The Java Message Service API is a Java message-oriented middleware API for sending messages between two or more clients. It is an implementation to handle the producer–consumer problem. JMS is a part of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, was defined by a specification developed at Sun Microsystems, but which has since been guided by the Java Community Process, it is a messaging standard that allows application components based on Java EE to create, send and read messages. It allows the communication between different components of a distributed application to be loosely coupled and asynchronous. Messaging is a form of loosely coupled distributed communication, where in this context the term'communication' can be understood as an exchange of messages between software components. Message-oriented technologies attempt to relax coupled communication by the introduction of an intermediary component; this approach allows software components to communicate with each other indirectly. Benefits of this include message senders not needing to have precise knowledge of their receivers.
The advantages of messaging include the ability to integrate heterogeneous platforms, reduce system bottlenecks, increase scalability, respond more to change. JMS 1.0 JMS 1.0.1 JMS 1.0.1a JMS 1.0.2 JMS 1.0.2a JMS 1.0.2b JMS 1.1 JMS 2.0 JMS 2.0a JMS 2.0 is maintained under the Java Community Process as JSR 343. JMS 3.0 is under early development as part of Jakarta EE. The following are JMS elements: JMS provider An implementation of the JMS interface for message-oriented middleware. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. JMS client An process that produces and/or receives messages. JMS producer/publisher A JMS client that sends messages. JMS consumer/subscriber A JMS client. JMS message An object. JMS queue A staging area that are waiting to be read; as the name queue suggests, the messages are delivered in the order sent. A JMS queue guarantees. JMS topic A distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.
The JMS API supports two distinct models: Point-to-point Publish-and-subscribe Under the point-to-point messaging system, messages are routed to individual consumers who maintain queues of incoming messages. This messaging type is built on the concept of message queues and receivers; each message is addressed to a specific queue, the receiving clients extract messages from the queues established to hold their messages. While any number of producers can send messages to the queue, each message is guaranteed to be delivered, consumed by one consumer. Queues retain all messages sent to them until the messages are consumed or until the messages expire. If no consumers are registered to consume the messages, the queue holds them until a consumer registers to consume them; the publish-and-subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message "topic". Subscribers may register interest in receiving messages published on a particular message topic. In this model, neither the publisher nor the subscriber knows about each other.
A good analogy for this is an anonymous bulletin board. Zero or more consumers will receive the message. There is a timing dependency between subscribers; the publisher has to create a message topic for clients to subscribe. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages, unless it has established a durable subscription. In that case, messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data; the same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the Java Naming and Directory Interface information for the desired provider. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic, use populate and send or publish the messages. On the receiving side, the clients receive or subscribe to the messages. RFC 6167 defines a jms: URI scheme for the Java Message Service. To use JMS, one must have a JMS provider that can manage the sessions and topics.
Starting from Java EE version 1.4, a JMS provider has to be contained in all Java EE application servers. This can be implemented using the message inflow management of the Java EE Connector Architecture, first made available in that version; the following is a list of common JMS providers: Amazon SQS's Java Messaging Library Apache ActiveMQ Apache Qpid, using AMQP IBM MQ IBM WebSphere Application Server's Service Integration Bus JBoss Messaging and HornetQ from JBoss JORAM from the OW2 Consortium Open Message Queue from Oracle OpenJMS from the OpenJMS Group Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle AQ RabbitMQ from Pivotal Software Message Driven Beans Message queue — the concept underlying JMS Service-oriented architecture Event-driven SOA Messaging technologies that do not implement the JMS API include: Advanced Message Queuing Protocol — standardized message queue protocol with multiple independent implementations Data Distribution Service — An Object Management Group standardized real-time messaging system with over ten implementations that have demonstrated interoperability between publishers and subscribers Microsoft Message Queuing — simi
The Low Level Bridge is a bridge that spans the North Saskatchewan River in Edmonton, Canada. Completed in 1900, this was the first bridge across the North Saskatchewan River. A railway track was added in 1902 to accommodate the Edmonton and Pacific Railway. Streetcars used the bridge from 1908 to 1939. Trolley buses used the bridge from the removal of the streetcar track in 1939 until 1965. Known as the Edmonton Bridge or the Inter-Urban Bridge, the bridge became known as the Low Level Bridge some time after the completion of the High Level Bridge. In 1948 a twin span was added upstream of the original span, northbound traffic was put onto the old bridge and southbound put onto the new; the railway track was removed from the original span in 1954. The Low Level Bridge connects the communities of Cloverdale on the south end to Rossdale/Downtown on the north end. Low Level Bridge at Structurae
Asbury is a city in Jasper County, United States. The population was 207 at the 2010 census, it is part of Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area. Asbury was platted in 1896. A post office called Asbury has been in operation since 1894. Asbury is located at 37°16′29″N 94°36′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.37 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 207 people, 86 households, 61 families living in the city; the population density was 559.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 103 housing units at an average density of 278.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.1% White, 1.4% Native American, 1.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 86 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.1% were non-families.
19.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the city was 41.8 years. 20.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.4 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 218 people, 85 households, 61 families living in the city; the population density was 618.4 people per square mile. There were 98 housing units at an average density of 278.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.25% White, 0.00% Black, 0.46% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 1.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.38% of the population. There were 85 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.2% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 118.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,125, the median income for a family was $35,417. Males had a median income of $24,875 versus $20,625 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,205. About 4.8% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Https://web.archive.org/web/20131013222920/http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/ https://www.census.gov/
The 1956 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1956 at Monaco. It was race 2 of 8 in the 1956 World Championship of Drivers; the Owen's B. R. M. made their first appearance but after qualifying both cars were withdrawn due to engine valve problems. The other two non-starters were teammates: the too slow Scarlatti and Chiron due to his engine blowing up in practice. Moss, starting from the middle of the front row, took the lead at Gasworks on the first lap and led every lap. Fangio was not having a good day, he hit the straw bales on lap 2, causing Schell and Musso to retire when trying to avoid him, on lap 32 he hit the harbour wall, bending a rear wheel. He turned the car over to Castellotti. On lap 54 while second, Collins turned his car over to Fangio, he resumed in third and passed Behra for second on lap 70 but he was 47 seconds behind Moss. On lap 86 Perdisa's brakes locked when being lapped by Moss, the resulting contact caused Moss's bonnet to lift allowing Fangio to close the gap by two seconds each lap but Moss won with a 6-second cushion.
Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap ^2 – Fangio scored no points for fourth place as he had scored points for finishing second Shared Drives: Car #26: Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio. They shared the 6 points for second place. Car #20: Juan Manuel Fangio and Eugenio Castellotti. Since Fangio received points for second, only Castellotti received the 1.5 points for the shared fourth. Car #4: Élie Bayol and André Pilette. Grand Prix debut for: Tony Brooks and Giorgio Scarlatti. Last Grand Prix appearance for: Élie Bayol Career Firsts: Peter Collins and Hermano da Silva Ramos. First time in Championship history with 2 English drivers on the podium. Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included
The Brillenhöhle is a cave ruin, located 16 km west of Ulm on the Swabian Alb in south-western Germany, where archaeological excavations have documented human habitation since as early as 30,000 years ago. Excavated by Gustav Riek from 1955 to 1963, the cave's Upper Paleolithic layers contain a sequence of Aurignacian and Magdalenian artifacts. In 1956 the first human fossils were discovered within a fireplace in the center of the cave, a discovery which made important contributions to the foundational understanding of the Magdalenian culture of central Europe. Brillenhöhle is located in the Ach Valley; the site derives its name from the two holes in the cave's ceiling, which together resemble a pair of spectacles. The cave is a single room with a diameter of 17 m, an average height of 4.50 m and a length of 23 m. A small side cave of 2.50 m width and 6 m height, called Vespershöhle runs from the entrance around 5 m towards the east. As the site is in an advanced state of decay, it has been designated.
However, the openings in the roof allow smoke to escape and sufficient light to enter, while still being small enough to keep the cave dry during periods of rainfall. Recurrent prehistoric human occupation at the site indicates that conditions at the cave were tolerable enough to provide reasonable protection from the elements. In the north-western corner, a chimney-like shape tapers towards a 17 cm wide gap in the ceiling, a gap which allowed a large quantity of reddish-brown clay to ooze into the cave's interior during the Pleistocene. Explorations by discoverer Robert Rudolf Schmidt and historians Peter Goessler and Albert Kley did not yield notable results. Tübingen historian Gustav Riek took up systematic work in September 1955. Over the course of eleven excavation sessions that lasted until October 1963, he unearthed eleven sediment profiles. Riek recognized and determined a total of 22 distinct layers, of which only 3 were considered post-Pleistocene in origin; the work yielded numerous stone and bone tools, ivory jewelry, human skeletal remains and pottery shards.
During the early 1990s, Tübingen archaeologist Anne Scheer succeeded in conclusively demonstrating that the occupations of Brillenhöhle, Hohle Fels and Geissenklösterle during the Gravettian were interrelated and contemporaneous in nature, by refitting stone artifacts found in the three site's Gravettian sediment horizons. It is assumed that the cave was not inhabited by humans during the Aurignacian since only two broken bone tools were found in layer XIV. Gravettian finds originate in layer VII. In addition to 52 tools made of animal bones, reindeer antler and mammoth ivory, more than 1000 stone tools were unearthed, including blades and scrapers. More than 80 artifacts were identified as jewelry, including numerous ivory beads, beaded bones, perforated animal teeth and notched bone rods. Most discoveries were made in the Magdalenian strata, coming from layers VI to IV. Stone tools, smashed bones and more than 1100 stone tools were found. Notable artifacts include harpoons of ivory or reindeer antler with barbed hooks on one or both sides.
Animal bones include mammoth, wild horse and cave bear. Smashed human skull fragments with traces of exposure to fire were regarded as evidence of cannibalism, but according to Gustav Riek, the lack of powdered ochre is evidence that excludes head burials; the theory of cannibalism has not been repudiated. The skeletal remains of the central fireplace in the Magdalenian-layer IV had been arranged in deliberate burial fashion. Neolithic and Bronze Age: In the mixed upper layers II and I, Neolithic as well as Early and Late Bronze Age ceramic vascular and wall shards were found; some layers were permanently destroyed during the various excavations. Nonetheless, the cave still holds potential value for future archaeologists, since some areas deemed "unproductive" have still remained untouched. In order to preserve these undocumented areas, the cave was protected by an armored, latticed gate, to prevent access but enable inspection. Carbon Dated fossils:Source: The remains of at least four distinct individuals, all associated with the Magdalenian, were discovered at Brillenhöhle.
In 2016, researchers extracted the DNA from the parietal bone of one of the individuals. The bone fragment was directly dated to around 15,120-14,440 BP; the individual in question was found to belong to mtDNA Haplogroup U8a. The Brillenhöhle individual was found to be genetically closest to other ancient samples from the Magdalenian, showing closest genetic affinity for other samples taken from the Swabian Jura, such as Hohle Fels, while showing genetic affinity for another Magdalenian sample, taken from the Red Lady of El Mirón, as well as a sample from the Aurignacian, GoyetQ116-1, taken from Goyet Caves. Geissenklösterle Sirgenstein Cave Entry in the German Encyclopedia ANALECTA PRAEHISTORICA LEIDENSIA
The College of American Pathologists is a member-based physician organization founded in 1946 comprising 18,000 board-certified pathologists. It serves patients and the public by fostering and advocating best practices in pathology and laboratory medicine, it is the world's largest association composed of pathologists certified by the American Board of Pathology, is considered the leader in laboratory quality assurance. The CAP is an advocate for cost-effective medical care; the CAP inspects and accredits medical laboratories under authority from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Their standards have been called "the toughest and most exacting in the medical business." The CAP provides resources and guidance to laboratories seeking accreditation in programs for biorepositories, genomics, ISO 15189, more. In November 2008, Piedmont Medical Laboratory of Winchester, Virginia became the first laboratory in the United States to be accredited under ISO 15189; the CAP provides accreditation and proficiency testing to medical laboratories through its laboratory quality solutions programs.
Early versions of proficiency testing—known as surveys—which laboratories use to help test and ensure accuracy, were first initiated in 1949. Laboratories first began receiving CAP accreditation in 1964, the organization was given authority to accredit medical laboratories as a result of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; the CAP publishes checklists containing requirements pertaining to the performance of laboratory tests. The All Common Checklist contains a core set of requirements that apply to all areas performing laboratory tests and procedures; some requirements exist in both the COM checklist and in a discipline-specific checklist, but with a different checklist note that has a more specific requirement. In these situations, the discipline-specific requirement takes precedence over the COM requirement; the COM checklist describes the requirements for analytical validation/verification of the method performance specifications that laboratories must perform for each test, method, or instrument system before use in patient testing.
The CAP opened a Washington, DC, office in 1970 and advocating for pathology in a legal and policy-oriented capacity remains a core mission of the organization, both through direct action and programs that connect pathologists to legislators. The CAP Foundation is the philanthropic arm of the organization and is classified as a 501 charitable entity, its flagship program, Test & Treat, partners with hospitals and clinicians to provide free cancer and HPV screening, as well as educational events, to underserved communities. The program served over 900 women in 2017. American Society for Clinical Pathology Anatomic pathology Clinical pathology Pathology Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine College of American Pathologists