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JavaFX is a software platform for creating and delivering desktop applications, as well as rich Internet applications that can run across a wide variety of devices. JavaFX is intended to replace Swing as the standard GUI library for Java SE, but both will be included for the foreseeable future. JavaFX has support for desktop computers and web browsers on Microsoft Windows and macOS. Since the JDK 11 release in 2018, JavaFX is part of the open-source OpenJDK, under the OpenJFX project. Oracle'Premier Support' for JavaFX is available, for the current long-term version, through March 2022. Before version 2.0 of JavaFX, developers used a statically typed, declarative language called JavaFX Script to build JavaFX applications. Because JavaFX Script was compiled to Java bytecode, programmers could use Java code instead. JavaFX applications could run on any desktop that could run Java SE or on any mobile phone that could run Java ME. JavaFX 2.0 and is implemented as a "native" Java library, applications using JavaFX are written in "native" Java code.

JavaFX Script has been scrapped by Oracle. JavaFX 2.x does not support mobile phones. On desktops, JavaFX supports Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, macOS and Linux operating systems. Beginning with JavaFX 1.2, Oracle has released beta versions for OpenSolaris. On mobile, JavaFX Mobile 1.x is capable of running on multiple mobile operating systems, including Symbian OS, Windows Mobile, proprietary real-time operating systems. Open-source JavaFXPorts embedded; this allows a single source code base to create applications for the desktop, iOS, Android devices. With the release of JDK 11 in 2018, Oracle has made JavaFX part of the OpenJDK under the OpenJFX project, in order to increase the pace of its development. JavaFX 1.1 was based on the concept of a "common profile", intended to span across all devices supported by JavaFX. This approach makes it possible for developers to use a common programming model while building an application targeted for both desktop and mobile devices and to share much of the code, graphics assets and content between desktop and mobile versions.

To address the need for tuning applications on a specific class of devices, the JavaFX 1.1 platform includes API that are desktop or mobile-specific. For example, JavaFX Desktop profile advanced visual effects. From the point of view of the end user "Drag-to-Install" allows them to drag a JavaFX widget and drop it onto their desktop; the application will not lose its state or context after the browser is closed. An application can be re-launched by clicking on a shortcut that gets created automatically on the user's desktop; this behavior is enabled out-of-the-box by the Java applet mechanism since Java 6 update 10 and is leveraged by JavaFX from the underlying Java layer. Sun touts "Drag-to-Install" as opening up of a new distribution model and allowing developers to "break away from the browser". JavaFX 1.x included a set of plug-ins for Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator that enable advanced graphics to be integrated directly into JavaFX applications. The plug-ins generate JavaFX Script code. Developers can add animation or effects to the static graphics imported.

There was an SVG graphics converter tool that allows for importing graphics and previewing assets after the conversion to JavaFX format. WebView, the embedded browser component supports the following HTML5 features: Canvas Media playback Form controls Editable content History maintenance Support for the <meter> and <progress> tags Support for the <details> and <summary> tags DOM MathML SVG CSS JavaScript Support for domain names written in national languages Sun Microsystems licensed a custom typeface called Amble for use on JavaFX-powered devices. The font family was designed by mobile user interface design specialists Punchcut and is available as part of the JavaFX SDK 1.3 Release. JavaFX 2.x platform includes the following components: The JavaFX SDK: runtime tools. Graphics, media web services, rich text libraries. Java FX 1.x included JavaFX compiler, now obsolete as JavaFX user code is written in Java. NetBeans IDE for JavaFX: NetBeans with drag-and-drop palette to add objects with transformations and animations plus a set of samples and best practices.

For JavaFX 2 support you need at least NetBeans 7.1.1. For Eclipse users there is a community-supported plugin. JavaFX scene builder: This was introduced for Java FX 2.1 and later. A user interface is created by dropping controls from a palette; this information is saved as a special XML format. Tools and plugins for creative tools: Plugins for Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator that can export graphics assets to JavaFX Script code, tools to convert SVG graphics into JavaFX Script code and preview assets converted to JavaFX from other tools JavaFX Mobile was the implementation of the JavaFX platform for rich Internet applications aimed at mobile devices. JavaFX Mobile 1.x applications can be developed in the same language, JavaFX Script, as JavaFX 1.x applications for browser or desktop, u

Textbook of Biochemistry

Textbook of Biochemistry, first published in 1928, is scientific textbook authored by Alexander Thomas Cameron. The textbook became a standard of its field, and, by 1948, had gone through six editions, in addition to one Chinese and two Spanish editions. Textbook of Biochemistry consists of lecture manuscripts given by the author, Alexander Thomas Cameron, over several years. Cameron had lectured at the University of Manitoba since 1909, but was never a fluent speaker. To compensate for this, he would write out his lectures in full. Cameron was encouraged by friends to submit his lecture manuscripts for publication; the textbook's first edition was published with a preface by Swale Vincent, Professor of Physiology at the University of London. Textbook of Biochemistry is divided into the following chapters: IntroductionIntroduction to the concept of biochemistry, a review of catalytic reactions and pH. Food-Stuffs, Their Derivatives and Related Substances. Ideas regarding carbohydrates and proteins.

The Chemistry of Digestion, the Circulation, the Excreto. The importance of bacterial and chemical activity in organisms. Intermediate MetabolismThe chemistry of tissues, intracellular synthesis, products of metabolism, vitamins; the Chemistry of Reproduction. The agents governing metabolic processes. Quantitative Metabolism. Addenda. A review of the present status of immunological biochemistry, applications of biochemistry in industry. Treat B. Johnson, writing for the Journal of Chemical Education, acknowledged the difficulty of concisely covering the growing field of biochemistry, but concluded that Cameron has "done quite well." He described Textbook of Biochemistry as "not a book that follows the ordinary logical procedure associated with such texts," and complements Cameron on a "dogmatic treatment, stimulating."The British Medical Journal gave a favourable review, writing that "the busy medical student will find this book a concise account of the facts with which he is expected to become familiar."

However, it observed that the book contains several statements that are "definitely not in agreement with the facts as at present known." The reviewer contradicts, for example, the book's assertions that urinal ammonia is formed in the kidneys from urea, that pepsin does not attack the CO-NH links in proteins. Textbook of Biochemistry, being the first concise and authoritative work in its field, became a standard text. By 1948, it had gone through six editions, in addition to one Chinese and two Spanish editions

Knud Knudsen (photographer)

Knud Knudsen was one of Norway's first professional photographers and a pioneer within Norwegian photography. His work includes images from most of Norway in his time and documents much of Norwegian history and ethnology in his photography career 1862–1900. Knudsen was born in Odda, the son of a merchant, a pomologist, his professional career started as a retail clerk in Bergen, in 1862 he traveled to Reutlingen to study pomology. He returned with an enthusiasm for photography the year after and opened his photography business in Bergen 1864. Knud Knudsen left a collection of 13.500 wet and dry plate negatives, about 20.000 of albumin silver prints. The negative and print collection are at The Picture University of Bergen Library. Walker Art Center, Martin: The Frozen Image. Scandinavian photography. 1982 Naomi Rosenblum: A World History of Photography. 1984 Å. Digranes, S. Greve og O. Reiakvam:Det norske bildet. Knud Knudsens fotografier 1864–1900 1988 N. Morgenstern: Fotograf Knud Knudsen. Bilder fra en nylig oppdaget samling.

1989 O. Reiakvam, Bilderøyndom, røyndomsbilde: fotografi som kulturelle tidsuttrykk 1997 Heimatmuseum Reutlingen: Reise nach Reutlingen 1862. Stereoskopbilder des nerwegischen fotograafen Knud Knudsen. 1997 Roger Erlandsen: Pas nu paa!: Nu tar jeg fra Huldet! Om fotografiets første hundre år i Norge - 1839-1940 2000 Larsen, Peter og Lien, Sigrid: Norsk Fotohistorie. Fra daguerrotypi til digitalisering. 2007 Ekeberg, Jonas og Østgaard Lund, Harald: 80 millioner bilder. Norsk Kulturhistorisk fotografi 1855–2005. 2008 Knud Knudsen a Norwegian photographer pioneer The Picture Collection, University of Bergen Library

Hydrogen embrittlement

Hydrogen embrittlement known as hydrogen assisted cracking and hydrogen-induced cracking, describes the embrittling of metal after being exposed to hydrogen. It is a complex process, not understood because of the variety and complexity of mechanisms that can lead to embrittlement. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain embrittlement include the formation of brittle hydrides, the creation of voids that can lead to bubbles and pressure build-up within a material and enhanced decohesion or localised plasticity that assist in the propagation of cracks. For hydrogen embrittlement to occur, a combination of three conditions are required: the presence and diffusion of hydrogen a susceptible material stressHydrogen is introduced during manufacture from operations such as forming, plating or cleaning. Hydrogen may be introduced over time through environmental exposure, corrosion processes including corrosion of a coating and cathodic protection; the hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon was first described in 1875.

During hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal and individual hydrogen atoms diffuse through the metal structure. Because the solubility of hydrogen increases at higher temperatures, raising the temperature can increase the diffusion of hydrogen; when assisted by a concentration gradient where there is more hydrogen outside the metal than inside, hydrogen diffusion can occur at lower temperatures. There are a variety of mechanisms that have been proposed:Internal pressure: Adsorbed hydrogen species recombine to form hydrogen molecules, creating pressure from within the metal; this pressure can increase to levels where the metal has reduced ductility and tensile strength, up to the point where it cracks open. Metal hydride formation: The formation of brittle hydrides with the parent material allows cracks to propagate in a brittle fashion. Phase transformations: Phase transformations occur for some materials when hydrogen is present. Hydrogen enhanced decohesion: Hydrogen enhanced decohesion where the strength of the atomic bonds of the parent material are reduced.

Hydrogen enhanced localised plasticity: Hydrogen enhanced localised plasticity is the process where the generation and movement of dislocations is enhanced and results in localised deformation such as at the tip of a crack increasing the propagation of the crack with less deformation in surrounding material giving a brittle appearance to the fracture. Experiments have shown that stationary dislocations begin to move when molecular hydrogen is dissociated and absorbed into pre-strained material. Hydrogen enhanced vacancy formation: Vacancy production can be increased in the presence of hydrogen but since vacancies cannot be eliminated this proposal is inconsistent with observations the removal of hydrogen reduces the embrittlement. Hydrogen enhanced dislocation emission: Hydrogen enhanced dislocation emission proposes that hydrogen is adsorbed onto to the surface and allows dislocations to be generated at lower stress levels thus increasing the level of localised plasticity at the tip of a crack allowing it to propagate more freely.

Hydrogen embrittles a variety of substances including steel and titanium. Austempered iron is susceptible, though austempered steel display increased resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. In tensile tests carried out on several structural metals under high-pressure molecular hydrogen environment, it has been shown that austenitic stainless steels, copper are not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement along with a few other metals. If steel is exposed to hydrogen at high temperatures, hydrogen will diffuse into the alloy and combine with carbon to form tiny pockets of methane at internal surfaces like grain boundaries and voids; this methane does not diffuse out of the metal, collects in the voids at high pressure and initiates cracks in the steel. This selective leaching process is known as hydrogen attack, or high temperature hydrogen attack, leads to decarburization of the steel and loss of strength and ductility. Steel with an ultimate tensile strength of less than 1000 MPa or hardness of less than 32 HRC is not considered susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.

As an example of severe hydrogen embrittlement, the elongation at failure of 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel was measured to drop from 17% to only 1.7% when smooth specimens were exposed to high-pressure hydrogen. As the strength of steels increases, the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement increases. In high-strength steels, anything above a hardness of HRC 32 may be susceptible to early hydrogen cracking after plating processes that introduce hydrogen, they may experience long-term failures anytime from weeks to decades after being placed in service due to accumulation of hydrogen over time from cathodic protection and other sources. Numerous failures have been reported in the hardness range from HRC 32-36 and more above. Copper alloys which contain oxygen can be embrittled; the hydrogen diffuses through the copper and reacts with inclusions of Cu2O, forming H2O, which forms pressurized bubbles at the grain boundaries. This process can cause the grains to be forced away from each other, is known as steam embrittlement

Yeshivat Shaare Torah

Yeshivat Shaare Torah is a 501 non-profit organization that operates five Sephardic private Jewish day school programs located in Brooklyn, New York, United States. It includes high schools for boys and girls; the boys' high school has 309 students and the girls' high school has 120 students. The organization operates a preschool program for 60 children. Shaare Torah is affiliated philosophically with the haredi branch of Orthodox Judaism, its stated goal is "to promote and foster the development of a Ben Torah, a young capable of and wholesomely interacting with his fellow Jews and citizens". Shaare Torah caters to the Sephardic Jewish community of Brooklyn, but has students from around the Tri-State area. Graduates are encouraged to participate in year-long programs at yeshivot and seminaries in Israel. Afterwards, some continue their studies in similar institutions, while others enroll in university, or go straight into the workforce; some of the most popular universities among Shaare alumni, such as Brooklyn College and Baruch College, grant up to one year's worth of credit to students who study in Israel, allowing them to apply these credits to their undergraduate degree.

In 2009, 34 students at the girl's elementary school were injured when a sidewalk grate collapsed during a graduation ceremony. The girl's elementary school has about 300 students; that same year, the school closed due to the swine flu epidemic. In 2015, the school hosted a political rally promoting tax credits for parents of children in private schools. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo spoke at the event; the boy's high school has athletic teams competing in softball and flag football. The school is a member of the Metropolitan Yeshiva High School Athletic League; the rosh yeshiva of Shaare Torah is a Syrian Jew raised in Brooklyn. Haber, who had moved to Israel for 14 years to further his study of Torah at Yeshivat Kol Yaakov, returned to Brooklyn to found Shaare Torah. Official website

Rho Aurigae

Rho Aurigae is the Bayer designation for a binary star system in the northern constellation of Auriga. It is faintly visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of +5.22. Judging by parallax measurements, this system is 530 light-years distant from the Earth, give or take a 30 light-year margin of error. Ρ Aurigae is a single-lined spectroscopic binary system. The pair orbit each other with a period of 34.49 days and an orbital eccentricity of 0.10. The primary component of this system is a B-type main sequence star defined as a standard star for the stellar classification of B5 V; the deduced mass of the secondary and the lack of evidence for it in the spectrum suggest it may be a B- or A-type star somewhat less luminous than the primary. Rho Aurigae, along with μ Aur, were Kazwini's Al Ḣibāʽ, the Tent. According to the catalogue of stars in the Technical Memorandum 33-507 - A Reduced Star Catalog Containing 537 Named Stars, Al Ḣibāʽ were the title for three stars: λ Aur as Al Ḣibāʽ I, μ Aur as Al Ḣibāʽ II and σ Aur as Al Ḣibāʽ III.

In Chinese, 咸池, meaning Pool of Harmony, refers to an asterism consisting of ρ Aurigae, λ Aurigae and HD 36041. The Chinese name for ρ Aurigae itself is 咸池一 Allen, R. H. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc, p. 91, ISBN 0-486-21079-0, retrieved December 12, 2010. Rhoads, Jack W. Technical Memorandum 33-507-A Reduced Star Catalog Containing 537 Named Stars, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, retrieved August 21, 2012. HR 1749 in Bright Star Catalogue ρ Aurigae image