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Jaundice known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels. It is associated with itchiness; the feces may be pale and the urine dark. Jaundice in babies occurs in over half in the first week following birth and does not pose a serious threat in most. If bilirubin levels in babies are high for too long, a type of brain damage, known as kernicterus, may occur. Causes of jaundice vary from non-serious to fatal. Levels of bilirubin in blood are below 1.0 mg/dL and levels over 2–3 mg/dL results in jaundice. High bilirubin is divided into two types: conjugated. Conjugated bilirubin can be confirmed by finding bilirubin in the urine. Other conditions that can cause yellowish skin but are not jaundice include carotenemia from eating large amounts of certain foods containing carotene and medications like rifampin. High unconjugated bilirubin may be due to excess red blood cell breakdown, large bruises, genetic conditions such as Gilbert's syndrome, not eating for a prolonged period of time, newborn jaundice, or thyroid problems.

High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, medications, or blockage of the bile duct. In the developed world, the cause is more blockage of the bile duct or medications. Blockage of the bile duct may occur due to cancer, or pancreatitis. Medical imaging such as ultrasound is useful for detecting bile duct blockage. Treatment of jaundice is determined by the underlying cause. If a bile duct blockage is present, surgery is required. Medical management may involve treating infectious causes and stopping medication that could be contributing to the jaundice. Among newborns, depending on age and prematurity, a bilirubin greater than 4–21 mg/dL may be treated with phototherapy or exchanged transfusion; the itchiness may be helped by draining the ursodeoxycholic acid. The word jaundice is from the French jaunisse, meaning "yellow disease"; the main sign of jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white area of the skin. Urine is dark in colour. Slight increases in serum bilirubin are best detected by examining the sclerae, which have a particular affinity for bilirubin due to their high elastin content.

The presence of scleral icterus indicates a serum bilirubin of at least 3 mg/dL. The conjunctiva of the eye are one of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice; this is sometimes referred to as scleral icterus. The sclera themselves are not "icteric", but rather the conjunctival membranes that overlie them; the yellowing of the "white of the eye" is thus more properly termed conjunctival icterus. The term "icterus" itself is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to jaundice, noted in the sclera of the eyes. A yellowish or greenish pigmentation occurs in the teeth of children with hyperbilirubinemia during calcification, which may be seen in the primary teeth of people with biliary atresia; this is not seen in adults. Disorders associated with an early rise in serum levels of conjugated bilirubin can cause dental hypoplasia. People with parenchymal liver disease who have impaired haemostasis can present bleeding problems if surgery is needed. Hyperbilirubinemia, more hyperbilirubinemia due to the unconjugated fraction, may cause bilirubin to accumulate in the gray matter of the central nervous system causing irreversible neurological damage leading to a condition known as kernicterus.

Depending on the level of exposure, the effects range from unnoticeable to severe brain damage and death. Newborns are vulnerable to hyperbilirubinemia-induced neurological damage and therefore must be monitored for alterations in their serum bilirubin levels; when a pathological process interferes with the normal functioning of the metabolism and excretion of bilirubin, jaundice may be the result. Jaundice is classified into three categories, depending on which part of the physiological mechanism the pathology affects; the three categories are: Pre-hepatic jaundice is caused by anything that causes an increased rate of hemolysis. Unconjugated bilirubin comes from the breakdown of the heme pigment found in red blood cells' hemoglobin; the increased breakdown of red blood cells leads to an increase in the amount of unconjugated bilirubin present in the blood and deposition of this unconjugated bilirubin into various tissues can lead to a jaundiced appearance. In tropical countries, severe malaria can cause jaundice in this manner.

Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, pyruvate kinase deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increased red cell lysis and therefore hemolytic jaundice. Diseases of the kidney, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome, can lead to coloration. In jaundice secondary to hemolysis, the increased production of bilirubin leads to the increased production of urine-urobilinogen. Bilirubin is not found in the urine because unconjugated bilirubin is not water-soluble, so, the combination of increased urine-urobilinogen with no bilirubin in urine is suggestive of hemolytic jaundice. Laboratory findings include: Urine: no conjugated bilirubin present, urobilinogen > 2 units (i.e. hemolytic anemia

Robert Ingersoll Ingalls Sr.

Robert Ingersoll Ingalls Sr. was an American businessman and philanthropist. He was born in 1882, he founded Ingalls Iron Works in Titusville, Alabama in 1910. He established Ingalls Shipbuilding in 1938, they became the largest owned steel manufacturer in the Southern United States and the largest shipyard in the Gulf Coast of the United States. In 1937, he started a shipyard in Alabama. To accommodate the growing needs of the Second World War, it was moved to Birmingham, Alabama to Chickasaw, in Pascagoula, Mississippi. By the time of his death, his company was worth US$40 million, he established the Ingalls Foundation in 1943. Among other causes, since 1965, it has funded the Ellen Gregg Ingalls Award for Excellence in Classroom Teaching at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, he died in 1951. His son Robert Ingersoll Ingalls Jr. inherited 90% of the company. He sold Ingalls Industries to Litton Industries in 1961, purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2001, he was a yachtsman, who owned the yacht Rhonda III.

His granddaughter, Barbara Ingalls Shook, was a philanthropist at the helm of the Ingalls Foundation. The Robert I. Ingalls Sr. Hall on the campus of Samford University in Homewood, Alabama is named in his honor, it was built in 1957, it is home to the McWhorter School of Pharmacy


Worminghall is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England. The village is beside a brook; the brook joins the River Thame. The western boundary of the parish forms part of the county boundary with Oxfordshire; the village is about 4.5 miles west of the Oxfordshire market town of Thame. The village toponym is derived from Old English meaning "Wyrma's nook of land"; the Domesday Book of 1086 records it as Wermelle. It evolved through Wormehale in the 12th and 13th centuries, Wrmehale in the 13th and 14th centuries, Worminghale in the 14th and 15th centuries and Wornall in the 18th century before reaching its current spelling. "Wornall" is still its common local pronunciation. J. R. R. Tolkien in his novella Farmer Giles of Ham suggests that the'worm' element in Worminghall derives from the dragon in the story. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, the manor of Worminghall was part of the estates of his queen, Edith of Wessex; the Domesday Book of 1086 records that after the Norman conquest of England, Wermelle was assessed at five hides and was one of many manors held by the powerful Norman nobleman Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances.

Worminghall became part of the Honour of Gloucester and passed via Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley to Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford. However, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester rebelled against Richard II in 1388. Thomas was attaindered in 1397, Worminghall was amongst the estates that Thomas forfeited to Henry of Bolingbroke, 3rd Earl of Derby; when Henry father John of Gaunt died in 1399, the Earl was crowned Henry IV of England and Worminghall thus became part of the Duchy of Lancaster. Crown rights to Worminghall appear in a record dating from 1562; the Church of England parish church of Saints Peter and Paul is Norman, the north and south doorways survive from this time. The chancel was built or rebuilt in the 14th century and the bell tower was added in the 15th century. In 1847 the north wall was rebuilt and the present stained glass was inserted in the 15th century east window; the church is a Grade II* listed building.

The tower has a ring of three bells and there is a Sanctus bell. John Taylor & Co recast all four bells in 1847 at the foundry. Saints Peter and Paul's is now part of the Benefice of Worminghall with Ickford and Shabbington. Worminghall had a windmill by about 1160 or 1170. A windmill is recorded again in the 14th century, along with a fishery; the Clifden Arms public house is a timber framed building with a thatched roof. The older part is medieval and the newer wing was added in the 17th century; the pub's current name is more recent, being derived from an 18th or 19th century Viscount Clifden, heir to the advowson of the parish. Wood Farm, nearly 2 miles west of the village, has a barn, built in the 17th century or earlier, it is of six bays and is built of rubblestone with ashlar quoins, was re-roofed in 1779 with a double purlin roof. John King founded an almshouse charity in 1670 in memory of his father Henry King, Bishop of Chichester and a poet. There are ten almshouses, for four old women.

They are now a Grade II * listed building. A village school was built in Worminghall in the 19th century, it is now the village hall. RAF Oakley occupied much of the northern part of Worminghall parish from 1942 until 1945. Many of its buildings survive, those on the south side of the airfield now form the nucleus of a trading estate; this is called Wornal Industrial Park, maintaining the traditional pronunciation and 18th century spelling of the toponym. The Clifden Arms is now a hotel. Page, W. H. ed.. A History of the County of Buckingham, Volume 4. Victoria County History. Pp. 125–130. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Buckinghamshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 301. ISBN 0-14-071019-1. Reed, Michael. Hoskins, W. G.. The Buckinghamshire Landscape; the Making of the English Landscape. London: Hodder & Stoughton. Pp. 135, 194. ISBN 0-340-19044-2. Media related to Worminghall at Wikimedia Commons

Fouad Said

Fouad Said is an Egyptian producer and filmmaker. Said graduated from USC School of Cinematic Arts, he received his master's degree from University of Southern California in 1973. He completed his thesis on the diversification of the Cinemobile Systems company from equipment truck production to film production, he is best known for inventing Cinemobile, a mobile movie studio, developed on the set of the TV series I Spy and proved influential in Hollywood. Said conceived of the precursor to the Cinemobile while working for producer Sheldon Leonard in Hong Kong, he converted a Ford econoline panel truck so that it would load onto cargo planes and filled it with all the necessary equipments, such as cameras and generators. He earned a Scientific and Engineering Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1969 "for the design and introduction of the Cinemobile series of equipment trucks for location motion picture production". Said funded a development studio with $10 million in outside investment.

Taft Broadcasting became the parent company of the studio, with United Artists Theatre Group and Hemdale Film Corporation as investors. Virgin Sacrifice – associate producer, cinematographer 3 Nuts in Search of a Bolt – cinematographer I Spy – location cinematographer Hickey & Boggs – producer Across 110th Street – producer The Deadly Trackers – producer Aloha Bobby and Rose – producer Fouad Said on IMDb Official website


The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri; this historic park lies in western Illinois between Collinsville. The park covers 2,200 acres, or about 3.5 square miles, contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. At its apex around 1100 CE, Cahokia covered about 6 square miles and included about 120 manmade earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes and functions. In population, it may have exceeded contemporaneous London. Cahokia was the largest and most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture, which developed advanced societies across much of what is now the central and southeastern United States, beginning more than 1,000 years before European contact. Today, Cahokia Mounds is considered the largest and most complex archaeological site north of the great pre-Columbian cities in Mexico. Cahokia Mounds is a designated site for state protection.

It is one of the 24 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States. The largest prehistoric earthen construction in the Americas north of Mexico, the site is open to the public and administered by the Illinois Historic Preservation Division and supported by the Cahokia Mounds Museum Society. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, the Cahokia Mounds were selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component and was recognized by USA Today Travel magazine, as one of AIA Illinois's selections for Illinois 25 Must See Places. Although some evidence exists of occupation during the Late Archaic period in and around the site, Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around 600 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building at this location began with the emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE; the inhabitants left no written records beyond symbols on pottery, copper and stone, but the elaborately planned community, woodhenge and burials reveal a complex and sophisticated society.

The city's original name is unknown. The mounds were named after the Cahokia tribe, a historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century; as this was centuries after Cahokia was abandoned by its original inhabitants, the Cahokia tribe was not descended from the earlier Mississippian-era people. Most multiple indigenous ethnic groups settled in the Cahokia Mounds area during the time of the city's apex. Historian Daniel Richter notes that the apex of the city occurred during the Medieval Warming Period; this period appears to have fostered an agricultural revolution in upper North America, as the three-fold crops of maize and gourds were developed and adapted or bred to the temperate climates of the north from their origins in Mesoamerica. Richter notes that Cahokia's advanced development coincided with the development in the Southwest of the Chaco Canyon society, which produced large-scale works in an apparent stratified society; the decline of the city coincides with the Little Ice Age, although by the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America.

Cahokia became the most important center for the people known today as Mississippians. Their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, it maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert, whelk shells. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, a high demand tool for farmers around Cahokia and other Mississippian centers. Cahokia's control of the manufacture and distribution of these hand tools was an important economic activity that allowed the city to thrive. Mississippian culture pottery and stone tools in the Cahokian style were found at the Silvernale site near Red Wing and materials and trade goods from Pennsylvania, the Gulf Coast and Lake Superior have been excavated at Cahokia. Bartering, not money, was used in trade.

At the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico and Central America. Although it was home to only about 1,000 people before circa 1050, its population grew after that date. According to a 2007 study in Quaternary Science Reviews, "Between AD 1050 and 1100, Cahokia's population increased from between 1,400 and 2,800 people to between 10,200 and 15,300 people". An estimate that applies only to a 1.8-square-kilometre high density central occupation area. Archaeologists estimate the city's population at between 6,000 and 40,000 at its peak, with more people living in outlying farming villages that supplied the main urban center. In the early 21st century, new residential areas were found to the west of Cahokia as a result of archeological excavations, increasing estimates of area population. If the highest population estimates are correct, Cahokia was larger than any subsequent city in the United States until the 1780s, when Philadelphia's population grew beyond 40,000.

Moreover, according to some population estimates, the population of 13th-century Cahokia was equal to or larger than the population of 13th-century London. One of the major problems that large centers like Cahokia faced was keeping a steady supply of food. A related problem was waste disposal for the dense populati

Robert Cameron Mackenzie

Robert Cameron Mackenzie was a thermoanalyst and clay mineralogist, instrumental in developing the Macaulay Institute for Soil Research in Aberdeen as a centre of excellence in soil mineralogy. Robert Cameron Mackenzie was born near Portmahomack, the only son of farmer, Robert C. Mackenzie, he was educated at the Tain Royal Academy and the University of Edinburgh where he graduated with a First Class Honours in Chemistry in 1942 followed by a PhD in 1944 for studies in the field of gas kinetics. In 1957 he was awarded a DSc degree by Edinburgh University for contributions to clay mineralogy. Following graduation he took up a post as a soil surveyor at Macaulay Institute where he spent his career until his retiral in 1983. In 1959 he was appointed as Head of the Department of Pedology where the Departments research activities focused on mineralogy and chemistry of soils in relation to soil properties and behaviour, he published on a variety of clay mineralogical topics, including the mineralogy and chemistry of the smectitic minerals and aluminium oxides in soils, the genesis of soil clays, as well as problems related to clay mineral classification and the field of thermal analysis and clay mineralogy.

He edited The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays and the two volume Differential thermal analysisHe played an active part in both national and international organisations. He was an early member of the Clay Minerals group of the Mineralogical Society and served as Chairman and Editor of the Group’s journal Clay Mineral Bulletin. During his career he received a number of prizes and was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Royal Society of Chemistry and North American Thermal Analysis Society, he was appointed Distinguished Member of UK Clay Minerals Group and First Honorary Member of International Clay Technology Association. After retiring from the Macaulay Institute in 1983 he remained scientifically active. For some years he continued research into thermal analysis in the Department of Chemistry in the University of Aberdeen and continued as a member of the Editorial Board of Clay Minerals until 1995