany means... investigating plants used by societies in various parts of the world. Since the time of Schultes, the field of ethnobotany has grown from acquiring ethnobotanical knowledge to that of applying it to a modern society in the form of pharmaceuticals. Intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing arrangements are important issues in ethnobotany; the idea of ethnobotany was first proposed by the early 20th century botanist John William Harshberger. While Harshberger did perform ethnobotanical research extensively, including in areas such as North Africa, Mexico and Pennsylvania, it was not until Richard Evans Schultes began his trips into the Amazon that ethnobotany become a more well known science.
However, the practice of ethnobotany is thought to have much earlier origins in the first century AD when a Greek physician by the name of Pedanius Dioscorides wrote an extensive botanical text detailing the medical and culinary properties of "over 600 mediterranean plants" named De Materia Medica. Historians note that Dioscorides wrote about traveling throughout the Roman empire, including regions such as "Greece, Crete and Petra", in doing so obtained substantial knowledge about the local plants and their useful properties. European botanical knowledge drastically expanded once the New World was discovered due to ethnobotany; this expansion in knowledge can be attributed to the substantial influx of new plants from the Americas, including crops such as potatoes, peanuts and tomatoes. One French explorer in the 16th century, Jacques Cartier, learned a cure for scurvy from a local Iroquois tribe. During the medieval period, ethnobotanical studies were found connected with monasticism. Notable at this time was Hildegard von Bingen.
However, most botanical knowledge was kept in gardens such as physic gardens attached to hospitals and religious buildings. It was thought of in practical use terms for culinary and medical purposes and the ethnographic element was not studied as a modern anthropologist might approach ethnobotany today. Carl Linnaeus carried out in 1732 a research expedition in Scandinavia asking the Sami people about their ethnological usage of plants; the age of enlightenment saw a rise in economic botanical exploration. Alexander von Humboldt collected data from the New World, James Cook's voyages brought back collections and information on plants from the South Pacific. At this time major botanical gardens were started, for instance the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in 1759; the directors of the gardens sent out gardener-botanist explorers to care for and collect plants to add to their collections. As the 18th century became the 19th, ethnobotany saw expeditions undertaken with more colonial aims rather than trade economics such as that of Lewis and Clarke which recorded both plants and the peoples encountered use of them.
Edward Palmer collected material culture artifacts and botanical specimens from people in the North American West and Mexico from the 1860s to the 1890s. Through all of this research, the field of "aboriginal botany" was established—the study of all forms of the vegetable world which aboriginal peoples use for food, textiles and more; the first individual to study the emic perspective of the plant world was a German physician working in Sarajevo at the end of the 19th century: Leopold Glück. His published work on traditional medical uses of plants done by rural people in Bosnia has to be considered the first modern ethnobotanical work. Other scholars analyzed uses of plants under an indigenous/local perspective in the 20th century: Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Zuni plants. In the beginning, ethonobotanical specimens and studies were not reliable and sometimes not helpful; this is because the anthropologists did not always collaborate in their work. The botanists focused on identifying species and how the plants were used instead of concentrating upon how plants fit into people's lives.
On the other hand, anthropologists were interested in the cultural role of plants and treated other scientific aspects superficially. In the early 20th century and anthropologists better collaborated and the collection of reliable, detailed cross-disciplinary data began. Beginning in the 20th century, the field of ethnobotany experienced a shift from the raw compilation of data to a greater methodological and conceptual reorientation; this is the beginning of academic ethnobotany. The so-called "father" of this discipline is Richard Evans Schultes though he did not coin the term "ethnobotany". Today the field of ethnobotany requires a variety of skills: botanical training for the identification and preservation of plant specimens. Mark Plotkin, who studied at Harvard University, the Yale School of Forestry and Tufts University, has contributed a number of books on ethnobotany, he completed a
Artemisia is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. Common names for various species in the genus include mugwort and sagebrush. Artemisia comprises hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs, which are known for the powerful chemical constituents in their essential oils. Artemisia species grow in temperate climates of both hemispheres in dry or semiarid habitats. Notable species include A. vulgaris, A. tridentata, A. annua, A. absinthium, A. dracunculus, A. abrotanum. The leaves of many species are covered with white hairs. Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones, which discourage herbivory, may have had a selective advantage; the small flowers are wind-pollinated. Artemisia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species; some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium, Neopallasia and Sphaeromeria.
Some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sages in the family Lamiaceae. The name "artemisia" derives from the Greek goddess Artemis, the namesake of Greek Queens Artemisia I and II. A more specific reference may be to Artemisia II of Caria, a botanist and medical researcher who died in 350 BC; the aromatic leaves of some species are used for flavouring. Most species have an bitter taste. A. dracunculus is used as a culinary herb important in French cuisine. Artemisia vulgaris was used to repel midges and moths, intestinal worms, in brewing as a remedy against hangovers and nightmares. Artemisia absinthium is used to make the potent spirits absinthe. Malört contains wormwood; the aperitif vermouth is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but with wormwood. Artemisia arborescens is an aromatic herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea with mint. A few species are grown as the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, in full sun.
Artemisia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima, Silene coronaria, Centaurea cineraria. The largest collection of living Artemisia species and cultivars is held in the National Collection of Artemisia in Sidmouth, Devon, UK, which holds about 400 taxa; the National Collection scheme is administered by Plant Heritage in the British Isles. Artemisinin and derivatives are a group of compounds with the most rapid action of all current drugs used to treat malaria. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative are now standard treatment worldwide for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisia cina and other Old World species are the source of santonin. Chinese mugwort, Artemisia argyi, is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Artemisia capillaris Thunberg has been found to have potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl− ion channel complex Artemisia austriaca has beneficial effects in reducing the withdrawal syndrome of morphine.
Artemisia has been used in popular culture for centuries. A few examples are: Artemisia herba-alba is thought to be the plant translated as "wormwood" in English language versions of the Bible. Wormwood is mentioned seven times in the Jewish Bible, always with the implication of bitterness, it is mentioned once in the New Testament. Wormwood is the "name of the star" in the Book of Revelation 8:11 that John of Patmos envisions as cast by the angel and falling into the waters, making them undrinkably bitter. Further references in the Bible show wormwood was a common herb known for its bitter taste. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, the titular character says "Wormwood, wormwood" to comment on the bitter implications of what the Player Queen has just said. Classification of Artemisia is difficult. Divisions of Artemisia prior to 2000 into subgenera or sections have not been backed up by molecular data, but much of the molecular data, as of 2006, are not strong; the following identified. Section Tridentatae consists of eleven to thirteen species of coarse shrubs, which are prominent parts of the flora in western North America.
In some classifications, they are part of the genus or subgenus Seriphidium, although recent studies have contested this lineage to Old World species. Tridentatae was first articulated as a section by Rydberg in 1916, it was not until McArthur et al. in 1981 that Tridentatae was elevated to a separate subgenus from Seriphidium. The principal motive for their separation was geographical distribution, chemical makeup, karyotype. Much of the debate surrounding Tridentatae is phytogeographic, thus habitat and geography are cited when understanding the evolution of this endemic North American subgenus. Evolutionary cycles of wet and dry climates encouraged “dip
The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of
Forcalquier is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. Forcalquier is located between the Lure and Luberon mountain ranges, about 30 km south of Sisteron and 10 km west of the Durance river. During the Middle Ages it was the capital of Haute-Provence. Furnus Calcarius was the Latin name, from the lime kilns used in Roman times, its Provençal name is Fourcauquié. At the end of the 11th century, a family of the Counts of Provence created the comté de Forcalquier that remained an independent state through the 12th century. During this time, the town of Forcalquier was the capital of Haute Provence along the Durance, which included the towns of Manosque, Sisteron and Embrun. Forcalquier minted its own currency, its church was elevated to the status of a "concathedral"; the Counts of Forcalquier grew to a power. Rivalry ended in 1195 when Gersende de Sabran, comtesse de Forcalquier, married Alfonso II, the Count of Provence, their son, Ramon Bérenger IV inherited the two counties.
The inhabitants are called Forcalquiérens. Forcalquier is built around the slopes of a steep conical hill, crowned by an octagonal chapel, Notre Dame de Provence, where the medieval citadel once stood; the citadel was destroyed in 1601. It has a carillon; the oldest part of the town is the area around the Place Saint-Michel with its Renaissance fountain and its narrow side-streets. There many doorways dating to the 12th to 16th centuries can be found; the present commercial and social center of town, the Place du Bourget, is located below the Place St. Michel; the 12th century "concathedral" Notre Dame de l'Assomption with its bell towers stands across from the Place du Bourguet. The Cordeliers Convent was built in the 13th century by Franciscans named "cordeliers" because of their rope belts; this convent was occupied by monks continuously until the Revolution. It now houses the Université Européenne des Senteurs & Saveurs; the Port de Cordeliers is all. Monday morning is market day in Forcalquier.
The market fills the adjoining streets. Noteworthy is the Musée Municipal with its prehistoric and Gallo-Roman artifacts, glass works, faïence pottery from Mane and Moustiers-Sainte-Marie. Raoul Dufy Garsenda of Forcalquier Charles I of Naples Joan I of Naples Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence Louis III of Naples Guigues VII of Viennois Alfonso II, Count of Provence Jaufre Reforzat de Trets Geoffrey II of Provence Ladislaus of Naples Marguerite of Provence Louis Feuillée Christophe Castaner Forcalquier is twinned with: Guastalla, Italy Communes of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department Henri Bardouin INSEE Tourism office website Provence Beyond: Forcalquier Provence Web: Forcalquier Radio Zinzine: Public radio located in Forcalquier
The Durance is a major river in south-eastern France. Its source is in the south-western Alps, in Montgenèvre ski resort near Briançon and it flows south-west through the following departments and cities: Hautes-Alpes: Briançon, Embrun. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence: Sisteron, Manosque. Vaucluse: Cavaillon, Avignon. Bouches-du-Rhône; the Durance's main tributaries are the Verdon. The Durance itself flows into the Rhône near Avignon; the Durance is the second longest of the tributaries of the Rhône and the third largest in terms of its flow. The Durance is documented in Ancient Greek as drouentios potamos and in Latin as Druentia and Durentia; the traditional forms are derivatives of *Dūrantia, based on the Celtic "dour" and suffix "ant". The Latin form drou changed into the proto-Occitan "dur". Similar names are found in the names of many rivers in the Western Alps: Dora in Italy, Dranse in Haute-Savoie, the Drôme in south-eastern France. All these rivers have their sources in mountains, are fast-running.
The Durance retains its name rather than either the Clarée or Guisane though the latter two are longer than the Durance when they each merge. The Durance is better known than the other two rivers because the Durance valley is an old and important trade route, whereas the valleys of the Clarée and Guisane are dead ends; the Durance is 305 kilometres long from its source at the foot of Sommet des Anges, at 2,390 metres high, above Montgenèvre, to its confluence with the Rhône. However, a longer route is traced by the Clarée-Durance system with a length of 325 kilometres, its descent is unusually rapid at 81 m/km in its first 12 km 15 m/km to its confluence with the Gyronde, still nearly 8 m/km to the confluence with the Ubaye. This descent stays steep after this confluence shallows to 0.33% in its middle course 0.24% in its lower course. For comparison, at 100 kilometres from its source, the Isère is at 330 metres altitude and the Durance at 700 metres, which contributes to its fast-flowing nature, including in the lower part of the river.
It drops 1,847 metres from its source to Mirabeau and 2,090 metres from its source to the confluence with the Rhône. The river only runs through the towns of Briançon and Sisteron — built where the banks are steep — the other towns are built on slopes close to the river: Hautes-Alpes Briançon Embrun Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Sisteron Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Vaucluse Pertuis Cadenet Cavaillon Bouches-du-Rhône left bank of the Durance; the Durance catchment area extends to three other departments: Drôme and Alpes-Maritimes. The Durance is the longest river in Metropolitan France without a department named after it; the source of La Durance is on the northern slope of the Sommet des Anges, where the first small streams combine into a river. This runs near to Montgenèvre and flows into the larger Clarée river, passes through Briançon before the Guisane joins it, it continues south combining with the Gyronde — the Écrins glacial stream — at L'Argentière-la-Bessée. The confluence with the Guil occurs below Mont-Dauphin.
The Durance flows south-south-west and flows into the Lac de Serre-Ponçon just downstream of Embrun. The confluence with the Ubaye was flooded as the lake filled; the middle part of the Durance runs through a landscape that changes as the valley widens. The river itself becomes steeply banked by terraces, carves a channel, sometimes a few metres deep, sometimes tens of metres deep. In its middle and lower reaches the Durance is affected by the Mediterranean climate: flooding after autumnal rains, with low water levels in summer. Just before the narrow gap in the mountains at Sisteron, the Durance joins the Sasse. Water flows in from the EDF Canal. Beyond Sisteron further rivers and streams join the Durance: Jabron, Vançon, Bléone near Les Mées and from the Asse a few kilometres to the south of Oraison; the Verdon flows into the Durance near Cadarache. The valley widens still further into an alluvial plain several kilometres wide. Here the river was diverted for the development of modern agriculture and the construction of the A51 motorway.
There are several dams along the middle part of the Durance. In addition to main dam at Serre-Ponçon, there are dams at Espinasses, Sisteron, L'Escale and Cadarache. There are small canals whose primary purpose is to draw water from the river into the EDF Canal which in turn feeds the hydroelectric power stations; some of the water diverted by the dams is used for irrigation. The valley narrows for a few kilometres until the water gap at Mirabeau, at a depth of 200 metres widens again into an broader plain until the confluence with the Rhône south of Avignon, its direction changes from southerly to westerly northwesterly, aligning with the small Provençal mountain ranges between which it flows. The Durance receives only one significant tributary on this last part of its course: the Calavon, which flows around the Lubéron range to the north; this is a list of rivers longer than 20 kilometres. They are listed in order of the confluence. Left bank tributary. A river is known a
Mane is a commune in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. It lies near Forcalquier, it was the birthplace of the 18th-century botanist Jean-Paul de Rome d'Ardène. A Minim convent was situated here; the ancient Pont sur Laye is close by the town. Mane is twinned with: Chiaverano, Italy Communes of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department INSEE