Liberec Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the northernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. It is named after its capital Liberec; the region shares international borders with Poland. Domestically the region borders the Ústí nad Labem Region to the west, the Central Bohemian Region to the south and the Hradec Králové Region to the east; the Liberec Region is divided into 4 districts: At a lower level, the region has 215 municipalities, comprising 65 in the Semily District, 59 in the Jablonec nad Nisou District, 57 in the Česká Lípa District and 34 in the Liberec District. The largest cities in Liberec region include: Liberec, capital Česká Lípa Chrastava Frýdlant Jablonec nad Nisou Semily Turnov The region's landscape includes the Jizera Mountains, part of the Krkonoše Mountains and part of the Lusatian Mountains; the region was affected by flash floods in August 2010, with swelling of the river Smědá being one of the factors to prompt evacuation efforts in the region.
As of 1 January 2012, the population of the Liberec Region was 438,600 with 214,983 men and 223,617 women, accounting for 49.0% and 51.0% of the population respectively. The Liberec Region hosts manufacturing, mechanical engineering and jewellery production industries among others; the region is part of the so-called Black Triangle, an area of heavy industrialization and environmental damage on the three-way border of Poland and the Czech Republic. The Liberec Region is home to 11 national cultural monuments including Bezděz Castle, Dlaskův statek in Dolánky u Turnova and the Ještěd Tower which transmits television signals as well as being a hotel. 2013 saw the proposal of an additional two sites to the list, those being a glass grinding plant in Harrachov dating from 1895 and the Janatův Mlýn watermill in Buřany, Jablonec nad Jizerou part of which remains from 1767. A Neolithic site dating to around 4,500 BC was uncovered in 2007 near the village of Příšovice. Lake Mácha near the town of Doksy is an important regional centre for leisure, attracting around 30,000 visitors annually.
The vicinity of the lake has a caravan park and hosts an annual music festival called Mácháč, attended by 8,000 people in 2013. Since the region was for a long time part of the Holy Roman Empire, of Germany, the local buildings and the culture in general have been influenced by the Germans considering the fact that parts of the region were populated by a majority of Germans, prior to World War II; the region is linked to Prague by the R10 expressway. The length of operated railway lines in the region is 551 km. Three airports are in the region. Other minor airports exist in Hodkovice nad Mohelkou; the region is home to the public Technical University of Liberec, founded in 1953. The university, which specialised in Mechanical and Textile Engineering, added a further four faculties in the 1990s, namely those specialising in Education, Economy and Mechatronics. Official website
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
Jičín is a town in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. It lies 85 km northeast of Prague in the scenic region of the Bohemian Paradise under the Prachov Rocks. Jičín has been declared a Municipal Reserve because of its well-preserved historical center, built around a rectangular square with a regular Gothic street layout, remnants of fortifications and arcade Renaissance and Baroque houses; the town is connected with the popular fairy-tale character of Rumcajs. The Battle of Gitschin was fought nearby during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866; the surrounding countryside was settled by Slavic tribes at the beginning of the 6th century. The town of Jičín was founded at the end of the 12th century, in the place of today's village of Staré Místo, under the castle of Veliš, it was moved two km northward to its present location shortly afterward, better protected by the Cidlina River. The first written reference of Jičín comes from a document by the wife of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, Queen Guta, dated August 1, 1293.
It is believed. The town was built with a regular street layout around a rectangular square and was surrounded by wooden fortifications with reinforced bastions and a trench. Jičín was first property of the king, but during most of the 14th century and at the beginning of the 15th century it belonged to the House of Vartenberk; when the town was founded two churches were built, a wooden parish church at the southwestern corner of the square and the stone Church of St. James the Great with a cemetery at the southeastern corner; the first was rebuilt in stone into the Parish Church of St. Ignatius at the end of the 14th century. During the 15th century Jičín changed its lords several times until it became a property of the House of Trčka of Lípa. With the succession of Vilém Trčka in 1453, the town began to be rebuilt in stone; the fortifications were rebuilt as well, with three gates connecting the center with peripheries: the western Prague Gate, the northern Holín Gate, the eastern Valdice Gate, the only one preserved today.
After a large fire in 1572, most of the wooden houses were replaced by stone Renaissance buildings decorated with sgrafitoes. In the second half of the 16th century, a small palace of the House of Trčka was built on the southern side of the square, together with a similar Hetman's house on Lesser Square; the palace was rebuilt by Zikmund Smiřický in 1607, but was badly damaged by a fire after an explosion. The biggest expansion of the town started in 1621 during the Thirty Years' War, when the town became a property of the generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein, who made it the center of his Duchy of Friedland and minted his own coins there. Several architects worked for him, notably G. Marini, A. Spezza, G. Pieroni, since 1630, N. Sebregondi, he had the palace and the Church of St. James rebuilt in the North-Italian style and connected them via a roofed footbridge; the church, intended as a seat of a never-established bishopric, has never been completed, so it lacks a spire and a cupola. The town was to be rebuilt into a modern town with separated representative and craftsman parts.
The letter was placed into the New Town started in 1624 to the north of the central square with the Church of St. Mary de Sale and a new cemetery. Much of these plans remained unfilled due to the early death of Wallenstein in 1634, after which the town lost much of its importance; the parish Church of St. Ignatius together with the college was given to the Jesuits in 1627; the construction of a villa with a loggia was started to the northeast of the center in 1630. There was a Baroque garden in front of a park around, it is connected with the town by a 1.7 km-long alley of linden trees. Near Libosad, in the current village of Valdice, a Carthusian monastery with the Church of Assumption was founded in 1627, it served as the tomb of the house of Wallenstein until 1785. In 1710 the town became a property of the House of Trauttmansdorff, which meant the arrival of the period of High Baroque, during which many constructions were completed. Many statues and sculptures in the town today come from this period.
In 1784 Jičín became the seat of a new region. During the first half of the 19th century the town spread especially eastward; until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the JICIN - JIČIN district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. In the second half of the 19th century, many Neo-Renaissance houses were built. After World War II, during communist rule, many prefabricated apartment complexes sprung up around the town. LB was the latest princess of the kingdom.????–1297 — King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia 1297–1304 — Beneš of Vartenberk 1304–1304 — Lev of Kenecchlumí 1304–1327 — King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia 1327–???? — the House of Vartenberk 1438–1452 — Hašek z Valdštejna 1452–1487 — Jiří and Hynek of Poděbrady 1487–1607 — the House of Trčka of Lípa 1607–???? — Zikmund Smiřický 1621–1634 — Albrecht von Wallenstein????–???? — the House of Tiefenbach????–???? — the House of Sternberg 1710–1848 — the House of Trauttmansdorff Jacob Bassevi, Jewish court financier Albrecht von Wallenstein and town lord Josef Gočár, architect František Kaván, painter and poet Karl Kraus (1
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Kadaň, is a city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. The city lies on the banks of the river Ohře. Although it is situated in an industrial part of the Czech Republic there is no major industry within the city and people work in offices or have to commute. There are two large power plants nearby. Kadaň is a tourist centre with highlights being the Franciscan Monastery and the historical square with late Gothic Town Hall Tower, it is a town with the narrowest lane in the Czech Republic - Katova ulička with only 66.1 cm. There are legends accrediting the beginnings of the town to Celtic tribes. In the 1st century A. D. Germanic tribes moved on in the great Germanic migration to the west. In the 6th century the country was settled by Slavs; some talk about a castle on Úhošť hill that might have been called Wogastisburg where a battle between Franks and Slavs occurred in 631. The battle of Canburg in 805 is often mentioned in connection with the town, but is a mistake because locality of this name is in Middle Bohemia.
The first written record is, though, of the end of the 12th century - the Czech prince granted the "market town" of Kadaň to the Knights of St. John. Slavic rulers called German settlers into the country, offering them freedom but gaining taxes at the same time; the Knights Hospitaller built the first church in Kadaň - St. John the Baptist - which still stands in the part of town called Hospitaller Suburb, but is now in the Baroque style. In the 13th century, the town was promoted to a "Royal City", it began to thrive and a new town was built on the heights above the river, with a castle and Franciscan monastery. There was a big fire in 1362. However, Emperor Charles IV who twice visited the city granted it several municipal rights that made it flourish again; the reign of Wenceslaus IV produced the skilled clockmaker Mikuláš of Kadaň, together with mathematician and astronomer Jan Šindel, designed the Prague Orloj. The 15th century brought a new dimension to the history of Kadaň: the town and castle used to be pledged to royal creditors.
At the end of the rule of George of Poděbrady first the town and the castle was captured by Jan Hasištejnský z Lobkovic, who seemed to see Kadaň as a suitable capital for his dependent territories. The establishment and construction of the monastery of the Franciscans of strict observance, built as a family burial-place and a pardon place of Fourteen Holy Helpers, may reflect his ambitions for the town. Jan Hasištejnský is buried in the Church of Fourteen Holy Helpers, his tomb is still on display in the Church, now part of the municipal museum. The same year saw the beginning of the Reformation in Germany, which had an immediate impact on the atmosphere in German speaking Kadaň. In 1534, "Kadaň religious peace" was negotiated here between Württemberg Protestants and Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor for the Catholic side. In the Thirty Years' War during the next century, Kadaň suffered from fires and plundering by various armies on their way to the battlefields of Bohemia. After the war, the Czech-German town became a monolingual German domain.
During the Silesian Wars Kadaň was a foothold for the withdrawing French army that fortified in the Franciscan monastery and was besieged by Hungarian and Croatian units of the Austrian army. The door of the monastery church still shows the bullet holes from that battle on October 14, 1742; the town caught fire in 1746, providing a great opportunity for Kadaň's "Christopher Wren" - Johann Christoph Kosch. He built many Baroque buildings, including the Church of the Elevation of the Holy Cross, the Church of the Holy Family and the monastery of the Order of St. Elisabeth; the Castle of Kadaň was rebuilt to serve as a barracks in the time of Maria Theresa of Austria. Her son Joseph II visited Kadaň in 1779. Joseph's reforms affected town life; the monastery of Minorites was closed and thereafter became the premises of the first Grammar School under control of the Piarists from 1803 to 1823. 1788 saw the inauguration of the town municipal council. Jakob Marzel Sternberger was its first Mayor and held office until 1822.
His great-grandson Jacob Sternberger emigrated to the United States in 1850 as part of the first wave of European immigrants of that time. The last great fire damaged the town in 1811 and since the historic centre has retained its pattern. After the Revolution of 1848 the letdown town became a district centre; the institute of the district town lasted in Kadaň for 110 years when it was affiliated with Chomutov district. In the second half of the 19th century homeland study activities developed and a number of institutions and societies were established; the national composition of the Kadaň population was explicit - over 90% German and only 3% Czech, with a Jewish community as well. At the start of the 20th century, the "Society of Friends of the Museum in Kaaden" decided to document the towns' history by opening a museum. In the final weeks of World War I, Czechoslovakia was established on 28 October 1918, its Bohemian and Silesian component having been defined by the historic borders of the Czech kingdom.
However, most of the German border population, was not enthusiastic about becoming part of a new republic with a Slavonic definition. Instead, four regional self-governed states emerged along the borderland, according to the right for self determination guaranteed by Woodrow Wilson in no. 10 of his Fourteen Points. Kaaden, declared itself part of German Bohemia. On 4 March 1919, the f
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
Italian Front (World War I)
The Italian Front or Alpine Front was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol. Although Italy had hoped to gain the territories with a surprise offensive, the front soon bogged down into trench warfare, similar to the Western Front fought in France, but at high altitudes and with cold winters. Fighting along the front displaced much of the civilian population, of which several thousand died from malnutrition and illness in Italian and Austrian refugee camps; the Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto, the disintegration of Austria-Hungary and the Italian capture of Trento and Trieste ended the military operations. While being a member of the Triple Alliance which consisted of Italy, Austria-Hungary and Germany, Italy did not declare war in August 1914, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature and therefore Austria-Hungary's aggression did not obligate Italy to take part.
Moreover, Austria-Hungary omitted to consult Italy before sending the ultimatum to Serbia and refused to discuss compensation due according to the art. 7 of the Triple Alliance. Italy had a longstanding rivalry with Austria-Hungary, dating back to the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, which granted several regions on the Italian peninsula to the Austrian Empire. More a radical nationalist political movement, called Unredeemed Italy, founded in the 1880s, started claiming the Italian-inhabited territories of Austria-Hungary in the Austrian Littoral and in the County of Tyrol. By the 1910s, the expansionist ideas of this movement were taken up by a significant part of the Italian political elite; the annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians became the main Italian war goal, assuming a similar function to the issue of Alsace-Lorraine for the French. However, of around 1.5 million people living in those areas, 45% were Italian speakers, while the rest were Slovenes and Croats.
In northern Dalmatia, among the Italian war aims, the Italian-speaking population was only around 5%. In the early stages of the war, Allied diplomats secretly courted Italy, attempting to secure Italian participation on the Allied side. Set up between the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, the Italian Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino and the French Foreign Minister Jules Cambon, Italy's entry was engineered by the Treaty of London of 26 April 1915, in which Italy renounced her obligations to the Triple Alliance. On February 16, 1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, a courier was dispatched in great secrecy to London with the suggestion that Italy was open to a good offer from the Entente; the final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. Salandra began to think that victory for the Entente was in sight, was so anxious not to arrive too late for a share in the profits that he instructed his envoy in London to drop some demands and reach agreement quickly.
The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month. Not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories. On 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. During the Italo-Turkish War in Libya, the Italian military suffered equipment and munition shortages not yet repaired before Italian entry into the Great War. At the opening of the campaign, Austro-Hungarian troops occupied and fortified high ground of the Julian Alps and Karst Plateau, but the Italians outnumbered their opponents three-to-one. An Italian offensive aimed to capture cross the Soča river, take the fortress town of Gorizia, enter the Karst Plateau; this offensive opened the first Battles of the Isonzo. At the beginning of the First Battle of the Isonzo on 23 June 1915, Italian forces outnumbered the Austrians three-to-one but failed to penetrate the strong Austro-Hungarian defensive lines in the highlands of northwestern Gorizia and Gradisca; because the Austrian forces occupied higher ground, Italians conducted difficult offensives while climbing.
The Italian forces therefore failed to drive much beyond the river, the battle ended on 7 July 1915. Despite a professional officer corps under-equipped Italian units lacked morale. Many troops disliked the newly appointed Italian commander, general Luigi Cadorna. Moreover, preexisting equipment and munition shortages slowed progress and frustrated all expectations for a "Napoleonic style" breakout. Like most contemporaneous militaries, the Italian army used horses for transport but struggled and sometimes failed to supply the troops sufficiently in the tough terrain. Two weeks on 18 July 1915, the Italians attempted another frontal assault against the Austro-Hungarian trench lines with more artillery in Second Battle of the Isonzo, despite initial success, the forces of Austria-Hungary beat back this bloody offensive, which concluded in stalemate and exhaustion of weaponry on 3 August 1915; the Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, on 18 October 1915 launched Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack.
Forces of Austria-Hungary again repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains. The Italians again launched another offensive on the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo. Both sides suffered more casualties, but the Austro-Hungarian forces repulsed this Italian offensiv