Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
Morocco national football team
The Morocco national football team, nicknamed "Atlas Lions", is the national team of Morocco. It is managed by Hervé Renard. Winners of the African Nations Cup in 1976, they were the first African team to win a group at the World Cup, which they did in 1986, finishing ahead of Portugal and England, they were the first African team to make it to the second round losing to eventual runners-up West Germany 1–0 in 1986. They came within two minutes of moving out of the group stage of the 1998 FIFA World Cup, Kjetil Rekdal's late winning goal for Norway against Brazil eliminating them. Morocco qualified for the 2018 FIFA World Cup; the following players were called up for the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations qualification and friendly match. Match date: 22 & 26 March 2019 Opposition: Malawi & Argentina Caps and goals are correct as of: 26 March 2019, after the match against Argentina; the following players have been called up for the team in the last 12 months. The Moroccan National team traditionally used the Prince Moulay Abdellah Stadium in Rabat and the Stade Mohamed V in Casablanca as their main stadiums, but they've started using the new Stade de Marrakech in Marrakech, Stade Adrar in Agadir, Stade Ibn Batouta in Tangier and Fez Stadium in Fez.
Morocco's national football team has participated five times in the FIFA World Cup. Their best performance was the 1986 edition when they advanced to the second round, being the first African nation to do so. In 1998, the team narrowly missed repeating the same achievement. Africa Cup of NationsWinner: 1976 Runners-up: 2004 Third place: 1980Arab Nations CupChampions: 2012African Nations ChampionshipChampions: 2018 Pan Arab Games: 1961, 1985 Mediterranean Games: 1983, 2013 Jeux de la Francophonie: 2001, 2017 Islamic Solidarity Games: 2013 Africa U-20 Cup of Nations: 1997 Arab Cup U-20: 2011 UNAF U-20 Tournament: 2015 UNAF U-17 Tournament: 2007, 2011, 2018 Source: Cultural significance of the Atlas lion Morocco A' national football team Morocco national under-23 football team Morocco national under-20 football team Morocco national under-17 football team Morocco women's national football team Morocco national futsal team Morocco national beach soccer team Official website of Morocco's FA FIFA profile RSSSF archive of results
Počátky is a town in the Czech Republic. The name means starts in Czech. Municipal website
Panionios G. S. S. Football Club (Greek: ΠΑΕ Πανιώνιος Γ.Σ.Σ. The Pan-Ionian Gymnastics Club of Smyrna, but more known as Panionios F. C. or Panionios, is a Greek association football club based in Nea Smyrni, Athens. Part of Panionios G. S. S. Panionios F. C. is the oldest Greek football club. In the wake of the Greco-Turkish War and the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, the multi-sport club Panionios G. S. S. was transferred to Athens. They have won two Greek Cups, while they were runners-up in the Greek Championship during the 1950–51 and 1970–71 seasons, they have won the 1971 Balkans Cup and reached the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1998–99 season. The team competes in the Super League Greece, they play their home games in Nea Smyrni Stadium with a capacity of 11,700 seats. The club was founded in 1890 by a part of the sizeable Greek population of Smyrna, under the name of "Orpheus Music and Sports Club". In 1893, some Orpheus members keen on sports formed a separate organization, the "Gymnasion Club", started holding yearly sports competitions.
In 1898, Orpheus and Gymnasion merged again to form Panionios GSS. Members of Panionios represented Greece in all international track and field games until these developed in the modern Olympic Games. After the Greek military defeat in 1922 the club was forced to transfer, firstly to Athens and to the Athenian suburb of New Smyrna, where much of the population of Smyrna re-settled; the club aleays had a strong tradition of cultivating all major sports. Another major example of the club's contribution to Greek sports rests in the fact that it was Panionios that introduced Basketball and Volleyball in Greek sports society. With the gradual transformation of men's football and basketball into professional sports, Panionios FC and Panionios BC became owned clubs operating under the auspices of the traditional "amateur sports" Panionios GSS. To date, Panionios remains the only sports club in Greece, awarded the Golden Cross from the Athens Academy as a recognition of the club's rich and continuous enrichment of Greek sports.
Panionios has spent nearly its entire history in the Greek First Division, having missed out from competing in Greek football's top division only twice in its more than 100-year history. Within this, Panionios rose quite to high levels, with top achievement in terms of the league being the 2nd position that the club reached in 1971, losing the title from AEK Athens. After 8 years on June 9, 1979, Panionios took his revenge back from AEK Athens in the final of the Greek Cup and conquering the title for the first time in his history after winning 3–1. Panionios has produced all three major Greek strikers of the 1980s, namely Nikos Anastopoulos, Thomas Mavros, Dimitris Saravakos. Other notable players coming out of the club in the 1990s include Nikos Tsiantakis and Takis Fyssas of Panathinaikos and member of Greek national team. Within the 2000s another five Greek national team players came out from the club, namely Alexandros Tziolis, Evangelos Mantzios, Nikos Spiropoulos, Grigoris Makos and Giannis Maniatis.
The club had faced financial difficulties which triggered the transfer of the ownership to the municipality of Nea Smyrni in 1992. Those difficulties remained all through the 1990s forcing the team's league performance to drop. Yet, it remained in a high level and won the Greek Football Cup competition in 1998 and participate in the UEFA Cup Winners Cup the year after, reaching the quarter-finals. In December 2001 large part of the club's shares moved away from the Municipality back to private hands, where working around bankruptcy legislation the club was renamed to Neos Panionios FC, to avoid the threat of relegation from the first division. In 2004, shipowner Constantinos Tsakiris was elected president of the "amateur sports" Panionios GSS. Panionios won the women's Basketball Championship in 2006, the club's first in a team sport, the women's volleyball team advanced to the first division. In 2006, Tsakiris acquired 85% of Neos Panionios FC stock and started restructuring the team from scratch.
He changed the name of the club back to the original Panionios GSS FC and hired German coach Ewald Lienen who, during his first year created a team that made it to the top 5 of the Greek Super League and on to the UEFA Cup. Tsakiris has unveiled an ambitious plan to have the aging football ground and athletics track demolished, build a modern multi-sport arena in its place. Apart from a 12,000 capacity football stadium, the proposed complex would include facilities for basketball, aquatic sports, track & field, gymnastics and more. On the summer transfer window of 2008, the club signed Uruguay national team members Álvaro Recoba and Fabián Estoyanoff, but shortly after Lienen resigned by mutual consent on November 11, 2008, reason being disagreement with the Panionios' board. On November 12, 2008 Greek coach Takis Lemonis was hired and resigned on December 3, 2008 after the refuse of Panionios' board to accept Lemonis' request to dismiss three members of Panionio's coaching and management staff.
Assistant coach Joti Stamatopoulos lead the club until the end of the season. He was replaced by Belgian manager Emilio Ferrera. Under the Tsakiris presidency, the club built its own training facility just outside Athens in the region of Koropi; the training ground is operating since 2008 but
Hamburger Sport-Verein e. V. known as Hamburger SV, Hamburg or HSV, is a German sport club based in Hamburg, its largest branch being its football department. Although the current HSV was founded in June 1919 from a merger of three earlier clubs, it traces its origin to 29 September 1887 when the first of the predecessors, SC Germania, was founded. HSV's football team had the distinction of being the only team that had played continuously in the top tier of the German football league system since the founding of the club at the end of World War I, it was the only team that played in every season of the Bundesliga since its foundation in 1963, until 2018 when the team were relegated for the first time in history. HSV has won the German national championship six times, the DFB-Pokal three times and the League Cup twice; the team's most successful period was from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s when, in addition to several domestic honours, they won the 1976–77 European Cup Winners' Cup and the 1982–83 European Cup.
The outstanding players of this period were Horst Hrubesch, Manfred Kaltz, Felix Magath, all of whom were regulars in the German National Team. To date, HSV's last major trophy was the 1986–87 DFB-Pokal. HSV play their home games at the Volksparkstadion in a western district of Hamburg; the club colours are blue and black but the home kit of the team is white jerseys and red shorts. The team's most common nickname is "die Rothosen"; as it is one of Germany's oldest clubs, it is known as der Dinosaurier. HSV have rivalries with Werder Bremen, with whom they contest the Nordderby, Hamburg-based FC St. Pauli, whom they contest the Hamburg derby. HSV is notable in football as a grassroots organisation with youth development a strong theme; the club had a team in the Women's Bundesliga from 2003 to 2012 but it was demoted to Regionalliga level because of financial problems. Other club departments include badminton, basketball, boxing, darts, golf, gymnastics and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation exercises.
These departments represent about 10% of the club membership. HSV is one of the biggest sports clubs in Germany with over 84,000 members in all its departments and stated by Forbes to be among the 20-largest football clubs in the world. Hamburger Sport-Verein traces its origin to the merger of Der Hohenfelder Sportclub and Wandsbek-Marienthaler Sportclub on 29 September 1887 to form Sport-Club Germania Hamburg referred to as SC Germania; this was the first of three clubs. HSV in its club statute recognises the founding of SC Germania as its own date of origin; the other two clubs in the June 1919 merger were Hamburger FC founded in 1888 and FC Falke Eppendorf dating back to 1906. The merger came about because the three clubs had been weakened by the impact of the First World War on manpower and finance and they could not continue as separate entities. SC Germania was formed as an athletics club and did not begin to play football until 1891, when some Englishmen joined the club and introduced it.
SC Germania had its first success in 1896, winning the Hamburg-Altona championship for the first of five times. Germania player Hans Nobiling emigrated to Brazil at the end of the 19th century, where he became an important pioneer of the game, instrumental in the foundation of SC Internacional, the third oldest club of the country which became part of São Paulo FC, one of the major sports clubs of Brazil, in 1938 and SC Germânia of São Paulo, which became EC Pinheiros. Hamburger SC 1888 was founded by students on 1 June 1888, it had links with a youth team called FC Viktoria 95 and, during World War I, was temporarily known as Viktoria Hamburg 88. SC Germania and Hamburger SC 1888 were among 86 clubs who founded the Deutscher Fußball-Bund in Leipzig on 28 January 1900. FC Falke was founded by students in Eppendorf on 5 March 1906 but it was never a successful team and played in lower leagues; the newly formed Hamburger SV became competitive and contested the 1922 national final against 1. FC Nürnberg, who were playing for their third consecutive title.
The game was called off on account of darkness after three hours and ten minutes of play, drawn at 2–2. The re-match went into extra time, in an era that did not allow for substitutions, that game was called off at 2–2 when Nuremberg were reduced to just seven players and the referee ruled they could not continue. Considerable wrangling ensued over the decision; the DFB urged them to refuse the title in the name of good sportsmanship. The Viktoria trophy was not presented that year. HSV's first unqualified success was achieved in the 1923 German football championship when they won the national title against Union Oberschöneweide, they failed to defend the title in 1924, losing the final to Nuremberg, but lifted the Viktoria again in 1928 when they defeated Hertha BSC 5–2 at the Altonaer Stadion in the final. During the Third Reich, HSV enjoyed local success in the Gauliga Nordmark known as the Gauliga Hamburg, winning the league championship in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941 and 1945. At national level the club was unsuccessful with semi-final losses in 1938 and 1939 their best performances in this period.
Its main rival in the Gauliga in those years was Eimsbütteler TV. HSV's first post-war season was in the newly formed Stadtliga Hamburg and they won its championship in 1946; the club won the championship of the British occupation zone in 1947 and 1948, the only two seasons this com
Czech Republic national under-21 football team
The Czech Republic national under-21 football team is the national under-21 association football team of the Czech Republic and is controlled by the Football Association of the Czech Republic. The team competes in the UEFA European Under-21 Championship, held every two years. Although the breakup of Czechoslovakia occurred on 1 January 1993, the under-21 team continued until the end of the 1994 championship. After that, the Czech Republic and the Slovakia under-21s became separate footballing entities. For both nations, first matches were played in September 1994 in qualification for the 1996 championship; the Czech Republic under-21 team reached the quarter-finals in 1996, but failed to qualify for 1998. The team reached the final in both 2002 tournaments, winning the latter on penalties. Subsequently, the team failed to qualify for the tournaments in 2004 and 2006, they finished last in the group stage. They once again failed to qualify for the 2009 competition. In the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Championship, they placed fourth.
*Draws include knockout matches decided by penalty shootout. In addition to team victories, Czech players have won individual awards at the UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship. Players born in on or after 1 January 1994 are eligible for the next UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship; the following players were named in the squad the game against Latvia U21 and Malta U21 on 22 March 2016. Caps and goals updated as of 29 March 2016; the following players have been called up to the Czech Republic under-21 squad and remain eligible: Note: Names in italics denote players that have been capped for the Senior team. 2017 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 2007 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 2002 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 2000 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic 1996 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship squads – Czech Republic Note: Those players in bold are still eligible to play for the team at the moment.
Statistics up to and including Czech Republic vs Germany, 18 November 2014. Note: Club represents the permanent clubs during the player's time in the Under-21s; those players in bold are still eligible to play for the team at the moment. Statistics up to and including Czech Republic vs Andorra, 5 June 2012. Czech Republic national football team Czech Republic national under-19 football team Czech Republic national under-18 football team Czech Republic national under-17 football team UEFA Under-21 website Contains full results archive Czech Republic Under-21s at uefa.com Official ČMFS Czech Republic Under-21 website Contains listings and statistics of current and past Czech Republic U-21 players. The Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation Contains full record of U-21 Championships
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi