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Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages that are compiled to Java bytecode. The JVM is detailed by a specification that formally describes what is required in a JVM implementation. Having a specification ensures interoperability of Java programs across different implementations so that program authors using the Java Development Kit need not worry about idiosyncrasies of the underlying hardware platform; the JVM reference implementation is developed by the OpenJDK project as open source code and includes a JIT compiler called HotSpot. The commercially supported Java releases available from Oracle Corporation are based on the OpenJDK runtime. Eclipse OpenJ9 is another open source JVM for OpenJDK; the Java virtual machine is an abstract computer defined by a specification. The garbage-collection algorithm used and any internal optimization of the Java virtual machine instructions are not specified; the main reason for this omission is to not unnecessarily constrain implementers.

Any Java application can be run only inside some concrete implementation of the abstract specification of the Java virtual machine. Starting with Java Platform, Standard Edition 5.0, changes to the JVM specification have been developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 924. As of 2006, changes to specification to support changes proposed to the class file format are being done as a maintenance release of JSR 924; the specification for the JVM was published as the blue book, The preface states: We intend that this specification should sufficiently document the Java Virtual Machine to make possible compatible clean-room implementations. Oracle provides tests that verify the proper operation of implementations of the Java Virtual Machine. One of Oracle's JVMs is named the other, inherited from BEA Systems is JRockit. Clean-room Java implementations include Kaffe, OpenJ9 and Skelmir's CEE-J. Oracle owns the Java trademark and may allow its use to certify implementation suites as compatible with Oracle's specification.

One of the organizational units of JVM byte code is a class. A class loader implementation must be able to recognize and load anything that conforms to the Java class file format. Any implementation is free to recognize other binary forms besides class files, but it must recognize class files; the class loader performs three basic activities in this strict order: Loading: finds and imports the binary data for a type Linking: performs verification and resolution Verification: ensures the correctness of the imported type Preparation: allocates memory for class variables and initializing the memory to default values Resolution: transforms symbolic references from the type into direct references. Initialization: invokes Java code that initializes class variables to their proper starting values. In general, there are two types of class loader: bootstrap class loader and user defined class loader; every Java virtual machine implementation must have a bootstrap class loader, capable of loading trusted classes.

The Java virtual machine specification doesn't specify. The JVM operates on primitive references; the JVM is fundamentally a 32-bit machine. Long and double types, which are 64-bits, are supported natively, but consume two units of storage in a frame's local variables or operand stack, since each unit is 32 bits. Boolean, byte and char types are all sign-extended and operated on as 32-bit integers, the same as int types; the smaller types only have a few type-specific instructions for loading and type conversion. Boolean is operated on with 0 representing false and 1 representing true; the JVM has a garbage-collected heap for storing arrays. Code and other class data are stored in the "method area"; the method area is logically part of the heap, but implementations may treat the method area separately from the heap, for example might not garbage collect it. Each JVM thread has its own call stack, which stores frames. A new frame is created each time a method is called, the frame is destroyed when that method exits.

Each frame provides an "operand stack" and an array of "local variables". The operand stack is used for operands to computations and for receiving the return value of a called method, while local variables serve the same purpose as registers and are used to pass method arguments. Thus, the JVM is both a register machine; the JVM has instructions for the following groups of tasks: The aim is binary compatibility. Each particular host operating system needs its own implementation of the runtime; these JVMs interpret the bytecode semantically the same way, but the actual implementation may be different. More complex than just emulating bytecode is compatibly and efficiently i

Yayasan Negeri Sembilan HC

The Yayasan Negeri Sembilan HC, are the Malaysia Hockey League team from Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The team is led by a member of ex-Pakistan national field hockey team. Yayasan Negeri Sembilan the club can be the giants of Malaysia Hockey League because many good import players come from this club such as Shakeel Abassi, Muhammad Waqas. Yayasan Negeri Sembilan HC is a successful team in Malaysia Hockey League, they won the title league twice in the seasons 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Pargat Singh Jude Felix N. Mukesh Kumar Sarjit Singh Soon Mustapha Gurmit Singh Stephen van Huizen Mirnawan Nawawi Norhamezi Omar Manager: P. Tamilselvan Chief coach: Rajan Krishnan Physiotherapist: Prem Ghanesh Chandra Segeran Malaysia Hockey League titles: 2 MHL-TNB Cup/Overall Champions Titles: 2 Malaysia Hockey League YNS targets a top-four finish - The Star Nov. 30, 2010 Yayasan Negeri Sembilan HC's page in TNBMHL.com.my website

Miles Sindercombe

Miles Sindercombe was the leader of a group that tried to assassinate Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell during the period of the Protectorate in 1657. Sindercombe was apprenticed to a surgeon. During the English Civil War, he became a Leveller. In 1649, he took part in the mutiny of his regiment. In 1655, he re-appeared as a member of a cavalry regiment in Scotland and took part in a plot to take control of the local army; this failed as well, Sindercombe fled to the Netherlands. In Flanders, he met another Leveller and anti-Cromwell plotter, Edward Sexby, in 1656. Sindercombe joined his plot to assassinate Cromwell in hope of restoring the Puritan republic as they saw it. Sexby supplied Sindercombe with money and weapons. In 1656, Sindercombe returned to England and gathered a group of co-conspirators, including renegade soldier John Cecil, apparent conman William Boyes and John Toope, a member of Cromwell's Life-Guards. Toope gave the other plotters information about Cromwell's movements. First, Sindercombe rented a house in King Street in Westminster, where they intended to shoot Cromwell when he rode past in his coach.

However, they noticed that it would be a difficult place to escape from after the attempt, so they abandoned the plan. Next, Sindercombe rented another house near Westminster Abbey, using the name "John Fish", he intended to shoot Cromwell with an arquebus on his way from Westminster Abbey to Parliament on 17 September 1656. However, when a large crowd gathered outside, Boyes panicked and left, the attempt had to be abandoned. Sindercombe's group intended to shoot Cromwell when he left for Hampton Court, as he customarily did every Friday, they intended to shoot at Cromwell's coach. As it happened, Cromwell changed his mind on that particular Friday, the plotters waited in vain; the next idea was to shoot Cromwell. They broke the hinges of the park gates to facilitate their escape, John Cecil began to follow Cromwell and his entourage. However, Cromwell called him over. Cecil could not shoot him, he afterwards claimed that he could not have escaped. After so many failed attempts, Cromwell's spymaster, John Thurloe, had noticed the would-be assassins.

He had heard about the plot from his spies on the Continent. Sindercombe's next idea was to burn down the Lord Protector with it. Boyes made an explosive device out of gunpowder and pitch, the group planted it in the palace chapel on 8 January 1657. However, who had had a change of heart, revealed the plan to authorities; when the plotters left, guards disarmed the bomb. Thurloe gave an order to arrest the plotters. Cecil was captured, but Boyes escaped. Sindercombe fought the guards. Cecil and Sindercombe were sent to the Tower. Cecil decided to tell all. With Toope's aid, Thurloe learned Sexby's part in the plot and presented his findings to the Parliament. Sindercombe remained uncooperative. On 9 February 1657, he was found guilty of High treason when both Cecil and Toope testified against him and sentenced to be hanged and quartered. Sindercomb's sister brought him poison the night before he was to be executed, either to spare him the agony of such a death, or because he did not want to face the humiliation of execution.

He drank it and was found dead in his cell in the Tower of London on 13 February 1657. His body was buried beneath it by the hangman. Killing No Murder, a pamphlet published in 1657 Marshall, Alan, "Killing No Murder", History Today extract Firth, C. H.. "Sindercombe, Miles". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 52. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 311. Firth, C. H.. The Last Years of the Protectorate, 1656–58. I. London. Marshall, Alan. "Sindercombe, Miles". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25637. Oldmixon, John; the History of England. 1. London. Plant, David. Miles Sindercombe, d.1657

Hinckley Township, Pine County, Minnesota

Hinckley Township is a township in Pine County, United States. The population was 820 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.8 square miles, all land. Hinckley Township was organized in 1872, named for Isaac Hinckley, president of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad; as of the census of 2000, there were 820 people, 297 households, 220 families residing in the township. The population density was 22.9 people per square mile. There were 345 housing units at an average density of 9.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 95.98% White, 0.12% African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.49% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population. There were 297 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.6% were non-families.

19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.13. In the township the population was spread out with 30.5% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $38,500, the median income for a family was $42,639. Males had a median income of $31,146 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,118. About 8.3% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.0% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over

Detroit Opera House

The Detroit Opera House is an ornate opera house located at 1526 Broadway Street in Downtown Detroit, within the Grand Circus Park Historic District. The 2,700-seat venue is the home of productions of the Michigan Opera Theatre and a variety of other events; the theatre was designed by C. Howard Crane, who created other prominent theatres in Detroit including The Fillmore Detroit, the Fox Theater and the Detroit Symphony's Orchestra Hall, it opened on January 22, 1922. The building underwent an extensive restoration which took place under the control of Detroit-based architectural design firm, Albert Kahn Associates, Inc, it reopened in 1996. Over the years, opera has been presented at a variety of venues in Detroit - the Old Detroit Opera House at Campus Martius, the Whitney Grand Opera House at Griswold Street and Michigan Avenue, the New Detroit Opera House at Randolph and Monroe Streets; the Nederlander Organization, a major theatrical producer, began in Detroit with a 99-year lease on the Old Detroit Opera House in 1912.

The present Detroit Opera House was known as the Capitol Theatre. It was among the first of several performance venues built around Detroit's Grand Circus Park; when it opened, the Capitol was the fifth largest movie theater in the world, seating about 3,500 people. In 1929, the Capitol Theater became the Paramount Theater, in 1934, the Broadway Capitol Theater. During the first few decades of its history the theater presented feature films along with live entertainment including artists such as jazz legends Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington; the Broadway Capitol converted to a movies-only policy. Following a minor restoration in the 1960s, the building became the 3,367-seat Grand Circus Theatre; the theater closed in 1978 after surviving several years exhibiting second-run and soft-core porn films. It reopened again in 1981, but closed after a minor fire in 1985 caused damage. In 1988, the Michigan Opera Theatre purchased the building and dubbed it the Detroit Opera House, after an extensive restoration and stage expansion.

The reopening in 1996 was celebrated with a gala event featuring Luciano Pavarotti and other noted artists. The Detroit Opera House is now configured with seating for an audience of 2,700. Since 1996, the opera house has annually hosted five opera productions, five dance productions from touring companies, a variety of other musical and comedy events; the Opera House is featured prominently in the 2012 documentary Detropia Note: The name Grand Circus Theatre may cause confusion, since another Grand Circus Theatre known as the Central Theatre, once stood at 2115 Woodward Avenue. What is now The Fillmore Detroit Theatre arose on the same site at 2115 Woodward. Notes Other sources Eisenstein, Paul. "Relighting the Footlights: The Detroit Opera House renovation recaptures the golden age of the American stage". Popular Mechanics. ISSN 0032-4558. Hill, Eric J.. AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-3120-0. Meyer, Katherine Mattingly.

P.. I. A.. Detroit Architecture A. I. A. Guide Revised Edition. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1651-1. Sharoff, Robert. American City: Detroit Architecture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-3270-2. Sobocinski, Melanie Grunow. Detroit and Rome: building on the past. Ann Arbor: Regents of the University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0-933691-09-4. Detroit Opera House official site Detroit Opera House at Cinema Treasures Nederlander Detroit Wicked is performing at the Detroit Opera House in Detroit, MI

Marietta (Glenn Dale, Maryland)

Marietta, is a historic home located in Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, Maryland. Marietta is a ​2 1⁄2-story brick Federal house, begun c. 1812, in a traditional I-house plan. It is an important example of a late Federal style brick house; the main block is five bays by two, entrance is through the central bay of the south facade. Attached to the north of the main block at right angles is a two-story rear wing, built c. 1832, attached to the west gable end is an L-shaped wing added in 1968. Marietta stands on terraced, landscaped grounds with two contemporary outbuildings: a brick law office and a stone and brick root cellar/harness storage room. Marietta was built for Gabriel Duvall, one of Prince George's County's most prominent slave-owners; the number of slaves at Marietta fluctuated between fifty. Duvall died in 1844 at Marietta. Marietta remained the residence of his heirs until 1902; the site is operated as the Marietta House Museum of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

It formerly served as the headquarters of the Prince George's County Historical Society. The house is operated as a historic house museum, is furnished to reflect three generations of Duvalls from 1815 to 1902. Marietta, Prince George's County, Inventory No.: PG:70-20, including photo in 1993, at Maryland Historical Trust website Marietta House Museum - Prince George's County Dept. of Park & Recreation Prince George's County Historical Society