Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Didi Abuli is one of the highest peak of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the nation of Georgia. The mountain is located in the Abul-Samsari Range at an elevation of 3,300 m above sea level. "Mta Didi Abduli, Georgia". Peakbagger.com
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms. They are built by ejecta from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption. Types of volcanic cones include stratocones, spatter cones, tuff cones, cinder cones. Stratocones are large cone-shaped volcanoes made up of lava flows, explosively erupted pyroclastic rocks, igneous intrusives that are centered around a cylindrical vent. Unlike shield volcanoes, they are characterized by a steep profile and periodic alternating, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions; some have collapsed. The central core of a stratocone is dominated by a central core of intrusive rocks that range from around 500 meters to over several kilometers in diameter; this central core is surrounded by multiple generations of lava flows, many of which are brecciated, a wide range of pyroclastic rocks and reworked volcanic debris.
The typical stratocone is an andesitic to dacitic volcano, associated with subduction zones. They are known as either stratified volcano, composite cone, bedded volcano, cone of mixed type or Vesuvian-type volcano. A spatter cone is a low, steep-sided hill or mound that consists of welded lava fragments, called spatter, which has formed around a lava fountain issuing from a central vent. Spatter cones are about 3–5 meters high. In case of a linear fissure, lava fountaining will create broad embankments of spatter, called spatter ramparts, along both sides of the fissure. Spatter cones are more circular and cone shaped, while spatter ramparts are linear wall-like features. Spatter cones and spatter ramparts are formed by lava fountaining associated with mafic fluid lavas, such as those erupted in the Hawaiian Islands; as blobs of molten lava, are erupted into the air by a lava fountain, they can lack the time needed to cool before hitting the ground. The spatter are not solid, like taffy, as they land and they bind to the underlying spatter as both slowly ooze down the side of the cone.
As a result, the spatter builds up a cone, composed of spatter either agglutinated or welded to each other. A tuff cone, sometimes called an ash cone, is a small monogenetic volcanic cone produced by phreatic explosions directly associated with magma brought to the surface through a conduit from a deep-seated magma reservoir, they are characterized by high rims that have a maximum relief of 100–800 meters above the crater floor and steep slopes that are greater than 25 degrees. They have a rim to rim diameter of 300–5,000 meters. A tuff cone consists of thick-bedded pyroclastic flow and surge deposits created by eruption-fed density currents and bomb-scoria beds derived from fallout from its eruption column; the tuffs composing a tuff cone have been altered, palagonitized, by either its interaction with groundwater or when it was deposited warm and wet. The pyroclastic deposits of tuff cones differ from the pyroclastic deposits of spatter cones by their lack or paucity of lava spatter, smaller grain-size, excellent bedding.
But not always, tuff cones lack associated lava flows. A tuff ring is a related type of small monogenetic volcano, produced by phreatic explosions directly associated with magma brought to the surface through a conduit from a deep-seated magma reservoir.. They are characterized by rims that have a low, broad topographic profiles and gentle topographic slopes that are 25 degrees or less; the maximum thickness of the pyroclastic debris comprising the rim of a typical tuff ring is thin, less than 50 meters to 100 meters thick. The pyroclastic materials that comprise their rim consist of fresh and unaltered and thin-bedded volcanic surge and air fall deposits, their rims can contain variable amounts of local country rock blasted out of their crater. In contrast to tuff cones, the crater of a tuff ring has been excavated below the existing ground surface; as a result, water fills a tuff ring's crater to form a lake once eruptions cease. Both tuff cones and their associated tuff rings were created by explosive eruptions from a vent where the magma is interacting with either groundwater or a shallow body of water as found within a lake or sea.
The interaction between the magma, expanding steam, volcanic gases resulted in the production and ejection of fine-grained pyroclastic debris called ash with the consistency of flour. The volcanic ash comprising a tuff cone accumulated either as fallout from eruption columns, from low-density volcanic surges and pyroclastic flows, or combination of these. Tuff cones are associated with volcanic eruptions within shallow bodies of water and tuff rings are associated with eruptions within either water saturated sediments and bedrock or permafrostNext to spatter cones, tuff cones and their associated tuff rings are among the most common types of volcanoes on Earth. An example of a tuff cone is Diamond Head at Waikīkī in Hawaiʻi. Clusters of pitted cones observed in the Nephentes/Amenthes region of Mars at the southern margin of the ancient Utopia impact basin are interpreted as being tuff cones and rings. Cinder cones known as scoria cones and less scoria mounds, are small, steep-sided volcanic cones built of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or scoria.
They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single, typi
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Paravani lake is a volcanic lake in Georgia, located in Javakheti Plateau between Abul-Samsari and Javakheti Ranges. Paravani Lake is located 2,073 m above sea level and has a surface area of 37.5 km2 and a drainage basin of 234 km2. Its maximum and average depths are 2.2 m respectively. The volume of the lake is 91,000,000 m3; the water level is high during May and June. The lake is frozen during wintertime and the thickness of the ice ranges from 47 to 73 cm. In addition to the small rivers of Shaori and Rodionovskis Tskali, the lake gets its water from snow and underground springs; the Paravani River begins from the southern part of the lake, connects to the Mtkvari River to the right. The lake is a popular destination for fishing. Paravani lake location on the map
Saghamo Lake is a lake of Samtskhe-Javakheti, southeastern Georgia, just south of Gamdzani. It covers an area of 458 hectares, it is located north of Biketi Lake. The village of Saghamo lies on its eastern bank