The pilum was a javelin used by the Roman army in ancient times. It was about 2 metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank about 7 millimetres in diameter and 60 centimetres long with a pyramidal head; the shank was joined to the wooden shaft by either a flat tang. The total weight of a pilum was between 2 and 5 pounds, with the versions produced during the earlier Republic era being heavier than those produced in the Empire era; the weapon had a hard pyramidal tip but the shank was made of softer iron. This softness would cause the shank to bend after impact. If the pilum struck a shield it might embed itself, the bending of the shank would force the enemy to discard their shield as unusable without removing the pilum, which would be time consuming. If the shank did not bend, the pyramidal tip still made it difficult to pull out. However, there were many cases where the whole shank was hardened, making the pilum more suitable as a close quarters melee weapon, while rendering it usable by enemy soldiers.
Although the bending of the pilum's shank is seen to be an integral part of the weapon's design and as an intentional feature, there is little evidence to suggest this. The most found artifacts suggest that the pilum was constructed to use the weight of the weapon to cause damage, most to be able to impale through armour and reach the enemy soldier's body; the combination of the weapon's weight and the aforementioned pyramidal tip, allowed the pilum to be a formidable armour-piercing weapon. Because the weapon was meant to be used against armour and use its own weight, as opposed to velocity, to cause damage, the bending of the shank seems to be a beneficial result of its intended use, to pierce through layers of armour; that the pilum needed to pierce layers of armour necessitated a lengthy shank, prone to bending. The momentum of the pilum caused the shank to bend upon impact, although unintended, this proved to be a useful characteristic of the weapon. Most other javelins of the time were unable to penetrate a shield.
By contrast, since the pyramidal tip of a pilum was wider than the rest of the shank, once it penetrated a shield, it left behind a hole larger than the rest of the shank, it could move through the shield with little resistance, stabbing the soldier behind. The length of the shank and its depth of penetration made it hard to pull out of a shield if it failed to bend. If the bearer of the shield was charging and a pilum penetrated the shield, the end of the heavy shaft of the pilum would hit the ground, holding the shield in place. On some pila there was a spike on the end of the shaft. Pila were divided into two models: light. Pictorial evidence suggests that some versions of the weapon were weighted by a lead ball to increase penetrative power but archeological specimens of this design variant are not so far known. Recent experiments have shown pila to have a range of 33 metres, although the effective range is up to 15–20 m; the earliest known examples of the heavy version of the pila have barbed heads and their tangs have a figure-eight shapeThe angon was a similar weapon used in late Roman and post-Roman times.
The origin of the pilum's design is a matter of contention. Arguments have been put forth which favour the design to be from ancient Italian tribes or from the Iberian peninsula. Considering that there are two versions of the pilum, it may be possible that the Roman pilum had, as ancestors, two different weapons from different cultural groups; the two weapon designs may have coalesced into the form of the typical Roman pilum, as it is known today. Legionaries of the late republic and early empire carried two pila, with one sometimes being lighter than the other. Standard tactics called for Roman soldiers to throw one of them at the enemy, just before charging to engage with the gladius; the effect of the pila throw was to disrupt the enemy formation by attrition and by causing gaps to appear in its protective shield wall. Pila could be used in hand-to-hand combat. Additionally, pila could be employed as a barrier against cavalry charges; some pila had small hand-guards, to protect the wielder if he intended to use it as a melee weapon, but it does not appear that this was common.
The Roman writer Vegetius, in his work De Re Militari, wrote: As to the missile weapons of the infantry, they were javelins headed with a triangular sharp iron, eleven inches or a foot long, were called piles. When once fixed in the shield it was impossible to draw them out, when thrown with force and skill, they penetrated the cuirass without difficulty, and in the same work: They had two other javelins, the largest of, composed of a staff five feet and a half long and a triangular head of iron nine inches long. This was called the pilum, but now it is known by the name of spiculum; the soldiers were exercised in the use of this weapon, because when thrown with force and skill it penetrated the shields of the foot and the cuirasses of the horse. It may be argued that a short iron shaft has f
Javelin was the designation of an American sounding rocket. The four stage Javelin rocket had a payload of around 125 pounds, an apogee of 1100 kilometers, a liftoff thrust of 365 kilonewtons, a total mass of 3,385 kilograms, a core diameter of 580 millimeters, it was launched 82 times between 1959 and 1976. This vehicle consisted of a Honest John first stage plus two Nike Ajax stages plus a X-248 stage. First NASA use in 1959. Could lift 45 kg to 800 km. https://web.archive.org/web/20050212234911/http://astronautix.com/lvs/javelin.htm https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4401/sp4401.htm
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the women's heptathlon; the javelin was part of the pentathlon of the Ancient Olympic Games beginning in 708 BC in two disciplines and target throw. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong, called ankyle wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes would hold the javelin by the thong and when the javelin was released this thong unwound giving the javelin a spiraled flight. Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s; the rules continued to evolve over the next decades. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up. Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.
When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by nine metres and broke his own world record. Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912. In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown. At the Olympics a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912. After that, this version of the javelin faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus. Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory. Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip; the first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909. Women threw the same implement as men. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932.
For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood birch, with a steel tip. The hollow aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; these new javelins flew further, but were less to land neatly point first. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, the world records were reset; the current men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m. Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a recognized official Olympics, has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin. Finland has, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin; the javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s.
The javelin was part of some of the many early forms of women's pentathlon, has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981. The size, minimum weight, center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m in length and 800 g in weight, women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m in length and 600 g in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity. Unlike the other throwing events, the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are
The javelin frog is a species of frog in the family Hylidae, endemic to Australia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland and intermittent freshwater marshes; the javelin frog is the smallest known tree frog in Australia, with males reaching 16 mm and females 18 mm in length. Colours are brown with a light-brown dorsal surface, dark-brown lateral stripes and light white, ventral surface. A white stripe runs along the lip and along the side of the frog
The Jowett Javelin was an executive car, produced from 1947 to 1953 by Jowett Cars Ltd of Idle, near Bradford in England. The model went through five variants each having a standard and "de luxe" option; the car was designed by Gerald Palmer during World War II and was intended to be a major leap forward from the staid designs of pre-war Jowetts. Just over 23,000 units were produced; the new Javelin, not yet in full production, made its first public appearance on Saturday 27 July 1946 in a cavalcade to celebrate 60 years of the British Motor Industry organised by the SMMT. Started by the King in Regent's Park the cavalcade passed through Marble Arch around London's West End and Piccadilly Circus and back up to Regent's Park. Series production was not underway until November 1947. In a 1949 road test report The Times' correspondent welcomed the Javelin's good performance and original design; the engine mounted ahead of the front axle briskly accelerates a body. The moderate size of the engine, the car's light weight and good streamlining all contribute to its excellent performance.
Controls were all light to operate and it was a restful car to drive. The flat four overhead valve engine of 1486 cc with a compression ratio of 7.2:1 was water-cooled and had an aluminium block and wet cylinder liners. It developed 50 bhp at 4100 rpm giving the car a maximum speed of 77 mph and a 0-50 mph time of 13.4 seconds. Two Zenith carburettors were fitted and PA and PB versions had hydraulic tappets; the radiator was behind the engine. A four-speed gearbox with column change was used. Early cars had gearboxes made by the Henry Meadows company. Jowett made the gearboxes, but the decision to make the gearboxes in-house proved to be a costly mistake. Though Jowett had some experience in transmission manufacturing, the project went disastrously wrong. Design features included aerodynamic styling with the headlights faired into the wings and, for the time, a steeply sloped, curved windscreen; the body was of pressed steel, incorporating a box-section chassis, was made for Jowett by Briggs Motor Bodies in their Doncaster factory.
The suspension used torsion-bars on internal gear-and-pinion steering. PA and PB models had mixed Girling hydraulic brakes at mechanical braking at the rear. Versions were hydraulic; the car had a track of 51 inches. Overall the car weighed about a ton depending on model and year; the car was expensive, costing £819 at launch.. The Jowett was competing against cars such as the Jaguar 1½ litre, Lanchester LD10, Riley RM 1½ litre and the Singer Super 12. A de-luxe saloon version tested by The Motor magazine in 1953 had a top speed of 82.4 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 20.9 seconds. A fuel consumption of 29.1 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1207 including taxes. An early example won in its class at the 1949 Monte Carlo Rally and another won the 2-litre touring-car class at the Spa 24-hour race in the same year. In the 1952 International RAC Rally a Javelin again won its class and took the "Best Closed Car" award, in 1953 the International Tulip Rally was won outright by a entered Javelin.
A Javelin features in How to Irritate People sketch "Car Salesman". In the film Vera Drake, Vera's car is a Javelin. In episode 104, "Fallen Angel", of the television series Ballykissangel, Father Clifford inherits a Jowett Javelin; the car was used throughout the rest of Series One and all of Series Two, until it went off a cliff in episode 301 "As Happy As A Turkey On Boxing Day". The song "Jowett Javelin" appears on the Harvey Andrews album "Snaps" and describes a ride in the automobile. A Jowett Javelin is used in the Simple Minds music video for "See the Lights" from the album Real Life. Javelin video Jowett Car Club Limited Site Jowett North West Section Site Photograph of Jowett Javelin
The FGM-148 Javelin is an American man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded to replace the M47 Dragon anti-tank missile in US service. It uses an automatic infrared guidance that allows the user to seek cover after launch, as opposed to wired-guided systems, like the Dragon, where the user has to guide the weapon throughout the engagement; the Javelin's HEAT warhead is capable of defeating modern tanks by attacking them from above where their armor is thinnest, is useful against fortifications in a direct attack flight. As of January 2019, over 5,000 Javelin missiles have been fired in combat. Javelin is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance; the system takes a top-attack flight profile against armored vehicles, but can take a direct-attack mode for use against buildings, targets inside the minimum top-attack engagement range, targets under obstructions. The missile has the ability to engage helicopters in the direct attack mode, it can reach a peak altitude of 60 m in direct-fire mode.
It is equipped with an imaging infrared seeker. The tandem warhead is fitted with two shaped charges: a precursor warhead to detonate any explosive reactive armor and a primary warhead to penetrate base armor; the missile is ejected from the launcher so that it reaches a safe distance from the operator before the main rocket motors ignite – a "soft launch arrangement". This makes it harder to identify the launcher. Thanks to this "fire-and-forget" system, the firing team may change their position as soon as the missile has been launched, or prepare to fire on their next target while the first missile is still in the air; the missile system is most carried by a two-person team consisting of a gunner and an ammunition bearer, although it can be fired with just one person if necessary. While the gunner aims and fires the missile, the ammo bearer scans for prospective targets, watches for threats, such as enemy vehicles and troops, ensures that personnel and obstacles are clear of the missile's back blast.
In 1983, the United States Army introduced its AAWS-M requirement and, in 1985, the AAWS-M was approved for development. In August 1986, the Proof-of-Principle phase of the development began, with a $30 million contract awarded for technical proof demonstrators: Ford Aerospace, Hughes Aircraft Missile System Group and Texas Instruments. In late 1988, the POP phase ended and, in June 1989, the full-scale development contract was awarded to a joint venture of Texas Instruments and Martin Marietta; the AAWS-M received the designation of FGM-148. In April 1991, the first test-flight of the Javelin succeeded, in March 1993, the first test-firing from the launcher succeeded. In 1994, low levels of production were authorized, the first Javelins were deployed with US Army units in 1996. Development test and evaluation is conducted to demonstrate that the engineering design and development process is complete, it is used to reduce risk and qualify the design, ensure that the product is ready for government acceptance.
The DT&E results are evaluated to ensure that design risks have been minimized and the system will meet specifications. The results are used to estimate the system's military utility when it is introduced into service. DT&E serves a critical purpose in reducing the risks of development by testing selected high-risk components or subsystems. DT&E is the government developing agency tool used to confirm that the system performs as technically specified and that the system is ready for field testing. DT&E is an iterative process of designing, testing, identifying deficiencies, fixing and repeating, it is performed in the factory, on the proving ground by the contractors and the government. Contractor and government testing is combined into one integrated test program and conducted to determine if the performance requirements have been met and to provide data to the decision authority; the General Accounting Office published a report questioning the adequacy of Javelin testing. The report, called "Army Acquisition—Javelin Is Not Ready for Multiyear Procurement", opposed entering into full-rate production in 1997 and expressed the need for further operational testing due to the many redesigns undergone.
In 1995, Secretary of Defense William Perry had set forth five new operational test initiatives. These included: 1) getting operational testers involved early in development; the late-phase development of the Javelin retroactively benefited from the new operational test initiatives set forth by the Secretary of Defense, as well as a further test conducted as a consequence of the Army's response to the GAO report. Before the Milestone III decision, before fielding to 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment at Fort Benning, the Javelin was subjected to limited parts of the five operational test and evaluation initiatives, as well as a portability operational test program, which included live firings with the full-rate configuration weapon. Per initiatives and as a DT&E function, the Institute for Defense Analyses and the D
HMS Javelin (F61)
HMS Javelin was a J-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by John Brown and Company, Limited, at Clydebank in Scotland on 11 October 1937, launched on 21 December 1938, commissioned on 10 June 1939 with the pennant number F61. In May 1940, during Operation Dynamo and other destroyers rescued survivors from the sinking of SS Abukir. At the end of November 1940 the 5th Destroyer Flotilla, consisting of HMS Jupiter, Jackal and Kashmir, under Captain Lord Louis Mountbatten, was operating off Plymouth, England; the flotilla engaged the German destroyers Hans Lody, Richard Beitzen, Karl Galster. Javelin was badly damaged by torpedo and artillery hits from the German destroyers and lost both her bow and her stern. Only 155 feet of Javelin's original 353 ft length remained afloat and she was towed back to harbour. Javelin was out of action for a year. Arising from this incident, Stoker First Class T Robson was killed and is interred at St Pol de Leon Cemetery, France. Javelin participated in the Operation Ironclad assault on Madagascar in May 1942.
She participated in the failed Operation Vigorous attempt to deliver a supply convoy to Malta, in June 1942. Javelin along with HMS Kelvin destroyed a flotilla of Italian small ships on the night of 19 January 1943. Javelin's record was marred on 17 October 1945 whilst off Rhodes by an outbreak of indiscipline: one leading rating was charged with mutiny, several ratings were subsequently court-martialled, though sentences were reduced as the facts became known. Javelin was sold to the shipbreakers on 11 June 1949, she was scrapped at Troon in Scotland. Henry Leach Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. English, John. Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-64-9. Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers & Frigates: The Second World War and After. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-86176-137-6. Hodges, Peter.
Destroyer Weapons of World War 2. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-137-3. Langtree, Charles; the Kelly's: British J, K, N Class Destroyers of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-422-9. Lenton, H. T.. British & Empire Warships of the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-048-7. March, Edgar J.. British Destroyers: A History of Development, 1892–1953. London: Seeley Service. OCLC 164893555. Rohwer, Jürgen. Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2. Whitley, M. J.. Destroyers of World War Two: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Cassell & Co. ISBN 1-85409-521-8. Winser, John de S.. B. E. F. Ships Before, At and After Dunkirk. Gravesend: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-91-6