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Java Platform, Standard Edition

Java Platform, Standard Edition is a computing platform for development and deployment of portable code for desktop and server environments. Java SE was known as Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition; the platform is part of the Java software-platform family. Java SE defines a range of general-purpose APIs—such as Java APIs for the Java Class Library—and includes the Java Language Specification and the Java Virtual Machine Specification. One of the most well-known implementations of Java SE is Oracle Corporation's Java Development Kit; the platform was known as Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition or J2SE from version 1.2, until the name was changed to Java Platform, Standard Edition or Java SE in version 1.5. The "SE" is used to distinguish the base platform from the Enterprise Edition and Micro Edition platforms; the "2" was intended to emphasize the major changes introduced in version 1.2, but was removed in version 1.6. The naming convention has been changed several times over the Java version history.

Starting with J2SE 1.4, Java SE has been developed under the Java Community Process, which produces descriptions of proposed and final specifications for the Java platform called Java Specification Requests. JSR 59 was the umbrella specification for J2SE 1.4 and JSR 176 specified J2SE 5.0. Java SE 6 was released under JSR 270. Java Platform, Enterprise Edition is a related specification that includes all the classes in Java SE, plus a number that are more useful to programs that run on servers as opposed to workstations. Java Platform, Micro Edition is a related specification intended to provide a certified collection of Java APIs for the development of software for small, resource-constrained devices such as cell phones, PDAs and set-top boxes; the Java Runtime Environment and Java Development Kit are the actual files downloaded and installed on a computer to run or develop Java programs, respectively. The Java package java.lang contains fundamental classes and interfaces tied to the language and runtime system.

This includes the root classes that form the class hierarchy, types tied to the language definition, basic exceptions, math functions, security functions, as well as some information on the underlying native system. This package contains 22 of 32 Error classes provided in JDK 6; the main classes and interfaces in java.lang are: Object – the class, the root of every class hierarchy. Enum – the base class for enumeration classes. Class – the class, the root of the Java reflection system. Throwable – the class, the base class of the exception class hierarchy. Error and RuntimeException – the base classes for each exception type. Thread – the class that allows operations on threads. String – the class for strings and string literals. StringBuffer and StringBuilder – classes for performing string manipulation. Comparable – the interface that allows generic comparison and ordering of objects. Iterable – the interface that allows generic iteration using the enhanced for loop. ClassLoader, Runtime, SecurityManager, System – classes that provide "system operations" that manage the dynamic loading of classes, creation of external processes, host environment inquiries such as the time of day, enforcement of security policies.

Math and StrictMath – classes that provide basic math functions such as sine and square root. The primitive wrapper classes that encapsulate primitive types as objects; the basic exception classes thrown for other common exceptions. Classes in java.lang are automatically imported into every source file. The java.lang.ref package provides more flexible types of references than are otherwise available, permitting limited interaction between the application and the Java Virtual Machine garbage collector. It is an important package, central enough to the language for the language designers to give it a name that starts with "java.lang", but it is somewhat special-purpose and not used by a lot of developers. This package was added in J2SE 1.2. Java allows for special behavior for garbage collection. A normal reference in Java is known as a "strong reference." The java.lang.ref package defines three other types of references—soft and phantom references. Each type of reference is designed for a specific use.

A SoftReference can be used to implement a cache. An object, not reachable by a strong reference, but is referenced by a soft reference is called "softly reachable." A reachable object may be garbage collected at the discretion of the garbage collector. This means that reachable objects are only garbage collected when free memory is low—but again, this is at the garbage collector's discretion. Semantically, a soft reference means, "Keep this object when nothing else references it, unless the memory is needed." A WeakReference is used to implement weak maps. An object, not or reachable, but is referenced by a weak reference is called "weakly reachable". A weakly reachable object is garbage collected in the next collection cycle; this behavior is used in the class java.util. WeakHashMap. A weak map allows the programmer to put key/value pairs in the map and not worry about the objects taking up memory when the key is no longer reachable anywhere else. Another possible application of weak references is the string intern pool.

Semantically, a weak reference means "get rid of this object when nothing else references it at the next garbage collection." A PhantomR

Roman Catholic Diocese of Kandy

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Kandy is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archbishopric of Colombo, but depends on the missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. The episcopal seat is St. Anthony’s Cathedral, in Kandy; the current bishop is Joseph Vianney Fernando, appointed in 1983. As per 2014, it pastorally served 81,293 Catholics on 5,733 km² in 27 parishes and 2 missions with 51 priests, 329 lay religious and 15 seminarians. Erected on 20 April 1883 as the Apostolic vicariate of Kandy, on territory split off from the diocese of Colombo Promoted to Diocese of Kandy on 1 September 1886, as a suffragan of the elevated Archdiocese of Colombo. On 18 December 1972, part of the diocese was split off to form the Diocese of Badulla. Apostolic Vicar of Kandy Clemente Pagnani, Titular Bishop of Hephæstum, first as Bishop of Colombo Suffragan Bishops of Kandy Clemente Pagnani, O. S. B. Silv. Bede Beekmeyer, O.

S. B. Silv.† Bernardo Regno, O. S. B. Silv. Stayed on a while as Apostolic Administrator of Kandy, during emeritate as Titular Bishop of Bagai, died 1977 Leo Nanayakkara, O. S. B. Silv. Next Bishop of Badulla Appasinghe Paul Perera Joseph Vianney Fernando President of Bishops’ Conference of Sri Lanka. List of Catholic dioceses in Sri Lanka and the Maldives Catholic Church in Sri Lanka GCatholic, with Goggle satellite photo - data for all sections Catholic Encyclopedia: Diocese of Kandy

Virtual hammock

Virtual Hammock describes the effect of using structured sound from two isolated, stationary speakers playing into opposite ears to induce the perception of being in the presence of a single sound source, moving back-and-forth. Rather than relying on a variation in sound amplitude of one speaker compared to the other, the Virtual Hammock effect utilizes a shift in phase of the sound wave of one side compared with the other; this stimulates the same physiological response in the Medial Superior Olive portion of the brain stem—the first processing stop for auditory nerves—as is induced by an actual moving sound source. Any waveform within certain frequency bounds can be used to achieve this effect; the specific case of playing sinusoidal waves of different frequencies, which creates a continuously varying sensation of the sound source moving from side-to-side, is referred to as a binaural beat. Playing square waves of two different frequencies will create a sensation of swaying back and forth.

A network of nerves in the MSO detect the place that a threshold is overcome by sending electrochemical impulses along the auditory nerve pathway to the cortex for higher-level processing. These nerves permit the subconscious localization of a sound source. A sound source produces a propagating sound wave that strikes the ear closer to it before traveling an extra distance to strike the opposite ear; the impulses produced in the auditory nerves which conduct signals to the brain for sound processing pass one another in the MSO at a point on the opposite side relative to the location sound source. If a sound impulse originates from a point equidistant to each ear, the neuronal impulses from each ear will pass at a point in the center of the MSO, allowing us to unconsciously identify where a sound source is located; the Virtual Hammock effect is achieved by intentionally manipulating the passing point by shifting the maximum amplitudes of sound waveforms that are directed into each ear. By way of example, consider a sinusoidal tone of 262 Hz, which corresponds to middle C on a piano, played in one ear, while a different frequency tone of 260 Hz is played to the other ear.

When one listens to only one side, that person will hear a constant tone. However, when listening to both sides the hearer perceives the sound of a rhythmic pulse; this perception is similar to hearing a beat frequency on a nominally middle C carrier tone, something that could be achieved by bringing two speakers in near proximity to one another and using them to interfere with pressure waves in the air by playing a 262 Hz tone on one and a 260 Hz tone on the other. The fundamental difference between these two cases is that, in the latter, eardrums are vibrated in a way that includes pulsating beats, whereas in the former the MSO is fooled into reacting in the same way as it would to a single speaker emitting a tone corresponding to a middle C that's swaying back-and-forth; the difference between these cases is key when considering the propensity of the hearer’s brain to entrain to an induced versus an external frequency: brainwave activity is affected more by a signal, produced by a part of the brain itself than it is by an external wavering sound that stimulates the ears.

With that in mind, the Virtual Hammock effect can be used to encourage particular brainwave frequencies, can thus be employed to guide the brain into specific states, including focus and deep sleep

Pan Historic District

The Pan Historic District encompasses a historic rural landscape in eastern Bolton, Massachusetts. Named for its flat terrain, the Pan was settled in the 18th century, with a agrarian settlement pattern augmented by small industries such as sawmills and a tannery. Architecturally the district has a well-preserved collection of Federal period residential architecture, its main public feature is the Pan Burying Ground, an early cemetery located near the junction of Massachusetts Routes 117 and 85. It extends south from there along Route 85 and Long Hill Road, north along Burnham Road; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018. National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Massachusetts

Francis Darigan Jr.

Francis J. Darigan Jr is a retired Rhode Island politician who has served in numerous public offices–most notably as Associate Justice of the Rhode Island Superior Court. Darigan was born in 1942 to an Irish-Catholic family in Rhode Island, he graduated from La Salle Academy in 1960 and Providence College in 1964 with a degree in political science. From 1965 to 1967, Darigan served as a member of the US Armed Forces at the Defense Intelligence Agency in Washington DC. Following his discharge from active duty in 1967, Darigan served as a reserve officer in the US Army's 76th division, retiring from military service in 1975 with the rank of captain. In 1967, Darigan married Alexandra Hope Kingscote. Darigan received his JD from Suffolk University School of Law in 1971 and his master's degree in public administration from the University of Rhode Island in 1974. Francis and Alexandra Darigan have four adult children. From 1971 to 1975, Darigan served as a council member on the Providence City Council representing the Ninth Ward.

Following his membership on the city council, Darigan acted as legal counsel to the Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Governor’s Office on Energy, the Public Utilities Commission. On January 26, 1984, then-Governor J. Joseph Garrahy appointed Darigan to the Rhode Island District Court. On June 28, 1991 Darigan was appointed Associate Justice of the Superior Court of Rhode Island by then-Governor Bruce Sundlun. Darigan presided over a number of high-profile cases, including the trials of Daniel Michael Biechele of the Station Nightclub Fire and former governor Edwin DiPrete. Darigan served on the court for seven years before his retirement on Feb. 29, 2012

Star Mountain F.C.

Star Mountain FC is a semi-professional association football club based in Tabubil, in the Star Mountains area of the North Fly District of Papua New Guinea. The club was founded sometime before 1999. With the 1999 North Fly District championship their only title to date, the club entered the 2019 edition of the Papua New Guinea National Soccer League, where they were drawn into the Southern Conference; the first record of the side competing in regional competitions was in the 1999 North Fly District Grand Final, in which the side defeated Tabubil Town to claim the title. No further records of the club exist until late 2018, when the club was confirmed as being one of eight sides drawn into the Southern Conference of the 2019 Papua New Guinea National Soccer League. In their opening match on 27 January 2019, the side went down 1–0 to Southern Strikers, would go on to lose their opening four matches by narrow, one-goal margins, until a 2–2 draw against Central United saw them pick up their first points of the season.

The side went 2–0 up early and took this lead into the break, but the side were pegged back to 2–2 and narrowly avoided defeat after a late penalty for Central was saved. Following a 2–1 defeat to eight-time champions Hekari United and a 7–2 loss against Gulf Komara, the side went into the halfway stage with just one point from seven matches. Following a draw with Southern Strikers and another high-scoring draw against Central United, the side won their first game of the season on 13 April 2019, winning 2–1 against Gulf Komara, a result which lifted them off the foot of the conference table, they remained there for the remainder of the season finishing 7th out of eight teams. North Fly District Champions: 1999