A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Jarhead is a 2005 American biographical war drama film based on U. S. Marine Anthony Swofford's 2003 memoir of the same name, directed by Sam Mendes, starring Jake Gyllenhaal as Swofford with Jamie Foxx, Peter Sarsgaard and Chris Cooper; the title comes from the slang term used to refer to United States Marines. In 1989, Anthony "Swoff" Swofford, whose father served in the Vietnam War, attends U. S. Marine Corps training before being stationed at Camp Pendleton. Claiming that he joined the military because he "got lost on the way to college", Swofford finds his time at Camp Pendleton difficult, struggles to make friends. While Swofford feigns illness to avoid his responsibilities, a "lifer", Staff Sergeant Sykes, takes note of his potential and orders Swofford to attend his Scout Sniper course. After grueling training, the Scout Sniper course is left with eight candidates, among them Swofford, now a sniper, Swofford's roommate Corporal Alan Troy who becomes his spotter; when Iraq invades Kuwait, Swofford's unit is deployed to the Arabian Peninsula as a part of Operation Desert Shield.
Eager for combat, the Marines find themselves bored with remedial training, constant drills, a routine monotony that feeds their boredom, prompts them to talk about the unfaithful girlfriends and wives waiting for them at home. They erect a bulletin board featuring photographs and brief notes telling what perfidies the women had committed. Swofford obtains unauthorized alcohol and organizes an impromptu Christmas party, arranging for Fergus to cover his watch so he can celebrate. Fergus accidentally sets fire to a tent while cooking some sausages and ignites a crate of flares, waking the whole camp and enraging Staff Sergeant Sykes, who demotes Swofford from lance corporal to private and puts him on "shit-burning" detail; the punishments, combined with the heat, the boredom, Swofford's suspicions of his girlfriend's infidelity, give Swofford a mental breakdown, to the point where he threatens Fergus with a rifle orders Fergus to shoot him instead. Operation Desert Storm begins and the Marines are sent to the Saudi Arabia-Kuwait border.
Swofford learns from Sykes that Troy concealed his criminal record when enlisting and will be discharged when the unit returns home. Troy becomes distant from his friends. Knowing that Troy will not be allowed to reenlist, the Marines attack him with a red-hot USMC branding iron, marking him as one of their own. Following an accidental air attack from friendly forces, the Marines advance through the desert, facing no enemies on the ground; the Marines march through the Highway of Death, strewn with the burnt vehicles and charred bodies of retreating Iraqi soldiers, the aftermath of a bombing campaign. The Marines catch sight of distant burning oil wells, ignited only moments before by retreating Iraqis, they attempt to dig sleeping holes as a rain of crude oil falls from the sky. Before they can finish, Sykes orders the squad to move upwind; the denouement of the movie occurs when Swofford and Troy are given a sniping mission. Lieutenant Colonel Kazinski, their battalion commander, orders them to kill at least one of two high-ranking Iraqi Republican Guard officers at a nearby airfield.
At the last second before Swofford takes the shot, Major Lincoln interrupts them to call in an air strike. Swofford and Troy protest, but are overruled and look on in disappointment as airplanes destroy the Iraqi airfield. During a monologue, Swofford realizes that all of his training and effort to achieve the elite status as a marine sniper is meaningless in modern warfare, it is time to start anew. After returning home the Marines parade through a town in a jovial celebration of victory. Swofford discovers she has a new boyfriend. Fowler is seen with a prostitute in a bar, now as a Lance Corporal, Kruger in a corporate boardroom, Escobar as a supermarket employee, Cortez as a father of three children, Sykes continuing his service as a first sergeant in the Iraq War. Swofford learns of Troy's death during a surprise visit from Fergus, he attends his funeral, reunites with some of his old friends and afterwards reminisces about the effects of the war. The film received mixed reviews from critics.
Roger Ebert gave the movie three-and-a-half out of four stars, crediting it for its unique portrayal of Gulf War Marines who battled boredom and a sense of isolation rather than enemy combatants. Entertainment Weekly magazine gave the film a "B+" rating and Owen Gleiberman wrote: Jarhead isn't overtly political, yet by evoking the surreal futility of men whose lust for victory through action is dashed, at every turn, by the tactics and morality of the war they're in, it sets up a powerfully resonant echo of the one we're in today. In his review for the Washington Post, Stephen Hunter praised Jake Gyllenhaal's performance: "What's so good about the movie is Gyllenhaal's refusal to show off. Sight and Sound magazine's Leslie Felperin wrote, "If nothing else, Jarhead provides some kind of reportage of a war whose consequences we haven't yet begun to understand, a war now elbowed into history by its still-raging sequel". USA Today gave the film three out of four stars and wrote, "What we're left with is solid if not exceptional, though it's good to see Mendes expanding as a filmmaker".
Time magazine's Richard Schickel wrote, "But the best war movies—and this one, despite its being overlong and repetitive, is among them—hold that men fight not for causes, but to sur
John Peter Sarsgaard is an American actor. His first feature role was in Dead Man Walking in 1995, he appeared in the 1998 independent films Another Day in Paradise and Desert Blue. That same year, Sarsgaard received a substantial role in The Man in the Iron Mask, playing Raoul, the ill-fated son of Athos. Sarsgaard achieved critical recognition when he was cast in Boys Don't Cry as John Lotter, he landed his first leading role in the 2001 film The Center of the World. The following year, he played supporting roles in Empire, The Salton Sea, K-19: The Widowmaker. For his portrayal of Charles Lane in Shattered Glass, Sarsgaard won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for the 2004 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sarsgaard has appeared in an eclectic range of films, including the 2004 comedy-drama Garden State, the biographical film Kinsey, the drama The Dying Gaul, big-budget films such as Flightplan, The Skeleton Key, Orphan, An Education and Day, the superhero film Green Lantern, Kelly Reichardt's Night Moves, Woody Allen's Blue Jasmine, Black Mass, The Magnificent Seven.
Sarsgaard appeared in the U. S. TV series The Killing as a man on death row wrongfully convicted for the brutal murder of his wife—a performance which he says included "some of the best acting I have done in my life."Sarsgaard has appeared in Off-Broadway productions including Kingdom of Earth, Laura Dennis, Burn This, Uncle Vanya. In September 2008, he made his Broadway debut as Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin in The Seagull, he is married to actress Maggie Gyllenhaal. Sarsgaard was born at Scott Air Force Base in St. Clair County, the son of Judy Lea and John Dale Sarsgaard, his father was an Air Force engineer and worked for Monsanto and IBM. His surname originates in Denmark. Sarsgaard was served as an altar boy, his family moved more than 12 times following his father's job. At the age of 7, Sarsgaard wanted to become a soccer player and took up ballet to help improve his coordination. After suffering several concussions while playing soccer, he gave up the sport and became interested in writing and theater.
Sarsgaard attended Fairfield College Preparatory School, a private Jesuit boys' school in Connecticut, where he became interested in film. Following his graduation from Fairfield Prep in 1989, he attended Bard College in New York for two years before transferring to Washington University in St. Louis in 1991, where he co-founded an improvisational comedy troupe "Mama's Pot Roast." While at WUSTL, Sarsgaard began performing in plays in an offshoot of New York's Actors Studio. In 1993, he moved to New York. Sarsgaard branched out with guest roles in television productions filmed in New York City, with Law & Order in 1995, New York Undercover as well as an appearance in the 1997 HBO special Subway Stories, he appeared in his first film role in Dead Man Walking, where he was cast as a murdered teenager, killed by Sean Penn's character. His next film roles were in a series of independent features: Another Day in Paradise, part of an ensemble cast that included James Woods, Melanie Griffith, Vincent Kartheiser, Natasha Gregson Wagner, In Desert Blue, where he had a supporting role in the film.
He received his substantial role in the 1998 film The Man in the Iron Mask, where he played Raoul, the ill-fated son of John Malkovich's dueling Musketeer, Athos. The film uses characters from Alexandre Dumas' d'Artagnan Romances, is loosely adapted from some plot elements of The Vicomte de Bragelonne; the film received ambivalent reviews, but was a success at the box office, earning $182 million worldwide. In 1999, Sarsgaard earned critical recognition in Kimberly Peirce's Boys Don't Cry, where he was cast as notorious killer John Lotter; the film is based on the real-life story of Brandon Teena, raped and murdered in 1993 by Lotter and Tom Nissen after they found out that he was a trans man. Boys Don’t Cry received overwhelmingly positive acclaim from critics, his performance was critically well received. According to The Boston Globe, "Peter Sarsgaard... makes the killer's terrible trajectory not only believable, but grounded in the most mundane clodhopper behavior. He isn't a drooling monster, he's a guy you wouldn't look twice at a bar or a convenience store."
A contributor from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote "It's a marvelous performance supported ably by... Sarsgaard as the unpredictable, sociopathic Lotter." The film was screened at a special presentation at the 2000 Venice Film Festival. In regards to his character, as how Sarsgaard made him "likeable, sympathetic even" was because he wanted the audience "to understand why they would hang out with me. If my character wasn't likable, I wanted him to be charismatic enough that you weren't going to have a dull time if you were with him." In another interview, Sarsgaard said. His first leading role was in the 2001 feature The Center of the World, where he plays Richard Longman, a lonely young entrepreneur who skips out on his company's big initial public offering and pays a stripper $10,000 to fly to Las Vegas with him; the film received average reviews, however, A. O. Scott of the New York Times, reported that the performances by both Sarsgaard and Parker "provide a rough grain of authenticity, captur
Eric Marlon Bishop, known professionally as Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, songwriter, record producer, comedian. For his portrayal of Ray Charles in the 2004 biographical film Ray, he won an Academy Award for Best Actor, BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy; that same year, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in the crime film Collateral. Since spring 2017, Foxx has served as the host and executive producer of the Fox game show Beat Shazam. Other acting roles include Staff Sergeant Sykes in Jarhead, record executive Curtis Taylor, Jr. in Dreamgirls, Detective Ricardo Tubbs in the 2006 film adaptation of TV series Miami Vice, the title role in the film Django Unchained, the supervillain Electro in The Amazing Spider-Man 2, Will Stacks in Annie, gangster Bats / Leon Jefferson III in Baby Driver. Foxx starred in the sketch comedy show In Living Color and his own television sitcom The Jamie Foxx Show, in which he played Jamie King, Jr. Foxx is a Grammy Award-winning musician, producing four albums, which have charted in the top ten of the U.
S. Billboard 200: Unpredictable, which topped the chart, Best Night of My Life, Hollywood: A Story of a Dozen Roses. Eric Marlon Bishop was born in Terrell, Texas on December 13, 1967, he is the son of Darrell Bishop, who sometimes worked as a stockbroker, Louise Annette Talley Dixon. Shortly after his birth, Foxx was adopted and raised by his mother's adoptive parents, Esther Marie, a domestic worker and nursery operator, Mark Talley, a yard worker, he has had little contact with his birth parents. Foxx was raised in the black quarter of Terrell, which at the time was a racially segregated community, he has acknowledged his grandmother's influence in his life as one of the greatest reasons for his success. Foxx began playing the piano, he had a strict Baptist upbringing, as a teenager he was a part-time pianist and choir leader in Terrell's New Hope Baptist Church. His natural talent for telling jokes was in evidence as a third grader, when his teacher would use him as a reward: if the class behaved, Foxx would tell them jokes.
Foxx attended Terrell High School, where he played basketball and football. His ambition was to play for the Dallas Cowboys, he was the first player in the school's history to pass for more than 1,000 yards, he sang in a band called Leather and Lace. After completing high school, Foxx received a scholarship to United States International University, where he studied musical and performing arts composition. Foxx first told jokes at a comedy club's open mic night in 1989, after accepting a girlfriend's dare; when he found that female comedians were called first to perform, he changed his name to Jamie Foxx, feeling that it was a name ambiguous enough to disallow any biases. He chose his surname as a tribute to the black comedian Redd Foxx. Foxx joined the cast of In Living Color in 1991, where his recurrent character Wanda shared a name with Redd's friend and co-worker, LaWanda Page. Following a recurring role in the comedy-drama sitcom Roc, Foxx went on to star in his own sitcom The Jamie Foxx Show, from 1996 to 2001.
Foxx made his film debut in the 1992 comedy Toys. His first dramatic role came in Oliver Stone's 1999 film Any Given Sunday, where he was cast as a hard-partying American football player because of his own football background. In 2001, Foxx starred opposite Will Smith in Michael Mann's biographical drama Ali. Three years Foxx played taxi driver Max Durocher in the film Collateral alongside Tom Cruise, for which he received outstanding reviews and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 1994, Foxx released an album entitled Peep This, not commercially successful. In 2003, Foxx made a cameo in Benzino's music video for "Would You", which features LisaRaye McCoy and Mario Winans. In 2003, Foxx featured on the rapper Twista's song, "Slow Jamz", together with Kanye West, which reached #1 on the US Billboard Hot 100 singles chart and #3 on the UK Singles chart, his second collaboration with Kanye West, "Gold Digger," in which Foxx sang the Ray Charles-influenced "I Got a Woman" hook went straight to #1 on the Billboard Hot 100, remaining there for 10 weeks.
In 2005, Foxx featured on the single "Georgia" by Atlanta rappers Ludacris and Field Mob, which sampled Ray Charles' hit "Georgia on My Mind". Foxx would portray Ray Charles in the biographical film Ray, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor and the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. Foxx is the third male in history to receive two acting Oscar nominations in the same year for two different movies and Ray. In 2005, Foxx was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Foxx released his second studio album, Unpredictable, in December 2005, it debuted at #2, selling 598,000 copies in its first week, rising to #1 the following week and selling an additional 200,000 copies. To date, the album has sold 1.98 million copies in the United States, was certified double Platinum by the RIAA. The album charted on the UK Albums Chart, where it peaked at #9. Foxx became the fourth artist to have both won an Academy Award for an acting role and to have achieved a #1 album in the U.
S, joining Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby and Barbra Streisand. Foxx's first single from the album, the title track "Unpredictable" (f
2nd Battalion, 7th Marines
The 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines is a light infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and consist of 1,200 Marines and Sailors; the battalion falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division. The battalion's current subordinate units are: Headquarters & Service Company Echo Company Fox Company Golf Company Weapons CompanyAt the beginning of World War II, the battalion had three subordinate rifle companies – E, F, G, a weapons company designated as H, a Headquarters Company; as the war progressed, the weapons company was eliminated and the component elements redistributed throughout the headquarters and rifle companies. During the Korean War, the battalion's three rifle companies were designated D, E and F. During the Vietnam War, the battalion was organized under a four rifle company order of battle – E, F, G and H; the battalion was activated on 1 January 1940 at Cuba. On 18 September 1942, 2/7 landed on Guadalcanal.
They fought the Battle of Guadalcanal for four months until they were relieved by elements of the United States Army's Americal Division. The battalion was sent to Australia along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division for rest and refit. 2/7 landed on Cape Gloucester, New Britain on 26 December 1943 under the command of Lieutenant colonel Odell M. Conoley securing an airfield the first day; that night, Japanese Marines counterattacked and 2/7 took the brunt of the assault and the fighting continued throughout the night. By the time the sun began to rise, the entire Japanese force had been wiped out. On 14 January, 2/7 along with the rest of the regiment assaulted and took the last Japanese stronghold on the island, Hill 660. Two days the counter-attack came but the Marines held the hilltop resorting to hand-to-hand fighting; the battalion continued to run patrols around the island to protect against guerrilla attacks from hold-out Japanese soldiers. In March 1943, New Britain were declared secure and on 1 April Marine Division was relieved by the US Army 40th Infantry Division.
2/7, the rest of the 1st Marine Division again returned to Australia. On 15 September 1944, the 7th Marines landed along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division. Note: The 2nd battalion was the only battalion to be held in reserve, they were to go in in the day in support of the 7th Marines. However, Chesty Puller's 1st Marines were having the worst time as they were on the left flank and adjacent to where the mountainous area on Peleliu called the Umurbrogal Pocket began - where all the Japanese holed up. On the night of 20 September the 2nd battalion went out to the transfer line, but there were not enough LVT's. Instead, they had to wait and go in the next morning directly in support of Chesty Puller's 1st Marines; the 2nd battalion went right into the middle of the fighting of the 1st marine regiment. When they landed they were met by intense artillery and mortar fire from Japanese positions that had not been touched by the pre-invasion bombardment. On 20 September, the 7th Marines linked up with the 1st Marines.
The battalion fought on the island for another eight weeks. On 1 April 1945, was part of the 80,000 Marines; the 1st Marine Division landed on the southern portion of Okinawa against light resistance. Their beachhead was secured and supplies began flowing in. Resistance began to become stronger; the 1st Marine Division was ordered into Reserve to protect the right flank of the invasion forces. The battalion fought the Japanese along the coast and was stopped at the Shuri Castle. For 30 days, along with the rest of the Division and the Army 77th Infantry Division, battled the Japanese stronghold. After Okinawa, 2/7 was part of the occupation in China where they were to disarm the Japanese forces there. In addition they were called upon to keep the peace during the bloody civil war between the Chinese Nationalists and Communist forces. In 1947, 2/7 returned to California and were deactivated that year. During the Battle of Chosin Reservoir Captain William Barber earned the Medal of Honor for his actions as commander of Fox 2/7.
F/2/7 held a position known as "Fox Hill" against vastly superior numbers of Chinese infantry, holding the Toktong Pass open and keeping the 5th Marine Regiment and the 7th Marine Regiment from getting cut off at Yudam-ni. His company's actions to keep the pass open, allowed these two regiments to withdrawal from Yudam-ni and consolidate with the rest of the 1st Marine Division at Hagaru-ri; the mission to relieve F/2/7 on top of Fox Hill led to LtCol Raymond Davis commanding officer of 1st Battalion 7th Marines, receiving the Medal of Honor. In addition to Chosin, the Battalion participated in the Inchon Landing, the recapture of Seoul and operations along both the Eastern and Western Fronts. 2/7 was deployed to Vietnam from July 1965 until October 1970 as part of the 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division. The Battalion operated in the southern half of I Corp most of the time. Qui Nhon, Chu Lai, Da Nang Air Base, Dai Loc and An Hoa. 2/7 were instrumental players in Operation Harvest Moon.
2/7 relocated during January 1990 to Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and participated in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait from August 1990 through March 1991 when they redeployed back to the United States. For the rest of the 1990s the battalion took part in the regular Unit Deployment Program rotation to Okinawa. In this scheme, 7th Marine Regiment sequen
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper
United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper is a secondary MOS designator of U. S. Marine Corps infantrymen and reconnaissance Marines that have graduated from a U. S. Marine Corps Scout Sniper School. Scout Snipers must earn the rank of Lance Corporal, be selected by their battalion to join the scout-sniper platoon, complete an approved scout-sniper course in order to receive this designation. A USMC Scout Sniper is a Marine skilled in fieldcraft and marksmanship, who can deliver long-range precision fire on selected targets, from concealed positions in support of combat operations. A USMC Scout Sniper Team is a detachment of one or more sniper teams performing an assigned task of engaging selected targets, targets of opportunity and reporting information, or a combination of all, contributing to the accomplishment of the supported unit's mission. Surveillance and Target Acquisition Platoons similar units, existed until shortly after the Gulf War, they consisted of Scout Intelligence Marines. A Scout Sniper Platoon is composed of 8–10 Scout Sniper teams, some of which are specially suited for night operations and capable of operating in complete darkness through use of night vision scopes and infrared laser equipment.
Each Scout Sniper team has two members. One sniper is equipped with a long-range, specially-made sniper rifle, such as the M40; the spotter is armed with an M4 carbine and uses a high-power spotting scope to spot targets and follow-up shots for the shooter. The shooter/spotter relationship is not always set. Within a platoon, there are four Special Application Scoped Rifles, chambered in the.50 caliber, such as the M82, or M107. These can be issued to a team as needed to give supported commanders the option of taking out heavy equipment or armored targets. Scout Sniper teams train to engage man-sized targets with the M40 out to 1000 yards, can be effective at a range of up to 1.25 miles with the M82, if the environment is right. In February 2012, U. S. media reported that Marine scout snipers had been using the double Sig rune in its "Armanen" form to symbolize their function since at least the 1980s. The same stylized double rune was the symbol of the SS, the Nazi organization, instrumental in conducting the Holocaust.
Strong media criticism of this practice ensued. The Commandant of the Marine Corps gave orders to stop it, issued an apology, ordered an investigation into the prevalence of this practice. A Marine official was quoted as saying that their leadership believed that the Marines did not understand the logo's significance; the Military Religious Freedom Foundation, which had helped circulate an image of snipers posing with a blue "SS" flag, questioned this assumption, writing that the flag was sold by a website dedicated to German World War II and Nazi memorabilia. Scout Snipers provide close surveillance to the infantry battalion. By doctrine, a Scout Sniper is a Marine skilled in field craft and marksmanship who delivers long range precision fire on selected targets from concealed positions in support of combat operations. Scout Snipers in Marine infantry battalions fell under the Surveillance and Target Acquisition units and now, more formalized, they belong to the infantry battalion's Scout Sniper Platoon within the Headquarters and Service Company or Weapons Company.
Marine Scout Snipers are trained at one of the four school house locations. The motto of the Marine Scout Sniper is "one shot, one kill"; the term "Scout Sniper" is only used by the Marine Corps, but it does not imply a differing mission from the U. S. Army Sniper. An Army Sniper's primary mission is to support combat operations by delivering precise long-range fire on selected targets. By this, the sniper creates casualties among enemy troops, slows enemy movement, frightens enemy soldiers, lowers morale, adds confusion to their operations; the sniper's secondary mission is collecting and reporting battlefield information, Section 1.1 FM 23-10 Sniper Training. The Marine Corps is unique in its consolidation of reconnaissance and sniper duties for a single Marine. Most other conventional armed forces, including the U. S. Army, scout from the sniper. In the U. S. Army, the 19D MOS, "Cavalry Scout" is the primary special reconnaissance and surveillance soldier and the term "Infantry Scout" refers to a specially trained infantrymen that functions in a reconnaissance and surveillance capacity, while "Sniper" refers to a specially selected and trained soldier that functions as a sniper.
Most military forces believe that the separation of reconnaissance and sniper capabilities allows for a higher degree of specialization. The Marine Scout Sniper Course qualifies students as Marine Corps Scout Snipers; the graduation rate in 2017 was 44 percent. There are three different school houses in the Marine Corps that offer the Scout Sniper Course. School of Infantry, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina Marine Corps Base Quantico, VirginiaIn 2009, a major change in curriculum occurred with the Scout Sniper Basic Course and it was shortened from the traditional 10-week course to an 81⁄2 week course; this was done concurrently with the removal of the Advanced Course and the addition of the Team Leader Course of 4 weeks. This reduction of 11⁄2 weeks is because of the removal of the course's mission planning phase and the addition of this curriculum to the Team Leader Course. Missions are still con