Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Anthony Howard "Tony" Lockett is a former Australian rules football player. Nicknamed "Plugger", Lockett is the highest goalscorer in the history of the VFL/AFL with 1,360 goals in a career of 281 games, starting in 1983 with the St Kilda Football Club and ending in 2002 with the Sydney Swans. Lockett won the Brownlow Medal in 1987, becoming the first and only full forward to win the award, he is a four-time Coleman Medallist, kicked more than 100 goals in a season on six occasions and is a member of the Australian Football Hall of Fame. In 1999, Lockett broke the all-time goals record when he kicked his 1300th goal, surpassing Gordon Coventry's record of 1299 which had stood for 62 years. Lockett's new record remains unbeaten. At 191 cm tall and weighing 118 kg, Lockett was a unique footballer, his aggression, strong hands, high leap and accurate kicking made him a formidable player. Tony Lockett was born in Ballarat, Victoria, to his father Howard (a country footballer who played over 500 games and a North Ballarat Football Club Hall of Famer and his mother Liz.
He was educated at Ballarat Grammar School. Lockett began playing Australian Rules with the Under 12s team of his father's club, North Ballarat Football Club, in 1974, he played a total of 120 junior games with the club. He had played just five senior games as a 16-year-old in 1982 with North Ballarat before he was recruited by VFL club St Kilda and moved to Melbourne. In Lockett's second year with the club, he kicked seven goals in the opening game against the Essendon Football Club and went on to kick 70 more goals to win St Kilda's leading goal kicker award. In 1987 he won the Brownlow Medal, his best season at St Kilda was in 1991, when he kicked 127 goals in 17 games, at an average of 7.47 goals per game, the second highest average achieved in VFL/AFL history. He was the spearhead for St Kilda's first finals appearance since 1973. In 1992 he kicked the most goals that season with 132 goals. In a qualifying final against Geelong he kicked nine goals and five behinds, although the Saints were beaten by seven points.
He was described by dual Brownlow medallist Robert Harvey as the best player he had seen. In 1995, Lockett transferred to the Sydney Swans, he was an instant success with the Swans, helping the team into the 1996 finals series and subsequently into the 1996 AFL Grand Final. With scores tied in the preliminary final game, Lockett kicked a point after the siren to give Sydney a one-point victory. Despite a groin injury he played in the grand final, it was the only grand final appearance of Lockett's career. Lockett's career-best goal-scoring performance came in Round 19, 1995, against Fitzroy at the Western Oval, when he scored 16 goals straight. Lockett became a cult figure in Sydney, he was a massive drawcard for the struggling Sydney Swans, who had found it difficult to attract large support in New South Wales's rugby league heartland. At the height of his popularity the song "There's only one Tony Lockett" was released, performed by James Freud. In 1996, Lockett was the subject of much hype in the clash between Geelong and Sydney in which Gary Ablett Sr. was playing at the other end of the ground.
The match was billed by the media as Plugger vs God and set a ground record attendance at the Sydney Cricket Ground. He broke the record of 1299 career goals at the SCG in 1999 and sparked one of the biggest pitch invasions seen in Australian rules football. Lockett retired at the end of 1999 but had a brief comeback in 2002, playing three games and adding three goals to his record. Lockett played five State of Origin games for Victoria. In his State of Origin debut in 1985 against Western Australia, kicked one goal, he was selected in 1987 against South Australia, again kicked one goal. In 1989, he kicked five goals in a notable game against South Australia at the MCG, he again kicked five goals against Western Australia in 1992. His final interstate match came in 1995 against South Australia, kicking seven goals and winning the E. J. Whitten Medal. Lockett is known as a big supporter of State of Origin and said after he won the E. J. Whitten Medal that "to win this medal will go down as one of the happiest days of my life, I'll treasure it forever".
Lockett's career was marred by several high-profile tribunal appearances. The most famous was in an 11-goal match for St Kilda, against his future club, Sydney, in 1994 when he broke Peter Caven's cheek-bone as he led out from full-forward and the unaware Caven was back-tracking for the ball; the incident resulted in an eight-week suspension for charging. Lockett's aversion of the media has been well documented. Since his retirement he has had little involvement in the game, he has appeared including Advanced Hair and Lowes Menswear. While at a taping session for a Lowes commercial, Lockett engaged in a friendly wrestling match with former amateur rugby player Adrian "Ace" Mueller, at the time working for Lowes corporate division. According to some reports, the friendly wrestle developed into something quite competitive, with Lockett pinning Mueller. Lockett appeared with Stephen Curry and Dave Lawson in a Toyota Memorable Moments advertisement which takes a lighthearted look at some moments in his career such as the piglet "Pluga", "One Tony Lockett", "That Point" and his 1,300th goal.
Lockett is well
South Australian National Football League
The South Australian National Football League, or SANFL, is an Australian rules football league based in the Australian state of South Australia. It is the governing body for the sport of Australian rules football in South Australia. Formed as the South Australian Football Association on 30 April 1877, the SANFL is the oldest surviving football league of any code in Australia and one of the oldest football competitions in the world, forming just a few years after the United Hospitals Challenge Cup, the oldest rugby football competition, over a decade before The Football League. Consisting of a single division competition, since 2014 the season has been an 18-round "home-and-away" season from April to September; the top five teams play-off in a final series culminating in the grand final for the Thomas Seymour Hill Premiership Trophy. The grand final had traditionally been held at Football Park in October the week after the AFL Grand Final, though this was altered ahead of the 2014 season resulting in Adelaide Oval hosting the grand final in the penultimate weekend of September.
The league owned the sub-licences for South Australia's two AFL clubs – Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide Football Club until March 2014, when South Australian Football Commission reached an agreement with the Adelaide and Port Adelaide football clubs – endorsed by the AFL – which will see the two AFL licences transferred to the clubs in return for payments totalling more than $18 million. The league is responsible for the management of all levels of football in the state; this includes junior football, country football, amateur football and specific programs rolled out across schools, indigenous communities and newly arrived migrant communities. The SANFL owns the 51,240 seat AAMI Stadium the largest stadium in South Australia; the stadium, which opened in 1974, was used for Australian Football League matches up until 2013. The stadium was the headquarters for the league from 1974–2013; the SANFL competition is the second highest attended Australian rules football league behind the AFL.
The first recorded game of any "football" in South Australia was that of'Caid' played in Thebarton by people of the local Irish community in 1843 to celebrate St Patrick's Day. In 1844 there was debate amongst the South Australian Legislative Council whether it be allowed that "foot-ball" be played on Sundays, with arguments against preferring the quiet worship of God. In 1859 the Gawler Institute ran a rural fete; the earliest recorded Australian rules football club in South Australia was Adelaide Football Club, formed in 1860. The early years of football were poorly organised and dogged by argument over which set of rules to adopt. In fact, after a match between Port Adelaide and Kensington in 1873, it was remarked that neither side understood the rules clearly. However, as the years progressed, there became a growing push for uniformity and structure in South Australian football. In 1877, 12 of South Australia's football clubs met to develop a uniform set of rules and establish a governing body.
The South Australian Football Association was formed at a meeting at the Prince Alfred Hotel in King William Street, Adelaide on 30 April 1877, the first governing body of its type for football in Australia, adopted rules similar to those used in Victoria. The inaugural 1877 season was contested by 8 clubs: South Park, Port Adelaide, North Adelaide, Bankers, South Adelaide and Victorian. Norwood joined the Association the following season in 1878, went on to win the next six premierships. Norwood, South Adelaide and Port Adelaide together won 23 of the first 24 premierships. South Park, North Adelaide, Prince Alfred College, Kapunda, Bankers and Victorian all left the Association within the first 10 years. By 1886, the Association had been reduced from 12 to four clubs; the Association experienced a resurgence in the late early 1890s. The addition of North Adelaide, West Adelaide and West Torrens and only the demise of Adelaide, meant the Association comprised six clubs by the turn of the century.
In 1898, the Magarey Medal was awarded to the most brilliant player for the first time. In 1899, after a period of declining public interest in football due to the long term inequality between the traditional clubs and the younger clubs, the SAFA introduced electorate football, meaning that players were allocated to clubs based on the district in which they resided. Sturt joined the Association in 1901, but performed poorly finishing last in its first three seasons. In 1902, Port Adelaide adopted its white colours. In 1907, the Association changed its name to the South Australian Football League. Norwood and Port Adelaide continued their domination of the league, were joined by West Adelaide and North Adelaide. West Adelaide followed three straight wooden spoons from 1904–06 with four out of the five premierships from 1908–1912, the most successful period in West Adelaide's history; the SANFL maintained competition for the first two years of World War I, 1914 and 1915, with Sturt winning their first premiership in 1915, but from 1916 the competition was suspended and did not resume until 1919.
Sturt won the first premiership of the post-World War I era, beating North Adelaide in the Challenge Final replay. Glenelg became the newest addition to the league in 1921 a
Melbourne Football Club
The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League. It is named after and based in the city of Melbourne and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Melbourne is the world's oldest professional club of any football code; the club's origins can be traced to an 1858 letter in which Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with its own "code of laws". An informal Melbourne team played that winter and was formed in May 1859 when Wills and three other members codified "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club"—the basis of Australian rules football; the club was a dominant force in the earliest Australian rules football competition, the Challenge Cup, was a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and the Victorian Football League in 1896, which became the national Australian Football League. Melbourne has won 12 VFL/AFL premierships, the latest in 1964.
The club celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008 by naming "150 Heroes" as well as creating a birthday logo which appeared on its official guernsey. The football club has been a sporting section of the Melbourne Cricket Club since 2009, having been associated with the MCC between 1889 and 1980. In the winter and spring of 1858, a loosely organised football team known as Melbourne played in a series of scratch matches in the parklands outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this team was captained by Tom Wills, a prominent athlete and captain of the Victoria cricket team, who, on 10 July that year, had a letter of his published by the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle, in which he calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. Other figures associated with this embryonic Melbourne side include cricketers Jerry Bryant, William Hammersley and J. B. Thompson, teacher Thomas H. Smith. During meetings held on 17 and 21 May 1859, Hammersley and Smith met near the MCG at the Parade Hotel, owned by Bryant, to draft "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club".
The resulting ten codified rules are the laws. The first mention of an interclub match played under the new code was between Melbourne and South Yarra in July 1859, with Hammersley as Melbourne's inaugural captain. In 1861, Melbourne participated in the Caledonian Society's Challenge Cup, but lost the trophy to the Melbourne University Football Club; the club pushed for its rules to be the accepted rules, however many of the early suburban matches were played under compromised rules decided between the captains of the competing clubs. Although some Melbourne players and officials were associated with the cricket club, the football club was not allowed to use the MCG, so it used a nearby field at Yarra Park as its home ground instead. By 1866 several other clubs had adopted an updated version of Melbourne's rules, drafted at a meeting chaired by Wills' cousin, H. C. A. Harrison. Harrison was a key figure in the early years of the club. Due to his popular reputation and administrative efforts, he was named "Father of Australian Football" in 1908, the year of the sport's golden jubilee.
During the 1870s, Melbourne fielded teams in the Seven South Yarra Cup competitions. After a visit to England by one of the club's officials, the colours of red and green were adopted by the club. Shortly afterward, the club began wearing a predominantly red strip and became informally known by supporters as the "Redlegs"; the name "Redlegs" was coined after a Melbourne official returned from a trip to England with one set of red and another of blue woollen socks. Melbourne wore the red set while the blue set was given to the Carlton Football Club; this may be the source of Carlton's nickname,'The Blueboys'. In 1877, the club became a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association. During the same year the club took part in the first interstate football match involving a South Australian side, defeating the home side 1-0. During this time, the club was known as the "Fuchsias". Melbourne never won a VFA premiership, although they were one of the stronger teams in the competition, finishing runner-up four times, to Carlton in 1877, to Geelong in 1878 and twice to Essendon in 1893 and 1894.
In 1889, the MFC was reincorporated into the MCC, for many years the two organisations remained unhappily linked. The MFC's close association with the MCC allowed it to claim the MCG as its home ground and gave it access to a wealthy membership base, but Melbourne's reputation as an "establishment" club was not always an advantage. MCC members have the automatic right to attend all events at the ground, including MFC football games; this meant many potential members had a reduced incentive to join the football club, Melbourne's membership remained one of the lowest in the competition. In 1897, the MFC was part of the breakaway Victorian Football League, has been a part of the competition since; the team became known as the "Redlegs". This nickname is still used by some members and supporter groups within the club. In 1900 Melbourne won its first VFL premiership. Melbourne's greatest player of these early years of the VFL was Ivor Warne-Smith, who in 1926 won the club's first Brownlow Medal, the League's annual award for the fairest and best player.
In that year Melbourne won its second flag. Warne-Smith went on to win a second Brownlow in 1928. Frank'Checker' Hughes became Melbourne's coach in 1933, a
Sacred Heart College (Adelaide)
Sacred Heart College is an Australian Catholic school teaching in the Marist tradition in the Adelaide beachside suburb of Somerton Park, South Australia, in the suburb of Mitchell Park. The college is a coeducational school from Years 10 to 12. Sacred Heart is known for its Australian rules football teams, cultivating thorough athletes since its establishment, it has an annual Intercollegiate match against its cross-town rival, Rostrevor College, a notable event in the South Australian Catholic Schools sports calendar. The school has an annual exchange with Assumption College in Kilmore, which entails music and performing arts performances, debating and several sporting competitions. In 1897 the Marist Brothers of Adelaide were formally invited by Archbishop John O'Reily to establish an all-boys school in Port Adelaide; the first principal of the school was Brother Stephen DeBourg- the college recognising his achievements through the dedication of the Brother Stephen DeBourg Performing Arts Centre in 2008.
Due to the increasing popularity of the school, Sacred Heart High was relocated to the current site at Somerton Park. In 1914 the Marist Brothers acquired Paringa Hall in Somerton Park, the residence of a wealthy pastoralist James Francis Cudmore who had died in 1912; the school was renamed Sacred Heart College and it established extensive facilities for its period, as well as the notable college chapel. During its erection the college provided schooling for day students and boarders from Years 4 to Leaving Honours. In 1977 Sacred Heart College became part of the SW Region scheme and evolved into a senior college catering for the final three years of study. Today, Sacred Heart College Senior is a coeducational senior college for 1,000 students in Years 10 – 12 and continuously upholds the largest graduating class in South Australia; the college is situated on three grounds in the suburb of Somerton Park on Brighton Road, 13 kilometres west of the Adelaide city centre. The campus' facilities consist of three ovals, nine tennis courts, three basketball courts, a hockey pitch and seven cricket nets.
The school has seen extensive redevelopments of its facilities. These have included the development of the Marcellin Learning Centre and the Brother Stephen DeBorgue Performing Arts Centre which includes music rooms and a multifunctional arts centre. Prior to 2015, the College planned to overhaul Sacred Heart College's War Memorial Oval; the now completed redevelopments house classrooms, a gymnasium, change rooms and a 1000-seat assembly hall. The campus is most recognised for its stately heritage architecture. Central to the college is "Paringa Hall", named to recognise the Cudmore family's first largest sheep station in the Riverland. Paringa Hall has been defined as one of South Australia's most outstanding late 19th-century family homes remaining upstanding. Designed by Edmund William Wright, a previous Mayor of Adelaide and a notable architect and businessman, noted for designing the Adelaide Town Hall and Parliament House, the building's opulence speaks of great wealth. Located east of the campus is the Sacred Heart Memorial Chapel and blessed in 1924 as a memorial to the Old Collegians who lost their lives in the First World War.
The college embodies heritage structures located throughout the college, including the century old Score Board and Memorial Entrance. A part of the college campus includes a technology centre and St Paul's, in redevelopment. Prior to 2017, the college had ten houses: The college has since transitioned to a five house system: Mark Bishop, ALP senator for South Australia Darren Cahill, professional tennis player and coach, Australian Davis Cup coach Rob Chapman, CEO of St George Bank Bart Cummings, horse trainer John Fitzgerald, professional tennis player, Australian Davis Cup captain James Gleeson, Archbisop of Adelaide Albert James Hannan, Crown Solicitor, Catholic lay leader Stephen Kenny, Lawyer best known for defending David Hicks Rob Kerin, South Australian Premier Anthony Lehmann, radio personality, television personality and movie actor Corey Maynard, professional basketball player Shaun Micallef, television host and comedian Neville Quist, fashion designer for'Saville Row' David Sincock, Australian cricketer Robert Stigwood, entertainment entrepreneur Ryan Burton, Hawthorn Shannon Corcoran, Brisbane, Sydney Chad Cornes, Port Adelaide Kane Cornes, Port Adelaide Nic Fosdike, Sydney James Gallagher, Adelaide Cory Gregson, Geelong Adam Hartlett, Carlton Hamish Hartlett, Port Adelaide John Hinge, Adelaide Crows Cameron Hitchcock, Port Adelaide Ben Kennedy, Melbourne David King, Collingwood Matthew Liptak, Adelaide Crows Andrew Mackie, Geelong Luke McCabe, Hawthorn Patrick McCarthy, Tom McNamara, Melbourne Danny Meyer, Port Adelaide Alex Neal-Bullen, Melbourne Matthew Pavlich, Fremantle Jason Porplyzia, Adelaide Jack Redden, Brisbane Jared Rivers, Melbourne Robert Schaefer, Richmond Aaron Shattock, Brisbane Nick Smith, Melbourne Simon Tregenza, Adelaide Charlie Ballard, Gold Coast Marymount College: An all-girls middle school in the nearby Hove area.
The school educates girls from Years 6 to 9, is an all-girls "feed" into the Senior School system. The college came to media attention in August 2013 when it was reported that Cory Gregson, a player within its first XVIII was not permitted to make his League debut with the Glenelg Football Club due to him being required to play in an inter-school game against Rostrevor College. List of schools in South Australia List of boarding schools Sacred Heart College Senior website
Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.
In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.
To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.
Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.
A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force
Handball (Australian rules football)
Handball or handpass is a skill in the sport of Australian rules football. It is the primary means of disposing of the football by hand, is executed by holding the ball with one hand and punching it with the other. Handball is a method of disposing of possession of the football by hand, it is the most used alternative to kicking the ball. In order to be a legal method to dispose of the ball, the player holds the ball with one hand and punches the ball away with the clenched fist of the other hand. A player punches with his dominant hand; when a player receives a handpass from another player, play continues – unlike the kick where if a player catches the ball on the full from a kick, he is entitled to take his next kick unimpeded. Failure to execute a handball is deemed a throw or illegal disposal and results in a free kick to the nearest opposition player. Moving the hand that holds the ball excessively in the direction of the handpass, using an open hand instead of a clenched fist to tap the ball away, throwing the ball off the carrying hand before punching it away, or handing the ball directly to a teammate will all attract a free kick for illegal disposal.
The rule defines it to the open hand tap/handpass in Gaelic football, but differentiates the hand skills from codes of football derived from rugby football. Unlike Gaelic football, punching the oval ball was more used as it was the most effective technique to move the heavier ball larger distances. Although the rules allowed for the handball, for most Australian rules leagues handball was a secondary skill to the kick. Strategically Australian football was viewed as a territorial sport – where the prime aim was not so much possession, but to cover as much distance through the air as possible; as the holding hand could not move, this was best achieved by means of kicking the ball as far as possible. The principally used handpass was top-spin in nature; this was used with the belief that the ball could be contained more locally and executed more off the hands when the ball was held in preparation for kicking, as smaller handpasses were used when in trouble. The other thought was that, as in tennis, a top-spun ball was more directed, dipped faster and possessed more stability in the air.
One notable variant of the handpass which began to develop was known as the flick pass, in which a player used his open hand instead of his fist to propel the ball. The legality of the flick pass has varied throughout the history of the game: it began to gain prominence in the early 1920s, before the Australian National Football Council voted to abolish it before the 1925 season, making the handpass with a clenched fist the only legal form of handpass; this was not popular, as the style of punch pass used at the time a much more cumbersome disposal than a flick pass, it resulted in the game being played at a slower pace. The flick pass was re-instated before the 1934 season. In the late 1950s and early 1960s it re-emerged as a common technique to achieve centre square clearances from scrimmages at VFL club Fitzroy. Of the 88 handballs executed during the 1961 VFL Grand Final, 18 were flick passes; the flick pass was abolished permanently in 1966. The flick pass had the significant drawback that its action was close to that of a throw, different umpires had different interpretations of what was legal.
In 1938, motivated by a desire to eliminate this inconsistency, to speed up the game further, the Victorian Football Association legalised throwing the ball, provided the throw was with two hands and both hands were below shoulder-height. The throw-pass was legal in the VFA and in some other competitions affiliated with it from 1938 until 1949, but it was never legal under ANFC rules; the emergence of handball as a more used skill took place in the 1960s and 1970s. A running handball game emerged in the South Australian National Football League with Sturt coach Jack Oatey credited with encouraging the skill through the late 1960s, leading to Sturt winning five premierships from 1966 to 1970. In Western Australia, Graham'Polly' Farmer and Barry Cable brought a new dimension to the game using handball, with Farmer looking for a runner to handpass to after each mark, to speed up the ball movement; the kick and catch style of play in the Victorian Football League is credited to the Carlton Football Club's 1970 VFL Grand Final victory under Ron Barassi, in which Carlton's extensive use of handpassing in the second half helped it recover from a 44-point half time deficit.
The modern handpass technique, known as the rocket handball, was pioneered by Kevin Sheedy. It is executed so that the ball rotates backwards in an end-to-end fashion, similar to the drop punt kick; the ball is held on a slight angle with the fist ending up in or close to the other open hand. This enables a handpass to achieve distance and speed comparable to a short kick and is easier for teammates to catch. Professional Australian footballers are competent at handballing using either punching arm. With the wide adoption of the handball in the 1980s, midfielders such as Greg Williams and Dale Weightman became handball specialists, renowned their playmaking ability by preferring to handball in the midfield. In the 1980s, Richmond Football Club wingman Kevin Bartlett became famous for a style of play which involved use of the handball to dispose of the ball before an opponent was about to tackle. Although rules were uniform across the country, local interpretations and customs var