# Javanese numerals

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The Javanese language has a **decimal numeral system** with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called *likuran*.

The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix *-ng*. The combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct high-register (*halus*, or in Javanese *krama*) and low register (*ngoko*) forms. The *halus* forms are listed below in italics. (*Dasa* 10 is derived from Sanskrit *désa*.)

Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root *-(wə)las*, the tweens on *-likur*, and the tens are formed by the combining forms. Hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have been added to the table below to clarify their derivation.

Final orthographic *-a* tends to [ɔ] in many dialects, as does any preceding *a* (as in *sanga* [sɔŋɔ] 9).

Javanese | Hindu–Arabic | Unit | Teens | Tweens | Tens |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

꧑ | 1 | ꦱꦶꦗꦶ siji ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ setunggal |
ꦱꦼꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ sewelas/suwelas ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ setunggalwelas (11) |
ꦱꦼꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ selikur ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ setunggallikur (21) |
ꦱꦼꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sepuluh (10) ꦱꦼꦢꦱ sedasaꦱꦼꦗꦶꦤꦃ sejinah (market term) |

꧒ | 2 | ꦭꦺꦴꦫꦺꦴ loro ꦏꦭꦶꦃ kalih |
ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦱ꧀ rolas ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ kalihwelas (12) |
ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ rolikur/lolikur ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ kalihlikur (22) |
ꦫꦺꦴꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ rongpuluh (20) ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦢꦱ kalihdasaꦫꦺꦴꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ rong-jinah (market) |

꧓ | 3 | ꦠꦼꦭꦸ telu ꦠꦶꦒ tiga |
ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ telulas (13) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ tigangwelas/tigawelas |
ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ telulikur ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ tiganglikur (23)ꦠꦶꦒꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ tigalikur |
ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ telungpuluh (30) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦢꦱ tigangdasaꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ telungjinah (market) |

꧔ | 4 | ꦥꦥꦠ꧀ papat ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ sekawan |
ꦥꦠ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ patbelas/pakbelas ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ sekawanwelas (14) |
ꦥꦠ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ patlikur/pakdelikur ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ sekawanlikur (24) |
ꦥꦠꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ patangpuluh/petangpuluh (40) ꦥꦠꦁꦢꦱ patangdasa/petangdasaꦥꦠꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ patangjinah (market) |

꧕ | 5 | ꦭꦶꦩ lima ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ gangsal |
ꦭꦶꦩꦭꦱ꧀ limalas ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ gangsalwelas (15) |
ꦱꦼꦭꦮꦺ selawé ꦱꦼꦭꦁꦏꦸꦁ selangkung (25) |
ꦱꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ sèket ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ setunggalèket (50)ꦭꦶꦩꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ limangjinah (market) |

꧖ | 6 | ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ (e)nem |
ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ nembelas (16) |
ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ nemlikur (26) |
ꦱꦼꦮꦶꦢꦏ꧀ sewidak/suwidak (60) ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦢꦱ nemdasaꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦗꦶꦤꦃ nemjinah (market) |

꧗ | 7 | ꦥꦶꦠꦸ pitu |
ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦱ꧀ pitulas (17) |
ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ pitulikur (27) |
ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ pitungpuluh (70) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦢꦱ pitungdasaꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ pitungjinah (market) |

꧘ | 8 | ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ wolu |
ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ wolulas (18) |
ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ wolulikur (28) |
ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ wolungpuluh (80) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦢꦱ wolungdasaꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ wolungjinah (market) |

꧙ | 9 | ꦱꦔ sanga |
ꦱꦔꦭꦱ꧀ sangalas (19) |
ꦱꦔꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ sangalikur (29) |
ꦱꦔꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sangangpuluh (90) ꦱꦔꦁꦢꦱ sangangdasaꦱꦔꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ sangangjinah (market) |

Parallel to the tens are the hundreds (*satus, rongatus*); the thousands (*sèwu, rongèwu*), and the millions (*sayuta, rongyuta*), except that the compounds of five and six are formed with *limang-* and *nem-* (*séket* 50 and *suwidak*/*sewidak* 60 are suppletive).

## Old Javanese numerals[edit]

The names of the Old Javanese numerals were derived from their names in the Sanskrit language.

Native | Unit | Teens | Tweens | Tens | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | ꧑ | eka esa |
éka-dasa 11 | eka-dwidasa 21 | dasa 10 |

2 | ꧒ | dwi | dwi-dasa 12 | dwi-dwidasa 22 | wingsati 20 |

3 | ꧓ | tri | tri-dasa 13 | tri-dwidasa 23 | trinisat 30 |

4 | ꧔ | catur | catur-dasa 14 | catur-dwidasa 24 | catrawingsat 40 |

5 | ꧕ | panca | panca-dasa 15 | panca-dwidasa 25 | pancasat 50 |

6 | ꧖ | sad | sad-dasa 16 | sad-dwidasa 26 | sasthi 60 |

7 | ꧗ | sapta | sapta-dasa 17 | sapta-dwidasa 27 | saptati 70 |

8 | ꧘ | asta | asta-dasa 18 | asta-dwidasa 28 | astiti 80 |

9 | ꧙ | nawa | nawa-dasa 19 | nawa-dwidasa 29 | nawati 90 |

^{[1]}

## See also[edit]

- Balinese numerals, a related but yet more complex numeral system.