The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds. It was committed during the Al-Anfal campaign led by Ali Hassan al-Majid against Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War; the campaign's name was from Sura 8 in the Qur'an, used as a code name by the former Iraqi Ba'athist Government for a series of systematic attacks against the Kurdish fighters in northern Iraq between 1986 and 1989, with the peak in 1988. Sweden, South Korea and the United Kingdom recognize the Anfal campaign as genocide; the genocide was part of the destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign. Al-Anfal is chapter, of the Qur ` an, it explains the triumph of 313 followers of the new Muslim faith over 900 pagans at the Battle of Badr in 624 AD. "Al Anfal" means the spoils and was used to describe the military campaign of extermination and looting commanded by Ali Hassan al-Majid. His orders informed jash units that taking cattle, goats, money and Kurdish women was legal.
The Anfal campaign began in 1986, lasted until 1989, was headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid, a cousin of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein from Saddam's hometown of Tikrit. The Anfal campaign included the use of ground offensives, aerial bombing, systematic destruction of settlements, mass deportation, firing squads, chemical warfare, which earned al-Majid the nickname of "Chemical Ali"; the Iraqi Army was supported by Kurdish collaborators who were armed by the Iraqi government, so called Jash forces, who led the Iraqi troops to the Kurdish villages that did not figure on maps as well as to their hideouts in the mountains. The Jash forces promised the Kurdish population amnesties and gave their word of honor that a passage to flee was free, which both turned out to be false. Thousands of civilians were killed during the anti-insurgent campaigns stretching from the northern spring of 1987, to the northern fall of 1988; the attacks were part of a long campaign that destroyed 4,500 Kurdish and at least 31 Assyrian Christian villages in areas of northern Iraq and displaced at least a million of the country's estimated 3.5 million Kurdish population.
Amnesty International collected the names of more than 17,000 people who had "disappeared" in 1988. The campaign has been characterized as genocidal in nature, it is characterized as gendercidal, because "battle-age" men were the primary targets, according to Human Rights Watch/Middle East. According to the Iraqi prosecutors and Kurdish officials, as many as 180,000 people were killed. Under U. S. President Ronald Reagan, the United States continued to aid Iraq after reports of the use of poison gas on Kurdish civilians. In March 1987, Ali Hassan al-Majid was appointed secretary-general of the Ba'ath Party's Northern Bureau, which included Iraqi Kurdistan. Under al-Majid, control of policies against the Kurdish insurgents passed from the Iraqi Army to the Ba'ath Party itself. Anfal conducted in 1988, had eight stages altogether, seven of which targeted areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan; the Kurdish Democratic Party-controlled areas in the northwest of Iraqi Kurdistan, which the regime regarded as a lesser threat, were the target of the Final Anfal operation in late August and early September, 1988.
For those assaults, the Iraqis mustered up to 200,000 soldiers with air support, against Kurdish guerrilla forces that numbered no more than a few thousand. The first Anfal stage was conducted between 23 February and 18 March 1988, it was targeted the Jafali Valley at the border to Iran, where the headquarters of the PUK was seated. The villages Sargallu, Gwezeela, Chalawi and Yakhsamar were attacked with poison gas. During mid March, the PUK, in an alliance with Iranian troops and other Kurdish factions captured Halabja; this lead to the poison gas attack on Halabja on 16 March 1988 during which 3,200–5,000 Kurdish people were killed, most of them civilians. The Peshmerga managed to open a flight route to Iran through which a part of the population in the Jafali Valley was able to flee. During the first Anfal campaign no prisoners were made by the Iraqi army. During the second Anfal from 22 March and 2 April 1988 the region Qara Dag, southwest of the city Suleimanya, was targeted. Again several villages were attacked with poison gas.
Villages attacked with poisonous gas were Safaran, Belekjar and Meyoo. As a result of the attack, the majority of the population in the Qara Dagh region fled in direction Suleimanya. Many fugitives were detained by the Iraqi forces, the men were separated from the women; the men were not seen again. The women were transported to camps; the population that managed to flee, fled to the Garmia region. In the next Anfal campaign from 7 April to 20 April 1988, the Garmian region east of Suleimanya was targeted. In this campaign many women and children disappeared; the only village attacked with chemical weapons was Tazashar. Many were lured to come towards the Iraqi forces due to an Amnesty, announced through a loudspeaker of a mosque in Qader Karam from 10 - 12 April; the announced amnesty was a trap, many who surrendered where detained. Some civilians were able to bribe Kurdish collaborators of the Iraqi Army and fled to Laylan or Shorsh. Anfal 4 took place between 3 - 8 May 1988 in the valley of the Little Zab near Kirkuk.
Major poisonous gas attacks were perpetrated in Goptapa. Again it was announced. Many of the ones who surrendered were arrested. Men were separated from th
Major-general Khaleel Jassim Al-Dabbagh was an Iraqi senior officer from the first era of the old Iraqi Army, the Commander of the Mosul zone, the Commander of the Light regiments Jash, the commander of the Iraqi commando units in the Iraqi army between 1963–1968, the commander of the fourth division 1966–1967. He was well known for his role in the 1948 Arab–Israeli war, for his letters and negotiations with the Israeli army officers, defending'Ara, Ar'ara and other territories, setting up the Palestinian regiments. Additionally, he commanded couple of campaigns and battles in northern Iraq against Kurdish rebels between 1943-1969, starting with The second Barzani movement, The third Barzani movement, The fourth Barzani movement, The Iraqi Campaign on Alquosh 1963 against communist elements and Kurd rebels allies known as Alansar army in Alqosh, during the First Iraqi–Kurdish War in the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict. Furthermore, driving other Campaigns against Kurdish insurgents under the command of Mustafa Barzani the most well known 1961campaigns, 1963 campaigns, The campaign on Amadiya in 9 September, 1965.
He played a major role in foiling the coup of Arif Abd ar-Razzaq in the Arif Abd ar-Razzaq second coup against the former president of Iraq Abdul Rahman Arif in 12 June 1966 which resulted in arresting Arif Abd ar-Razzaq as well as other officers at Mosul Airport. Khaleel Jassim was born at 1916 in Mosul Iraq from a family who had a long profession in leather smith and leather trade which brought the family name'Al-Dabbagh' which means a leather smith in Arabic, his father Jassim participated in WWI on the Iraq front with the Ottoman army, he was injured and lost one of his legs during the operations south of Baghdad and stayed about a week before he was rescued by a British patrol sent to the British military hospital in Basra where he was treated from his wounds. Khaleel Jassim studied at military college in Baghdad. Graduated as a lieutenant at 1940, "graduation cycle 18 "; the first participation of Khaleel Jassim in combat was at the Anglo-Iraqi War when the coup of 1941 Iraqi coup d'état took place and followed by British air raids and attacks on the Iraqi army position near Habbaniya RAF Habbaniya.
He showed a lot of courage and rescued his unit from dying from thirst after they lost their directions in the Iraqi desert near Fallujah after the heavy air raids. He ran for a long distance alone and reached to some Bedouins and asked them for help and water to rescue his unit which they complied and sent with him a couple of horses and camels with water. In 1943, 1945, 1947, he participated in the war in the north against the Kurdish rebels and other communist elements with a rank of first lieutenant captain at that time at the 1943 Barzani revolt, Third Barazani Movement and Fourth Barazani Movement; this war was a guerrilla warfare kind of war, it gained him and other officers a lot of experience and made him one of the most reliable Iraqi generals that would take place in the struggle of fighting Kurdish rebels and peshmerga in the future. He served with other Iraqi senior leaders in the north such Omer Ali and Gazi Al-dagistani and others, he was involved in training many Arab officers from Libya and Yemen, exchanging the expertise with the Yemenis early officers who visited Iraq at that time in the Yemenis expedition 1947 led by Colonel Ahmed Al Thulya'Later the leader of Yemen revolution 1955' to gain expertise from the Iraqi officers, who had gained this experience from the constant mountain guerrilla warfare.
He participated in WWII with the Iraqi army when Iraq declared war on the Axis powers in 1943 after cutting diplomatic ties. The Iraqi army played a role in protecting the logistic routes of the Allies the military aid to the soviet union which used to arrive from Basra and karkuk. In 1948–49, Iraq sent part of its forces to defend the Arab villages in the West Bank at the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Gazi Al-Dagistani appointed him as the leader of Wadi Ara and Ar'ara he became in charge of all the villages and towns in the region including Ara and Ar'ara and many other villages and towns, he was well known to the Israeli officers. And he organized the area defence in a way that David Ben-Gurion mentioned after the war that the Israeli army and Alexandroni Brigade was unable to capture Wadi Ara and Ar'ara due to the strong defences in that region, under Khaleel Jassim's leadership, yet the Iraqi forces were replaced by the Jordanian forces in 1949, Jordan had to sign 1949 Armistice Agreements that gave Israel the control for those lands.
He led many successful negotiations with the Israeli officers in the presence of Palestinian leaders in that region and helped the refugees to resettle. And his efforts were much appreciated in that war by his commanding officers such as Omer Ali, Gazi al-Dagistani and others, he was in charge of the Palestinian regiments and helped establish them such as Al-karmel regiment, financed and trained by the Iraqi army and other Arab nations, what came to be known as the PLO. After the war, he was promoted as major lieutenant colonel, he was appointed as an intelligence officer for the Queen Alia brigade in Baghdad and helped to establish the first royal special forces. In 1954, there was flood which hit Baghdad and Iraq in general; the army was called to rescue, Khaleel Jassim was one of those who participated in the flood relief. Khaleel Jassim had no political activity in Iraq his loyalty was to the military establishment and to the country during all his military career, he did not participate in any of the coups or so called revolutions tha
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within in favour of an enemy group or nation. The activities of a fifth column can be clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize to assist an external attack; this term is extended to organised actions by military personnel. Clandestine fifth column activities can involve acts of sabotage, disinformation, or espionage executed within defense lines by secret sympathizers with an external force. During the Siege of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, Nationalist general Emilio Mola told a journalist in 1936 that as his four columns of troops approached Madrid, a "fifth column" of supporters inside the city would support him and undermine the Republican government from within; the term was widely used in Spain. Ernest Hemingway used it as the title of his only play, which he wrote in Madrid while the city was being bombarded, published in 1938 in his book The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. Though Mola's 1936 usage is regarded as the origins of the phrase, historian Christopher Clark quotes a February 1906 letter by Austrian military attaché Joseph Pomiankowski using the phrase, "...the fifth-column work of the Radicals in peacetime, which systematically poisons the attitude of our South Slav population and could, if the worst came to the worst, create serious difficulties for our army."Some writers, mindful of the origin of the phrase, use it only in reference to military operations rather than the broader and less well defined range of activities that sympathizers might engage in to support an anticipated attack.
By the late 1930s, as involvement in the war in Europe became more the term "fifth column" was used to warn of potential sedition and disloyalty within the borders of the United States. The fear of betrayal was heightened by the rapid fall of France in 1940, which some blamed on internal weakness and a pro-German "fifth column". A series of photos run in the June 1940 issue of Life magazine warned of "Signs of Nazi Fifth Column Everywhere". In a speech to the House of Commons that same month, Winston Churchill reassured the members that "Parliament has given us the powers to put down Fifth Column activities with a strong hand." In July 1940, Time magazine called fifth column talk a "national phenomenon". In August 1940 the New York Times mentioned "the first spasm of fear engendered by the success of fifth columns in less fortunate countries". One report identified participants in Nazi "fifth columns" as "partisans of authoritarian government everywhere," citing Poland, Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands.
During the Nazi invasion of Norway, the head of the Norwegian fascist party, Vidkun Quisling, proclaimed the formation of a new fascist government in control of Norway, with himself as Prime Minister, by the end of the first day of fighting. The word "quisling" soon became a byword for "collaborator" or "traitor". John Langdon-Davies, a British journalist who covered the Spanish Civil War, popularized the term "fifth column" by publishing an account called The Fifth Column in 1940; the New York Times published three editorial cartoons that used the term on August 11, 1940. In November 1940, Ralph Thomson, reviewing Harold Lavine's Fifth Column in America, a study of Communist and fascist groups in the U. S. in the New York Times, questioned his choice of that title: "the phrase has been worked so hard that it no longer means much of anything." In the US an Australian radio play, The Enemy Within, proved to be popular, though this popularity was due to the belief that the stories of fifth column activities were based on real events.
In December 1940 the Australian censors had the series banned. British reviewers of Agatha Christie's novel N or M? in 1941 used the term to describe the struggle of two British partisans of the Nazi regime working on its behalf in England during World War II. In Frank Capra's 1941 film Meet John Doe, newspaper editor Henry Connell warns the politically naïve protagonist, John Doe, about a businessman's plans to promote his own political ambitions using the apolitical John Doe Clubs. Connell says to John: "Listen, this fifth-column stuff is pretty rotten, isn't it?", identifying the businessman with anti-democratic interests in the United States. When Doe agrees, he adds: "And you'd feel like an awful sucker if you found yourself marching right in the middle of it, wouldn't you?" Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, U. S. Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox issued a statement that "the most effective Fifth Column work of the entire war was done in Hawaii with the exception of Norway."
In a column published in the Washington Post, dated 12 February 1942 respected columnist Walter Lippmann wrote of imminent danger from actions that might be taken by Japanese Americans. Titled "The Fifth Column on the Coast," he wrote of possible attacks that could be made along the on the West Coast of America that would amplify damage inflicted by a potential attack by Japanese naval and air forces. Suspicion about an active fifth column on the coast led to the forced internment of Japanese Americans. During the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette in December 1941 said the indigenous Moro Muslims were "capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike". Another in the Vancouver Sun the next month described how the large population of Japanese immigrants in Davao in the Philippines welcomed the invasion: "the first assault on Davao was aided by numbers of Fifth Columnists–residents of the town". Alfred Hitchcock's Saboteur features Robert Cummings asking for help against "fifth columnists" conspiring to sabotage the American war effort.
Soon the term was being use
Amadiya is a Kurdish town and popular summer resort and Hill station along a tributary to the Great Zab in the Dahuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan. The city is situated 4,600 feet above sea level; the history of the city of Amadiya goes back as far as ancient Assyria and it has existed prior to that due to its strategic place on the flat top of a mountain. It was an Assyrian city known as Amedi from the 25th century BC until the end of the 7th century BC with the fall of the Guti Empire. After that, it was part of Achaemenid Assyria, Seleucid Assyria and Parthian and Sassanid-ruled Assyria until its conquest in the mid 7th century AD by the Arabs Then, for several centuries, after the expulsion of the caliphs from Baghdad in the 7th century, it was ruled by a pasha from the royal Abbas family, reputed to be one of the richest families in the region; the region in which the city rests is believed to have been the seat of the Magi, or high priests of Guti-ruled Assyria, the city itself is believed to be the home of some of the most significant Magi priests: the Biblical Magi or the "Three Wise Men" who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to see Jesus Christ shortly after his birth.
Amadiya was the birthplace of David Alroy. In 1163, according to Joseph ha-Kohen's "'Emeḳ ha-Baka", the Jewish population numbered about a thousand families and traded in gall-nuts. Alroy led a revolt against the city but was defeated and killed in the process; the Spanish Jewish historian R. Schlomo Ibn Verga portrayed the Jewish community of Amadiya at the time of Alroy as wealthy and contented. Amadiya was the seat of the semi-autonomous Badinan Emirate, which lasted from 1376 to 1843. At the turn of the 19th century, the population numbered 6,000, of whom 2,500 were Kurds, 1,900 Jews and 1,600 Assyrians. There are ruins from the Assyrian era and ruins of a synagogue and a tomb attributed to Ezekiel and a church in the small town; the city has mosques and a church. One of the icons of the city is Great Mosque of Amadiya which dates back to the 12th century and the oldest and largest in the region; the town is perched on a mesa or a plateau only accessible by a narrow stairway cut into the rock.
Amadiya has a well-integrated community of Assyrian Christians and Muslim Kurds who share the city and local social events. Although Amadiya is just 10 1⁄2 miles from the Turkish border across the Beshesh Mountains, the only border crossing into Turkey is now at Ibrahim Khalil border on the road Amadiya - Dohuk - Zakho, 56 miles away. A border crossing was once at Habur; the region north of the mountainous region on the border with Turkey is where poplar, oak, cherry plum, rose hips, mountain apple, pear and other wild trees and meadow grasses are located. The town is 550 yards wide, it houses 6,000 citizens in 1,200 houses. Amadiya has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with cool, wet winters. Being the most northerly city in Iraq, it is the mildest major city in the country. Amedi travel guide from Wikivoyage
First Iraqi–Kurdish War
The First Iraqi–Kurdish War known as Aylul revolts was a major event of the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, lasting from 1961 until 1970. The struggle was led by Mustafa Barzani, in an attempt to establish an autonomous Kurdish administration in northern Iraq. Throughout the 1960s, the uprising escalated into a long war, which failed to resolve despite internal power changes in Iraq. During the war, 80% of the Iraqi army was engaged in combat with the Kurds; the war ended with a Kurdish Victory in 1970. A series of Iraqi–Kurdish negotiations followed the war in an attempt to resolve the conflict; the negotiations led to the Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970. After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Barzani was invited by Qasim to return from exile; as part of a deal arranged by Qasim and Barzani, Qasim promised to give the Kurds regional autonomy in return for Barzani's support for his policies. Meanwhile, during 1959–1960, Barzani became the head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party, granted legal status in 1960.
By early 1960, it became apparent that Qasim would not follow through with his promise of regional autonomy. As a result, the KDP began to agitate for regional autonomy. In the face of growing Kurdish dissent, as well as Barzani's personal power, Qasim began to incite the Barzanis historical enemies, the Bradost and Zebari tribes, which led to intertribal warfare throughout 1960 and early 1961. By February 1961, Barzani had defeated the pro-government forces and consolidated his position as leader of the Kurds. At this point, Barzani ordered his forces to occupy and expel government officials from all Kurdish territory; this was not received well in Baghdad, as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. Meanwhile, in June 1961, the KDP issued a detailed ultimatum to Qasim outlining Kurdish grievances and demanded rectification. Qasim continued his planning for war, it was not until September 10, when an Iraqi army column was ambushed by a group of Kurds, that the Kurdish revolt began.
In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages, which served to rally the entire Kurdish population to Barzani's standard. Due to Qasim's profound distrust of the Iraqi Army, which he purposely failed to adequately arm, Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection; this stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Ba'athist coup against Qasim in February 1963. Kurdish villages were targeted by United States supplied munitions consisting napalm bombs numbering 1,000 and 4,000 other bombs which were given by the United States to the Ba'athist government in Baghdad to use against the Kurds. Entire Kurdish villages and livestock were incinerated by the napalm bombs; the decision to supply napalm and other weapons to the Ba'athist was backed by American President Kennedy. Napalm bombs were sold to Iraq by the United Kingdom. French Ambassador Bernard Dorin witnessed a girl in Iraqi Kurdistan whose face was burned off by the UK made bombs.
After the failure of the Syrian political union with Egypt in 1961, Syria was declared an Arab Republic in the interim constitution. On 23 August 1962, the government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira, predominantly Kurdish; as a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira were arbitrarily categorized as aliens. In addition, a media campaign was launched against the Kurds with slogans such as Save Arabism in Jazira! and Fight the Kurdish threat!. These policies coincided with the beginning of Barzani's uprising in Iraqi Kurdistan and discovery of oilfields in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria. In June 1963, Syria took part in the Iraqi military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Syrian troops crossed the Iraqi border and moved into the Kurdish town of Zakho in pursuit of Barzani's fighters; the Kurdish uprising received material support from Iran and Israel—both of them wishing to weaken Iraq. Israel regarded the Iraqi military as a possible threat in case of renewed fighting between Israel and Jordan and Syria.
Iraqi forces had participated in the 1948 Arab invasion of Israel and Iraq was the only Arab participant in that war who refused to sign ceasefire agreements with Israel. Since Iraq had on a number of occasions threatened to send forces to assist Jordan against Israel during rounds of border fighting between the two. Therefore, the Israelis wished to keep. Another Israeli interest was Kurdish assistance for Jews still living in Iraq to escape through Kurdish territory to Israel. Iran wished to strengthen its own political and military position vis-à-vis Iraq—the only other regional power in the Persian Gulf—and wring certain territorial concessions from Iraq in return for ceasing support of the Kurds. In November 1963, after considerable infighting amongst the civilian and military wings of the Ba'athists, they were ousted by Abdul Salam Arif in a coup. After another failed offensive on Kurds, Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964, which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga forces, led by Barzani on the other.
Barzani fired the radicals from the party. Following the unexpected death of Arif, whereupon he was replaced by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, the Iraqi government
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
"Quisling" is a term originating in Norway, used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more as a synonym for traitor. The word originates from the surname of the Norwegian war-time leader Vidkun Quisling, who headed a domestic Nazi collaborationist regime during World War II. Use of Quisling's surname as a term predates World War II; the first recorded use of the term was by Norwegian Labour Party politician Oscar Torp in a 2 January 1933 newspaper interview, where he used it as a general term for followers of Vidkun Quisling. Quisling was at this point in the process of establishing the Nasjonal Samling party, a fascist party modelled on the German Nazi Party. Further uses of the term were made by Aksel Sandemose, in a newspaper article in Dagbladet in 1934, by the newspaper Vestfold Arbeiderblad, in 1936; the term with the opposite meaning, a Norwegian patriot, is Jøssing. The use of the name as a term for collaborators or traitors in general came about upon Quisling's unsuccessful coup d'état in 1940, when he attempted to seize power and make Norway cease resisting the invading Germans.
The term was introduced to an English-speaking audience by the British newspaper The Times. It published an editorial on the 19th April 1940 titled "Quislings everywhere", in which it was asserted that "To writers, the word Quisling is a gift from the gods. If they had been ordered to invent a new word for traitor... they could hardly have hit upon a more brilliant combination of letters. Aurally it contrives to suggest something at once slippery and tortuous." The Daily Mail picked up the term four days. The War Illustrated discussed "potential Quislings" among the Dutch during the German invasion of the Netherlands. Subsequently, the BBC brought the word into common use internationally. Chips Channon described how during the Norway Debate of 7–8 May 1940, he and other Conservative MPs who supported Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain called those who voted against a motion of confidence "Quislings". Chamberlain's successor Winston Churchill used the term during an address to the Allied Delegates at St. James's Palace on 21 June 1941, when he said: "A vile race of Quislings—to use a new word which will carry the scorn of mankind down the centuries—is hired to fawn upon the conqueror, to collaborate in his designs and to enforce his rule upon their fellow countrymen while grovelling low themselves."
He used the term again in an address to both houses of Congress in the United States of America on 26 December 1941. Commenting upon the effect of a number of Allied victories against Axis forces, moreover the United States’ decision to enter the war, Churchill opined: "Hope has returned to the hearts of scores of millions of men and women, with that hope there burns the flame of anger against the brutal, corrupt invader, and still more fiercely burn the fires of hatred and contempt for the filthy Quislings whom he has suborned." The term subsequently became a target for political cartoonists. In the United States it was used often; some examples include: In the Warner Bros. cartoon Tom Turk and Daffy, it was uttered by a Thanksgiving turkey whose presence is betrayed to Porky Pig by Daffy Duck. In the American film Edge of Darkness, about the Resistance in Norway, the heroine's brother is described as a quisling; the back-formed verb, to quisle existed. This back-formed verb gave rise to a much less common version of the noun: quisler.
However, H. L. Mencken in 1944 appeared not to be aware of the existence of the verb form, to quisle has disappeared from contemporary usage. "Quisling" was applied to some Communist figures who participated in the establishment of Communist regimes. As an illustration, the renegade socialist Zdeněk Fierlinger of Czechoslovakia was derided as "Quislinger" for his collaboration with the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia."The Patriot Game", one of the best known songs to emerge from the Irish nationalist struggle, includes the line "...those quislings who sold out the Patriot Game" in some versions. In a June 2018 New York Times column, Paul Krugman called US President Donald Trump a "quisling", in reference to what Krugman described as Trump's "serv the interests of foreign masters at his own country’s expense" and "defend Russia while attacking our closest allies". Other publications revived the term in the 2010s for use in describing President Trump and his associates and supporters. In Max Brooks' novel World War Z "quisling" is used to describe humans that have broken down psychologically and act like a zombie.
Collaborationism Eponym vs. Namesake Fifth column Treason