Nokia is a town and a municipality on the banks of the Nokianvirta River in the region of Pirkanmaa, some 15 kilometres west of Tampere. As of 31 January 2019 it has a population of 33,539; the origin of the name Nokia is obscure. In modern Finnish, noki means soot and nokia is its inflected plural, although this form of the word is if used; the most common theory claims the name originates from the archaic Finnish word nois or nokinäätä, meaning sable. After sable was hunted to extinction in Finland, the word was applied to any dark-coated fur animal, such as the marten, which are found in the area to this day; the sable is enshrined on the Nokia coat of arms. However research has appeared to indicate that sables never inhabited Finland in the first place, the name nois may refer to the beaver; the first literary reference to Nokia is in a 1505 document in connection with the Nokia Manor. Nokia was the setting of one of the largest battles in the Club War, a 1596 peasant uprising against feudal lords.
The peasants, armed with clubs, took up residence in Nokia Manor and won several skirmishes against the feudal cavalry, but were decisively defeated by Klaus Fleming on 1–2 January 1597. Thousands of clubmen were slain and their leader Jaakko Ilkka, who had fled, was captured a few weeks and executed; the Club War was the last major peasant revolt in Finland, it permanently consolidated the hold of the nation state. Much in the Finnish Civil War, Nokia was a Socialist stronghold and saw some combat. Nokia used to reach out to the current heart of Tampere, with the Pispala area a part of Nokia's Suur-Pirkkala area. Suur-Pirkkala was split into Pohjois- and Eteläis-Pirkkala. In 1938 Pohjois-Pirkkala was renamed as Nokia and Southern Pirkkala restored its original Pirkkala name. Nokia was designated as a city in 1977; the eponymous telecommunications giant Nokia was founded by Fredrik Idestam in 1865 as a pulp mill. The Finnish Rubber Works Ltd set up a factory in Nokia in 1904; these two companies and the Cable Company Ltd amalgamated in 1967 forming Nokia Corporation.
Different branches of this conglomerate were split into several companies or sold off around 1990. The rubber works still operates in Nokia as Nokian Tyres and the paper mill as Georgia-Pacific Finland Oy; as of 2008, the telecommunication company Nokia no longer has any operations in the city of Nokia. Despite the company having been founded in Nokia, the headquarters were moved to Espoo, the main factories are in Salo, both nearly 200 kilometres south of Nokia; the only current presence of the company in the city is the Nokia mansion, sometimes used for private parties for the company's executive staff. The city has been asked to commemorate the company it gave birth to, but it has always declined, on the grounds that mobile phones were never produced there. Nokia does have design facilities 15 kilometers away in nearby Tampere. Today's Nokia is famous for its spa, factory shops and events. Nokia enjoys good road and air connections. From a religious perspective, Nokia is best known for the charismatic Nokia Revival which began in 1990.
Nokia is known for it's own fast food cuisine, Kuuma koira. Tapio Rautavaara – athlete, actor Kari Peitsamo – musician Anssi Salmela – ice hockey player Juuso Välimäki – ice hockey player Nokia is twinned with: Blönduós, Iceland Moss, Norway Karlstad, Sweden Horsens, Denmark Oryol, Russia Sillamäe, Estonia Sárospatak, Hungary Nokia railway station Nokia water crisis Town of Nokia – Official Website Nokia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Football in Norway
Football is the most popular sport in Norway in terms of active membership. The Football Association of Norway was founded in 1902 and the first international match was played in 1908. There are about 25,000 teams. There are 393,801 registered football players, which means that 8.5% of the population play organized football. The first football team in Norway was started by a buekorps in Bergen, Nygaards Bataljon, in 1883. In 1885 the first Norwegian club however, Idrætsforeningen Odd, was founded in Skien; the footballing interest was low, was put on ice after a few months. However, the club Odd Grenland started up with football again in 1894, are now Norway’s oldest football club; the Football Association of Norway, was founded in 1902, established a cup competition. After the NFF joined FIFA in 1908, Norway had its first international match, away against Sweden in Gothenburg. In 1911 Norway hosted its first international in Oslo, again against Sweden. In 1912 the Norwegian national football team attended the Olympic Games, were knocked out after losing to Denmark and Austria 7-0 and 1-0 respectively.
The NFF hosted the FIFA congress in Oslo in 1914, where a national league was established with six teams competed for the title Drafn, Kvik/Halden, Larvik Turn and Odd. Drafn from Drammen went on to be the first league winners; the Norwegian national men’s team won their only medal at an international championship in 1936 at the Germany Olympic Games. In the successful tournament Norway beat Turkey and hosts Germany 4-0 and 2-0 losing to Italy in the semi-final beating Poland 3-2 in the third-place play-off to take the bronze medal; the team is known in Norway as "Bronselaget" meaning the Bronze team. Norways football team won 2-1 to Brazil in 1998; the current national league system administered by the football association is organised as, from 2017 season, 1-1-2-6, where Eliteserien is the highest Norwegian level and OBOS-ligaen the second highest, followed by two third level and six fourth level. The national cup is the oldest football tournament in the country. Norwegian football began to have regular seasons from 1937, when Norgesserien startet with the inaguaral 1937–38 season.
Before that and leagues were played irregularly. In 1963, Norwegian football changed from autumn-spring to spring-autumn seasons; the league football was suspended during the World War II. The following teams have qualified for elimination rounds in the UEFA Champions League. Rosenborg BK Molde FK Rosenborg played in the Champions League on 10 further occasions. List of Norwegian football league champions List of football stadiums in Norway
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Ilves Tampere is a Finnish football club, based in Tampere. In the 2018 season they play in the highest level in Finland, they play most of their domestic league games at the Tammela Stadium, with European matches and some domestic games played at the Ratina Stadium. In 1974 Ilves-Kissat Tampere and TaPa Tampere merged with Ilves, the club took Ilves-Kissat's place in the Mestaruussarja. Ilves won the Finnish league championship in 1983 and the Finnish Cup in 1979 and 1990. In the late 1990's, Ilves suffered financial trouble and its professional team was reformed into Tampere United before the 1999 season; the initial plan was to join Ilves with TPV. As a result, Tampere United inherited Ilves' place in the second highest division, Ilves continued to play in lower divisions, although they did not have a men's team from 1999 to 2007. Ilves was promoted to Ykkönen for the 2013 season. Two years they got promoted to the highest league after MyPa lost their place. Finnish champion: 1983 Finnish Cup winner: 1979, 1990 As of 3 April 2018.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 20 June 2018. As of 12 April 2017 Matti Paatelainen Valeri Popovitch Mika Malinen Keith Armstrong Jarkko Wiss Official club home page
Rosenborg Ballklub referred to as Rosenborg or RBK, is a Norwegian professional football club from Trondheim that plays in the Eliteserien. The club have won a record 26 league titles, twelve Norwegian Football Cup titles and have played more UEFA matches than any other Norwegian team. RBK play their home games at the all-seater Lerkendal Stadion which has a capacity of 21,421. Eirik Horneland was appointed head coach in January 2019; the club was founded as Odd in 1917 but were not allowed to play amateur league matches until 1928, when they took the present name. They reached the League of Norway in 1937–38, but were relegated to lower divisions during the 1940s; the club moved to Lerkendal in 1957 and their first title was the 1960 Cup, resulting in their first participation in a UEFA tournament. It was not until the 1960s. In 1967 RBK was promoted to the top league where they, except for the 1978 season, have remained since, they won three league titles between 1967 and 1971. The club's golden era started with the 1985 league title.
From 1991 through 2004 the team won 10 under manager Nils Arne Eggen. During this period, they participated in the group stage of Champions League 11 times, reaching the quarter-finals in 1996–97. On 19 May 1917, 12 young men from Rosenborg in Trondheim founded Sportsklubben Odd; the name Odd was a tribute to Odd of Skien, the most successful team in Norway at the time. Odd spent their first few years playing against other local teams before attempting to join the regional series in 1920; as with most of the "buddy" clubs formed at the time, they were denied access. Since many of these players played for the bigger teams, the authorities feared a possible shortage of players if too many small clubs were let in; as the years went by, disillusioned players began leaving the club, in 1923 the first team played only a single match. By 1926, management of the club had passed on to a new generation of members, it was through their efforts that Odd were admitted into the regional series in 1927, ten years after the club was founded.
A year they were set for entry into the Football Association of Norway, but their entry was blocked as the association refused to have two member clubs with the same name. The club therefore took on its current name, Rosenborg Ballklub, on 26 October 1928. Rosenborg is a residential area in Trondheim. Rosenborg enjoyed little success at first, moving between the lower divisions of the regional series, yet their performance was improving and in 1931 the team qualified for the highest level, one year they played in the Norwegian Cup for the first time. It was at this time that Rosenborg started planning for a new home ground at Lerkendal, although this project was not completed until after World War II. Rosenborg's youth team has been one of the best in the country since the club was founded and an talented generation of youth players during the 1950s would grow up to form the basis for the first team's success in the 1960s and onwards. In 1960 Rosenborg progressed all the way to the cup final where they faced Odd, the team from which they had adopted their original name and colours from in 1917.
It took a rematch to decide the winner. Rosenborg won the cup again in 1964. Rosenborg was promoted from the regional league to group A of the main Norwegian league in 1960; the following season the two groups of the top flight were combined into a single league of 16 teams with the teams finishing in the bottom half being relegated to the 2nd division. Rosenborg finished as number 9 out of the 16 teams and was relegated to the new 2nd division where they played from 1963 until they won promotion by winning group B in 1966. In 1967 Rosenborg was promoted to the highest level in Norwegian football, the Main League for the first time; this would prove to be a successful year for the club. Led on by such players as Harald Sunde, Nils Arne Eggen, the talented young forward Odd Iversen, Rosenborg won their first league title. Iversen scored 17 goals in 18 matches that year, would go on to score a massive 30 goals in the following season, although he alone could not prevent Rosenborg from being beaten to the title by Lyn.
By the end of the 1960s it was clear that Rosenborg had emerged as one of Norway's leading football clubs. The 1960s saw Rosenborg venture onto the European stage for the first time; as winners of the cup in 1964, the club debuted in the Cup Winners' Cup the following year. Three years Rosenborg entered the European Cup as winners of the league. Rosenborg hired Englishman George Curtis as coach ahead of the 1969 season. Curtis introduced the new 4–4–2 formation and shifted focus towards tactics and organization rather than all-out attacking football; this move worked well to begin with. However, when both Odd Iversen and Harald Sunde left the club, Rosenborg stopped scoring goals and failed to win again in 1970. Curtis was criticized for being too defensively minded and was replaced by retired player Nils Arne Eggen, who reverted to a more crowd-pleasing style of play. Eggen's first of five tenures as coach was a resounding success; the double-win in 1971 marked the end of the club's first golden age.
Rosenborg began to struggle in the league. A flurry of coaches came and went without making an impact and in 1977 the team won only one match the entire season, finishing dead last. Nils Arne Eggen was called in for
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b