SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

JavaScript

JavaScript abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is high-level just-in-time compiled, multi-paradigm, it has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, first-class functions. Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. JavaScript is an essential part of web applications; the vast majority of websites use it for client-side page behavior, all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it. As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven and imperative programming styles, it has application programming interfaces for working with text, regular expressions, standard data structures, the Document Object Model. However, the language itself does not include any input/output, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, as the host environment provides those APIs. Used only in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in server-side website deployments and non-browser applications.

Although there are similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ in design. The Mosaic web browser was released in 1993; as the first browser with a graphical user interface accessible to non-technical people, it played a prominent role in the rapid growth of the nascent World Wide Web. The lead developers of Mosaic founded the Netscape corporation, which released a more polished browser, Netscape Navigator, in 1994. Navigator became the most used browser. During these formative years of the Web, web pages could only be static, lacking the capability for dynamic behavior after the page was loaded in the browser. There was a desire in the burgeoning web development scene to remove this limitation, so in 1995, Netscape decided to add a scripting language to Navigator, they pursued two routes to achieve this: collaborating with Sun Microsystems to embed the Java programming language, while hiring Brendan Eich to embed the Scheme language.

Netscape management soon decided that the best option was for Eich to devise a new language, with syntax similar to Java and less like Scheme or other extant scripting languages. Although the new language and its interpreter implementation were called LiveScript when first shipped as part of a Navigator release in September 1995, the name was changed to JavaScript three months later; the choice of the JavaScript name has caused confusion, sometimes giving the impression that it is a spin-off of Java. Since Java was the hot new programming language at the time, this has been characterized as a marketing ploy by Netscape to give its own new language cachet. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. On the JavaScript front, Microsoft reverse-engineered the Navigator interpreter to create its own, called JScript. JScript was first released in 1996, alongside initial support for CSS and extensions to HTML; each of these implementations was noticeably different from their counterparts in Navigator.

These differences made it difficult for developers to make their websites work well in both browsers, leading to widespread use of "best viewed in Netscape" and "best viewed in Internet Explorer" logos for several years. In November 1996, Netscape submitted JavaScript to ECMA International, as the starting point for a standard specification that all browser vendors could conform to; this led to the official release of the first ECMAScript language specification in June 1997. The standards process continued for a few years, with the release of ECMAScript 2 in June 1998 and ECMAScript 3 in December 1999. Work on ECMAScript 4 began in 2000. Meanwhile, Microsoft gained an dominant position in the browser market. By the early 2000s, Internet Explorer's market share reached 95%; this meant. Microsoft participated in the standards process and implemented some proposals in its JScript language, but it stopped collaborating on ECMA work, thus ECMAScript 4 was mothballed. During the period of Internet Explorer dominance in the early 2000s, client-side scripting was stagnant.

This started to change in 2004, when the successor of Netscape, released the Firefox browser. Firefox was well-received by many. In 2005, Mozilla joined ECMA International, work started on the ECMAScript for XML standard; this led to Mozilla working jointly with Macromedia, who were implementing E4X in their ActionScript 3 language, based on an ECMAScript 4 draft. The goal became standardizing ActionScript 3 as the new ECMAScript 4. To this end, Adobe Systems released the Tamarin implementation as an open source project; however and ActionScript 3 were too different from established client-side scripting, without cooperation from Microsoft, ECMAScript 4 never reached fruition. Meanwhile important developments were occurring in open source communities not affiliated with ECMA work. In 2005, Jesse James Garrett released a white paper in which he coined the term Ajax and described a set of technologies, of which JavaScript was the backbone, to create web applications where data can be loaded in the background, avoiding the need for full page reloads.

This sparked a renaissance period of JavaScript, spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them. Many new libraries were created, including jQuery, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools. Google debuted

Sage X3

Sage X3 is an enterprise resource planning product developed by Sage Group aimed at established businesses. The product was known as Sage ERP X3 and is available in many of the territories that Sage operate; the product line which evolved into Sage X3, Adonix X3, was purchased by Sage in 2005. It was renamed Sage ERP X3 and simply Sage X3, it gained a longer name between 2017 and 2019, Sage Business Cloud Enterprise Management, as part of Sage's Sage Business Cloud offering, before returning to its previous Sage X3 name. Nucleus Research named the product a leader in ERP. Sage Business Cloud Accounting and Payroll Sage One, is a part of the wider Sage Business Cloud brand but aimed at smaller enterprises. In 1979 a French company called Société Parisienne de Micro-Informatique was founded and they produced accounting software for Sord computers; the software was redeveloped for use on UNIX systems and a custom development tool was developed called Accès aux DONnées sous unIX. Adonix Entreprise V2 was written on that platform.

Adonix acquired the feature sets of Adonix V2 and Prodstar 2 were merged. The first version of the current X3 product was released in 2000. Adonix acquired other firms including Italian ERP vendor Gruppo Formula SPA, the North American GSI Transcomm in February 1999 and CIMPRO in December 2002 from MAI Systems leading to an expansion of offices into America. Sage purchased Adonix in 2005 and continued development of the product adding many features including cloud functionality. Comparison of accounting software Sage X3

Isaac R. Moores Jr.

Isaac Ross Moores Jr. was an American businessman and politician in the state of Oregon. The son of Isaac R. Moores, he was born in Illinois and moved to the Oregon Territory in 1852. In Oregon, he would serve including as Speaker of that body. Isaac Moores Jr. was born in Danville, Illinois, on February 14, 1831. His parents were Isaac senior and the former Jane Alexander. Siblings included John H. Martha A. Mary Matilda, Charles W.. Isaac junior was educated in the local schools of Illinois before leaving for the gold fields of California in 1850, he returned to Illinois in 1852 after failing to gain a fortune. In 1852, the Moores family traveled the Oregon Trail to the Oregon Territory, arriving in Portland in November. Isaac settled in Yamhill County. In October 1854, he moved to capitol, Salem. In Salem, he worked as a clerk for J. N. McDonald’s mercantile store before buying it out in 1856 with his brother John. Moores was appointed as postmaster for Salem on April 14, 1855, held the position until October 1858.

On September 2, 1856, he married Ellen R. Lamon and they would have seven children. In 1861, with the outbreak of the American Civil War he joined the Oregon Volunteer Militia. Moores was selected as colonel of the second regiment, but the militia remained in Oregon and never saw action. In 1862, he was elected to the Oregon House of Representatives. Moores served as a Republican representing Marion County. At the next session of the legislature in 1864 he served again, was elected as Speaker of the House, he served as Speaker during the 1865 special session of the legislature. His brother John would serve in the Oregon State Senate and as mayor of Salem. In 1866, he sold out his mercantile business and was appointed by Governor George Lemuel Woods as clerk to the State Board of Land Commissioners; the following year he was one of the incorporators of the Oregon Central Railroad, served as president of the railroad for a time. Moores left the State Board in 1870 and was appointed as land commissioner to the Oregon & California Railroad, remaining in that position until his death.

He was a member of the Masons, Odd Fellows, on the Common Council of Salem. Isaac Ross Moores died of apoplexy in Portland on July 25, 1884, at the age of 53, he was buried at the Salem Pioneer Cemetery where his father was buried