Bhagwant Mann is an Indian politician. In May 2014, he became the MP for Punjab, he is a professional comedian who performs skits in the Punjabi language. Mann was born in Satoj village, Sangrur district, India. Mann participated in inter-college competitions, he won two gold medals at a competition at the Punjabi University, Patiala for the Shaheed Udham Singh Government College, Sunam. Mann developed comedy routines about typical Indian issues such as politics and sport, his first comedy album was with Jagtar Jaggi. Together, they made. Ten years they parted ways. Mann formed a comedy partnership with Rana Ranbir. Together, they made Jugnu Mast Mast for Alpha ETC Punjabi. In 2006, Mann and Jaggi toured Canada and England with their show, No Life With Wife. In 2008, Mann competed in the Great Indian Laughter Challenge on Star Plus which increased his audience. Mann acted in Manjit Mann's film Sukhmani. In early 2011, Mann joined the People's Party of Punjab. In 2012, he unsuccessfully contested elections in the Lehragaga constituency.
In March 2014, Mann joined the Aam Aadmi Party to contest elections in the Sangrur Lok Sabha constituency. He won by 200,000 votes, he was the convener of AAP Punjab but resigned after Arvind Kejriwal tendered an unconditional apology to Bikaramjeet Majithia over drug mafia case. In 2017, he contested elections in Jalalabad against Ravneet Singh Bittu, he lost the elections to Badal by 18,500 votes. Mann began a non-government organisation, the "Lok Lehar Foundation" to aid children with physical deformities as a result of pollution of groundwater in the border areas of Punjab. Punjab Legislative Assembly election, 2017
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
2014 Indian general election
The Indian general election, 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies. Running in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014, it was the longest election in the country's history. According to the Election Commission of India, 814.5 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 100 million voters since the last general election in 2009, making it the largest election in the world. Around 23.1 million or 2.7% of the total eligible voters were aged 18–19 years. A total of 8,251 candidates contested for the 543 Lok Sabha seats; the average election turnout over all nine phases was around 66.40%, the highest in the history of Indian general elections. The results were declared on 16 May 2014, 15 days before the 15th Lok Sabha completed its constitutional mandate on 31 May 2014; the counting exercise was held at 989 counting centres. The National Democratic Alliance won a sweeping victory; the BJP won 31.0% votes, the lowest share for a party to form a majority government in India since independence, while NDA's combined vote share was 38.5%.
BJP and its allies won the right to form the largest majority government since the 1984 general election, it was the first time since that election that a party has won enough seats to govern without the support of other parties. The United Progressive Alliance, led by the Indian National Congress, won 59 seats, 44 of which were won by the Congress, that won 19.3% of all votes. It was the Congress party's worst defeat in a general election. In order to become the official opposition party in India, a party must gain 10% of the seats in the Lok Sabha. Due to this fact, India remains without an official opposition party; as per the requirements of the Indian Constitution, elections to the Lok Sabha must be held at an interval of five years or whenever parliament is dissolved by the president. The previous election, to the 15th Lok Sabha, was conducted in April–May 2009, its term would have expired on 31 May 2014; the election to the 16th Lok Sabha was organised and conducted by the Election Commission of India and was held in multiple phases, to better handle the large electoral base and security concerns.
Since the last general election in 2009, the anti-corruption movement by Anna Hazare, other similar moves by Baba Ramdev and Arvind Kejriwal, gathered momentum and political interest. Kejriwal went on to form a separate political party, Aam Aadmi Party, in November 2012; the 2012 presidential election resulted in Pranab Mukherjee of Indian National Congress becoming the president. Andhra politics was further shaken following the death of its chief minister, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, his son, Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy broke from the INC and founded the YSR Congress Party, taking several politicians with him; the final session of parliament ended on 21 February. Amongst the agenda in the final session was passing The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2013 in tackling corruption and the creation of Telangana; the Cabinet of India revised the limit of election expenditure by a candidate for parliamentary constituencies to ₹7 million in bigger states and to ₹5.4 million in smaller states and all union territories except Delhi.
This revision of the ceiling on the elections were attributed to the increase in the number of electors and polling stations as well as the increase in the cost inflation index. Satyendra Singh, a doctor with a disability, showed the lack of preparedness by the Election Commission of India towards electors with disabilities through the Right to Information Act; the Chief Electoral Officer in Delhi, Vijay Dev started a campaign on providing accessibility for the disabled, along with him. Singh conducted sensitisation workshops for election officers and helped in setting up a registration link for voters with disabilities to register to vote and provide their requirements; the Chief Election Commissioner of India, V. S. Sampath, announced the polling schedule on 5 March. Voting was scheduled to be held in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May, the results of the election were announced on 16 May. Simultaneous elections were held for the Vidhan Sabhas of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim.
Important issues during the campaign included high inflation, lack of jobs, economic slow down, corruption and terrorism, religious division and communalism, infrastructure such as roads and water. In another survey by Zee News for about 14% of people, corruption is the main issue in the election. Bloomberg highlighted India's slowing economy amidst a record high current account deficit and a falling rupee in summer 2013, it pointed out a lack of infrastructure investment and a government likely to give subsidies that the national finances cannot afford just before the election. Other points it mentioned were an inefficient bureaucracy; the economy was the main issue in the campaign. The lack of a clear mandate as a result of the election could lead to an increase in the price of gold in the country. Modi brought up the issue of farmer suicides that resulted from high debt and poor yield on their crops. Former Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha criticised the incumbent Chidambaram in saying that he had a "habit that he will get a strong economy, he will ruin it before he leaves...
Shri Chidambaram will be remembered in history as a spoiler, as someone who specialises in sub-five per cent growth rate, for his hubris, arrogance". During the UPA-2 government, a number of scams came to public attention, deteriorating the image of
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire. Congress is a secular party whose social democratic platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and marginalised people; the party endorses social democracy—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings. Its constitution states democractic socialism to be its ideal.
After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, many regional state governments. Congress became India's dominant political party. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, the most recent Manmohan Singh. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party. In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of Congress with several regional parties, formed the Indian government led by Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister as the head of the coalition government; the leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of December 2018, the party is in power in six legislative assemblies: Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the union territory of Puducherry.
The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil Service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta, its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona the following December was issued. Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay. Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of Congress. Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta of the Bombay Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
This small elite group, unrepresentative of the Indian masses at the time, functioned more as a stage for elite Indian ambitions than a political party for the first decade of its existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, the new extremists who advocated agitation, regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists. Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886 and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons.
Congress included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favouring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, he became the leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjee during the partition of Bengal in 1905, the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon, he formed an alliance wit
1984 anti-Sikh riots
The 1984 anti-Sikh riots known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards. The ruling party, Indian National Congress had been in active complicity with the mob, as to the organisation of the riots. Independent sources estimate the number of deaths at about 8,000–17,000 whilst government estimates project that about 2,800 Sikhs were killed in Delhi. Violence continued in the early 1980s due to the armed Sikh separatist Khalistan movement which sought independence from India. In July 1982, the Sikh political party Akali Dal's President Harchand Singh Longowal had invited Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to take up residence in Golden Temple Complex to evade arrest. Bhindranwale on made the sacred temple complex an armoury and headquarters. In the violent events leading up to the Operation Blue Star since the inception of Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha, the militants had killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris 39 Sikhs opposed to Bhindranwale were killed.
The total number of deaths was 410 in violent riots while 1,180 people were injured. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed militants from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab. Bhindranwale died and militants were removed from the temple complex; the military action in the temple complex was criticized by Sikhs worldwide who had interpreted it as an assault on Sikh religion. Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated in vengeance by her two Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh. Public outcry over Gandhi's death led to the killings of Sikhs in the ensuing riots. In the aftermath of the riots, the government reported; the most-affected regions were the Sikh neighbourhoods of Delhi. Human rights organisations and newspapers across India believed; the collusion of political officials in the violence and judicial failure to penalise the perpetrators alienated Sikhs and increased support for the Khalistan movement.
The Akal Takht, Sikhism's governing body, considers the killings genocide. In 2011, Human Rights Watch reported that the Government of India had "yet to prosecute those responsible for the mass killings". According to the 2011 WikiLeaks cable leaks, the United States was convinced of Indian National Congress' complicity in the riots and called it "opportunism" and "hatred" by the Congress government, of Sikhs. Although the U. S. has not identified the riots as genocide, it acknowledged that "grave human rights violations" occurred. In 2011, a new group of mass graves was discovered in Haryana and Human Rights Watch reported that "widespread anti-Sikh attacks in Haryana were part of broader revenge attacks" in India; the Central Bureau of Investigation, the main Indian investigative agency, believes that the violence was organised with support from the Delhi police and some central-government officials. In 1972 Punjab state elections, Congress won and Akali Dal was defeated. In 1973 Akali Dal put forward the Anandpur Sahib Resolution to demand more autonomy to Punjab.
It demanded that power be devoluted from the Central to state governments. The Congress government rejected it. Bhindranwale joined the Akali Dal to launch the Dharam Yudh Morcha in 1982, to implement Anandpur Sahib resolution. Bhindranwale had risen to prominence in the Sikh political circle with his policy of getting the Anandpur Resolution passed, failing which he wanted to declare a separate country of Khalistan as a homeland for Sikhs. Others demanded an autonomous state based on the Anandpur Sahib Resolution. Many Sikhs condemned the militants' actions. Bhindranwale symbolized the revivalist and terrorist movement in the 1980s in Punjab, he is credited with launching the Sikh militancy in Punjab. Under Bhindranwale, the number of people initiated into the Khalsa increased, he increased the level of rhetoric on the perceived "assault" on Sikh values from the Hindu community. Bhindranwale and his followers started carrying firearms at all times. In 1983, to escape arrest, he along with his militant cadre occupied and fortified the Sikh shrine Akal Takht.
By 1983, the situation in Punjab was volatile. In October, Sikh militants shot six Hindu passengers. On the same day, another group killed two officials on a train; the Congress-led central government dismissed the Punjab state government, invoking the president's rule. During the five months before Operation Blue Star, from 1 January to 3 June 1984, 298 people were killed in violent incidents across Punjab. In the five days preceding the operation, 48 people were killed by violence. In the violent events leading up to the Operation Blue Star since the inception of Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha, the militants had killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris 39 Sikhs opposed to Bhindranwale were killed; the total number of deaths was 410 in violent riots while 1,180 people were injured. On 1 June Operation Blue Star was launched to remove him and the armed militants from the Golden Temple complex. On 6 June Bhindranwale died in the operation. Casualty figures for the Army were 249 injured. According to the official estimate presented by the Indian government, 1592 were apprehended and there were 493 combined militant and civilian casualties.
High civilian casualties were attributed to militants using pilgrims trapped inside the temple as human shields. Opera
Palaniappan Chidambaram is an Indian politician and former attorney who serves as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha and served as the Union Minister of Finance of India. He was the Finance Minister starting in May 2004 through 2014, except for a three and a half year stint – beginning November 2008 – as Home Minister, in the wake of the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks. Chidambaram returned as Finance Minister in July 2012, succeeding Pranab Mukherjee, who demitted office to become the President of India. Chidambaram was born to Kandanur L. Ct. L. Palaniappa Chettiar and Lakshmi Achi in Kanadukathan in the Sivaganga District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, his maternal grandfather was Raja Sir Annamalai Chettiar, a wealthy merchant and banker from Chettinad. Chidambaram did his schooling at the Madras Christian College Higher Secondary School he passed the one-year pre University course from Loyola College, Chennai. After graduating with a BSc degree in statistics from the Presidency College, Chennai, he completed his Bachelor of Laws from the Madras Law College and his MBA from Harvard Business School in the class of 1968.
He holds a master's degree from Loyola College in Chennai. During this time his politics inclined to the left and in 1969 he joined N. Ram editor of The Hindu, the women's activist Mythili Sivaraman in starting a journal called the Radical Review. Chidambaram has one sister, his father's business interests covered textiles and plantations in India. He stayed away from the family business, he enrolled as a lawyer in the Madras High Court, becoming a senior advocate in 1984. He had offices in Delhi and Chennai and practiced in the Supreme Court and various high courts of India. Chidambaram was elected to the Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament from the Sivaganga constituency of Tamil Nadu in general elections held in 1984, he worked his way up in the Congress party. He was the Tamil Nadu Youth Congress president and the general secretary of the Tamil Nadu Pradesh Congress Committee unit, he was inducted into the Union Council of Ministers in the government headed by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi on 21 September 1985 as a Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Commerce and in the Ministry of Personnel.
His main actions during his tenure in this period was to control the price of tea and he has been criticized by the Government of Sri Lanka for destroying the Sri Lankan tea trade by fixing the prices of the commodity in India using state power. He was elevated to the rank of Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions in January 1986. In October of the same year, he was appointed to the Ministry of Home Affairs as Minister of State for Internal Security, he continued to hold both offices until general elections were called in 1989. The Indian National Congress government was defeated in the general elections of 1989. In June 1991, Chidambaram was inducted as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Commerce, by the Prime Minister Mr P V Narasimha Rao, he was re-appointed Minister of State in the Ministry of Commerce in February 1995 and held the post until April 1996. He made some radical changes in India's export-import policy. In 1996, Chidambaram quit the Congress party and joined a breakaway faction of the Tamil Nadu state unit of the Congress party called the Tamil Maanila Congress.
In the general elections held in 1996, TMC along with a few national and regional level opposition parties, formed a coalition government. The coalition government came as a big break for Chidambaram, given the key cabinet portfolio of Finance, his 1997 budget is still remembered as the dream budget for the Indian economy. The coalition government was a short-lived one, but he was reappointed to the same portfolio in the Government formed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2004. In 1998, the Bharatiya Janata Party took the reins of the Government for the first time and it was not until May 2004 that Chidambaram would be back in Government. Chidambaram became Minister of Finance again in the Congress party – Communist Party United Progressive Alliance government on 24 May 2004. During the intervening period Chidambaram made some experiments in his political career, leaving the TMC in 2001 and forming his own party, the Congress Jananayaka Peravai focused on the regional politics of Tamil Nadu.
The party failed to take off into national politics. Just before the elections of 2004, he merged his party with the mainstream Congress party and when the Congress won the election, he was inducted into the Council of Ministers under the new Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as cabinet Minister of Finance. On 30 November 2008, he was appointed the Union Home Minister following the resignation of Shivraj Patil who had come under intense pressure to tender his resignation following a series of terror attacks in India, including the Mumbai attacks on 26 November 2008; the public response to this move was favourable given Chidambaram's reputation for competence and efficiency. He has been credited with taking the bold decision of prioritising elections above corporate demands to deploy security for the 2009 Indian Premier League. In 2009, Chidambaram was re-elected from the Sivaganga Lok Sabha constituency in the Congress and retained the Home ministry, he was one of the representatives of the Central Government when a tri-party agreement was signed with the Gorkha Hill Council and the Government of West Bengal, an agreement, a resu
Arvind Kejriwal is an Indian politician and a former bureaucrat, the current and 7th Chief Minister of Delhi since February 2015. He worked in the Indian Revenue Service as a Joint Commissioner of Income Tax in New Delhi. Kejriwal is a graduate in mechanical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, he is the national convener of the Aam Aadmi Party. He had served as Chief Minister of Delhi from December 2013 to February 2014, stepping down after 49 days, his party won the 2015 Delhi Assembly elections with a majority, obtaining 67 out of 70 assembly seats. In 2006, Kejriwal was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Emergent Leadership in recognition of his involvement in the grassroots level movement Parivartan using right to information legislation in a campaign against corruption; the same year, after resigning from the IRS, he donated his Magsaysay award money as a corpus fund to found the Public Cause Research Foundation, a non-governmental organisation. In 2012, he launched the Aam Aadmi Party.
Following the election, he took office as the Chief Minister of Delhi on 28 December 2013. He resigned 49 days on 14 February 2014, stating he did so because of his minority government's inability to pass his proposed anti-corruption legislation due to a lack of support from other political parties. On 14 February 2015, he was sworn in as Chief Minister for a second term after his party's victory in the Delhi Legislative Assembly election. Arvind Kejriwal was born in an upper middle-class educated family in Siwani, Bhiwani district, Haryana on 16 August 1968, the first of the three children of Gobind Ram Kejriwal and Gita Devi, his father was an electrical engineer who graduated from the Birla Institute of Mesra. Kejriwal spent most of his childhood in north Indian towns such as Sonepat and Hisar, he was educated at Campus School in Hisar and at a Christian missionary Holy Child School at Sonipat. In 1985 he took IIT-JEE exam and scored All India Rank of 563, he graduated from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
He was posted in Jamshedpur. Kejriwal resigned in 1992, having taken leave of absence to study for the Civil Services Examination, he spent some time in Kolkata, where he met Mother Teresa, volunteered with The Missionaries of Charity and at the Ramakrishna Mission in North-East India and at Nehru Yuva Kendra. Arvind Kejriwal joined the IRS as an Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax in 1995 after qualifying through the Civil Services Examination. In November 2000, he was granted two years' paid leave to pursue higher education on condition that upon resuming his work he would not resign from the Service for at least three years. Failure to abide by that condition would require him to repay the salary given during the leave period, he rejoined in November 2002. According to Kejriwal, he was not given any posting for a year, kept getting his salary without doing any work. For the next 18 months, Kejriwal was on sanctioned unpaid leave. In February 2006, he resigned from his position as Joint Commissioner of Income Tax in New Delhi.
The Government of India claimed that Kejriwal had violated his original agreement by not working for three years. Kejriwal said that his 18 months of work and 18 months of unpaid absence amounted to the stipulated three-year period during which he could not resign and that this was an attempt to malign him due to his involvement with the Indian anti-corruption movement; the dispute ran for several years until, in 2011, it was resolved when he paid his way out of the Service with the help of loans from friends. Kejriwal paid ₹ 927,787 as dues, but stated that this should not be considered as an admission of fault. After joining politics, Kejriwal claimed in 2013 that he had chosen public service over earning crores as an Income Tax Commissioner; this led to a controversy, with the IRS association pointing out that he has never been promoted to the rank of Commissioner of Income Tax. In December 1999, while still in service with the Income Tax Department, Manish Sisodia and others found a movement named Parivartan, in the Sundar Nagar area of Delhi.
A month in January 2000, Kejriwal took a sabbatical from work to focus on Parivartan. Parivartan addressed citizens' grievances related to Public Distribution System, public works, social welfare schemes, income tax and electricity, it was not a registered NGO - it ran on individual donations, was characterised as a jan andolan by its members. In 2005, Kejriwal and Manish Sisodia launched Kabir, a registered NGO named after the medieval philosopher Kabir. Like Parivartan, Kabir was focused on RTI and participatory governance. However, unlike Parivartan, it accepted institutional donations. According to Kejriwal, Kabir was run by Sisodia. In 2000, Parivartan filed a public interest litigation demanding transparency in public dealings of the Income Tax department, organised a satyagraha outside the Chief Commissioner's office. Kejriwal and other activists stationed themselves outside the electricity department, asking visitors not to pay bribes and offered to help them in getting work done for free.
In 2001, the Delhi government enacted a state-level Right To Information Act, which allowed the citizens to access government records for a small fee. Parivartan used RTI to help people get their work done in government departments without paying a bribe. In 2002, the group obtained official reports on 68 public works projects in the area, performed a community-led audit to expose misappropriati