A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Newton is a city in and the county seat of Jasper County, United States. The population was 2,849 at the 2010 census, down from 3,069 at the 2000 census. Newton is home to a large coal-fired power plant and is close to Newton Lake State Fish and Wildlife Area. Newton is home to the Drive'n Theatre known as the Fairview Drive-In, that opened in 1953, it is one of 10 drive-ins left standing in Illinois. Newton has produced several notable natives; these include Texas Ranger pitcher Ross Wolf, Illinois state representative Norman L. Benefiel, folk singer Burl Ives, Illinois state senator Albert Isley, Irene Hunt, who set the historical novel about the Civil War, Across Five Aprils, in and around Newton. Newton is located at 38°59′17″N 88°9′52″W, at the geographic center of Jasper County on a bluff overlooking the Embarras River. Illinois Route 33 passes through the center of Newton as Jourdan Street. Illinois Route 130 enters Newton from the south on Van Buren Street and leaves to the east on Jourdan Street with Route 33.
According to the 2010 census, Newton has a total area of all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,069 people, 1,329 households, 810 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,647.3 people per square mile. There were 1,490 housing units at an average density of 799.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.99% White, 0.10% African American, 0.20% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. Among the White residents, the ancestral origin is German with lesser contributions from England and Ireland. There were 1,329 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,280, the median income for a family was $42,788. Males had a median income of $31,808 versus $17,877 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,363. About 8.4% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Newton is the largest and only city in Jasper County; because of its favorable location within the county, it was named county seat in 1835. Jasper County was formed in 1831 and approved on December 19, 1834; the county was named after Revolutionary War hero Sergeant Jasper. He and his close friend, Sergeant Newton, were patriots that saved American prisoners of war from certain death at the hands of British soldiers.
Thus, the county and town became their namesakes. A post office was established in Newton in March 1883; the post office was not established in a building, but rather in a man's hat. A rider brought the mail from Vincennes, made a stop in Newton once a week and continued delivering mail on his route north of Newton. By 1841 the town had increased to five families. Lawrence Hollenbock and Samuel Garwood built a saw- and gristmill, Benjamin Harris opened the first grocery store in Newton. In 1855, Newton had Miller's Hotel and a small inn known as the American House, now Yesterday's and Today’s Pub. By 1865, the population of Newton had grown to 300. In 1874 Joe Litzelman's Hack Express began traveling daily to and from Olney on what is now Route 130. Today, Newton has a population near 3,000; the community is made up of local businesses, industry, a high school of fewer than 500 students and several organizations and churches. Newton resides in the Jasper County Community Unit School District 1, geographically the largest school district in Illinois.
The schools in the town include Newton Community High School/Jasper County Junior High, Newton Elementary and Saint Thomas Elementary School. City of Newton official website Southeastern Illinois Convention & Visitors Bureau
Effingham County, Illinois
Effingham County is a county located in the southern part of the U. S. state Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,242, its county seat and largest city is Effingham. Some other cities in Effingham County, Illinois include Altamont, Beecher City, Dieterich, Watson, Edgewood and Funkhouser. Effingham County comprises IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Effingham County was formed in 1855 out of Crawford counties, it may have been named after Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, who resigned his commission as general in the British army in 1775, refusing to serve in the war against the Colonies. The name is Anglo-Saxon for "Effa's house". New information suggests that the county was named after a surveyor who surveyed the area whose last name was Effingham. There is no written proof. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 480 square miles, of which 479 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Just west of Effingham on Interstate 70 there is a 198-foot white cross.
It is one of the world's tallest crosses, took over 200 short tons of steel to erect. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Effingham have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1915 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.38 inches in January to 4.51 inches in July. Cumberland County - northeast Jasper County - east Clay County - south Fayette County - west Shelby County - northwest Interstate 57 Interstate 70 U. S. Route 40 U. S. Route 45 Illinois Route 32 Illinois Route 33 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 128 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,242 people, 13,515 households, 9,302 families residing in the county; the population density was 71.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,570 housing units at an average density of 30.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.6% were German, 10.0% were Irish, 9.3% were American, 8.8% were English. Of the 13,515 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 39.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,509 and the median income for a family was $61,373. Males had a median income of $40,951 versus $28,209 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,843. About 7.8% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Altamont Effingham Mason Beecher City Dieterich Edgewood Montrose Shumway Teutopolis Watson Effingham County is divided into fifteen townships: In its early years Effingham County was owing to its anti-Civil War German-American population powerfully Democratic.
Until Woodrow Wilson’s harsh policies towards Germany following World War I drove many voters to the GOP’s Warren G. Harding, it had voted an absolute majority to the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since the county’s formation. Opposition to the New Deal caused a considerable swing away from Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936, combined with local opposition to Roosevelt’s war policies in 1940 to cause FDR to only win the county by forty-seven votes from Wendell Willkie. Since that election, the county has voted Republican in every election except 1948 and 1964, no Democrat since Jimmy Carter in 1976 has reached 35 percent of the county’s vote. Effingham County is one of Illinois’ most Republican counties, rivalled by a number of southern counties like Edwards. In the 2008 U. S. Presidential election, John McCain carried the county by a 36% margin over Barack Obama, making it McCain's strongest county in the state, with Obama carrying his home state by a 25.1% margin over McCain.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Effingham County, Illinois Specific GeneralHistory of Southern Illinois, George Washington Smith, 1912. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Effingham County History & Genealogy
William Jasper was a noted American soldier in the Revolutionary War. He was a sergeant in the 2nd South Carolina Regiment. Jasper distinguished himself in the defense of Fort Moultrie on June 28, 1776; when a shell from a British warship shot away the flagstaff, he recovered the South Carolina flag in the Battle of Sullivan's Island, raised it on a temporary staff, held it under fire until a new staff was installed. Governor John Rutledge gave his sword to Jasper in recognition of his bravery. In 1779, Sergeant Jasper participated in the Siege of Savannah, led by General Lincoln, which failed to recapture Savannah, from the British, he was mortally wounded during an assault on the British forces there. Sgt. Jasper's story is similar to that of Sgt. John Newton. Several states have adjacent counties named Jasper and Newton, as these were remembered as a pair, due to the popularity of Parson Weems' memorializing early American history. Several other states have a Jasper County with a county seat of Newton, or vice versa.
Sources differ on William Jasper's origins. According to one account, William Jasper came to America in 1767 on the ship Minerva, he and other immigrants landed in Philadelphia. He was 16 at the time, but he had decided that whatever the new land held, he would accept it with open arms, he arrived in Philadelphia in the fall and was fed some warm soup and put in a line to take an oath of allegiance and sign his name. When it was his turn, Jasper did not know how to read or write, so he could not write his name on the list, he had to just put an X down where he should have put his name and next to it the colonist who had signed him in wrote John William Jasper. He completed a few years of indentured servitude and moved south to find some land of his own. William Jasper was motivated. To pay for her journey to come live with him, he joined the military. Although the pay was not great, he soon became a sergeant, earning enough for Elizabeth to join him in Georgia, where they were soon married. According to other accounts, William Jasper was the son of John Jasper, a Virginia blacksmith who had migrated to Union County, South Carolina during the early 1770s.
Jasper was soon called to Sullivan's Island to help protect Charles Towne Harbor. There he served under Colonel William Moultrie, in charge of the defense of Charleston against the British Navy. A few days before the British were due to arrive, Colonel Moultrie decided to build a fort to protect the harbor, his officers were sent local plantation owners, to borrow their slaves to help with the creation of the fort. Soldiers and volunteers banded together to chop down palmettos and use them in its construction. Called Fort Sullivan, some time after the battle the fort was renamed to Fort Moultrie; the British arrived. The Moultrie flag was raised over the structure, a ten-hour siege began. Low on ammunition, the 2nd South Carolina Regiment only fired; the flag, designed by Moultrie himself at the behest of the colonial government, was shot down, fell to the bottom of the ditch on the outside of the fort. Leaping from an embrasure, Jasper recovered the flag, which he tied to a sponge staff and replaced on the parapet, where he supported it until a permanent flag staff had been procured and installed.
With this rallying point, the colonists held out until sunset. They did not succeed in taking Charleston until several years later; because of Jasper's heroism, Governor John Rutledge presented him with his personal sword, offered him a lieutenant's commission. He did not accept the offer to become an officer, saying that he would only be an embarrassment since he could neither read nor write, he was presented with two silk flags by Mrs. Susannah Elliott. Colonel Moultrie gave him a roving commission to scour the country with a few men, gather information, surprise and capture the enemy's outposts; this commission was renewed by Francis Marion and Benjamin Lincoln. Prominent among his achievements was the legendry rescue by himself and a single comrade (John Newton of some American captives from a party of British soldiers, whom he overpowered and made prisoners; however while in truth while Jasper did engage in a heroic action against the British, the incident was exaggerated by the storyteller Parson Weems At the Siege of Savannah, he received his death wound while fastening to the parapet the standard, presented to his regiment.
His hold, never relaxed, he bore the colors to a place of safety before he died. Jasper County, Georgia Jasper County, Illinois Jasper County, Indiana Jasper County, Iowa Jasper County, Mississippi Jasper County, Missouri Jasper County, South Carolina Jasper County and the city of Jasper, Texas City of Jasper, Alabama City of Jasper, Arkansas City of Jasper, Florida City of Jasper, Georgia City of Jasper, Minnesota City of Jasper, Missouri Town of Jasper, Tennessee Town of Jasper, Indiana Town of Jasper, New York Edward McCrady; the History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780. Macmillan. P. 157. Cited by 1920 Americana. James Mason Peck. Lives of Daniel Boone and Benjamin Lincoln. Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown. Pp. 315–316. Alexander Garden. "Sergeant Jasper, 2d Regiment". Anecdotes of the Revolutionary War in America. Pp. 90–91. DeSoto Hotel and Jasper Monument, Savann
Richland County, Illinois
Richland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 16,233, its county seat is Olney. Richland County was established on February 24, 1841, out of portions of East part of Clay and West part of Lawrence counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 362 square miles, of which 360 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Olney have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in February 1951 and a record high of 112 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.73 inches in February to 4.76 inches in May. U. S. Route 50 Illinois Route 130 Illinois Route 250 Jasper County Crawford County Lawrence County Wabash County Edwards County Wayne County Clay County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,233 people, 6,726 households, 4,438 families residing in the county.
The population density was 45.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,513 housing units at an average density of 20.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.3% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 29.6% were German, 11.7% were American, 11.4% were English, 9.2% were Irish. Of the 6,726 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 42.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,917 and the median income for a family was $53,853. Males had a median income of $41,058 versus $31,296 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,874.
About 9.5% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. Richland is the top ranked most affordable county in Illinois to buy a car and is on average $932 less expensive than other Illinois counties. Olney Calhoun Claremont Noble Parkersburg Berryville Dundas Elbow Wynoose Richland County is divided into nine townships: Alexander W. Swanitz, civil engineer who participated in the construction of railroads in various parts of the country Dial D. Ryder, gun smith National Register of Historic Places listings in Richland County
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website