Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Alejandro García Padilla
Alejandro Javier García Padilla is a Puerto Rican politician and attorney who served as the 11th governor of Puerto Rico from 2013 to 2017. Prior to this position, García Padilla held various roles in the political landscape of Puerto Rico. Locally, he is a staunch advocate for maintaining the current political status of Puerto Rico as that of an unincorporated territory of the United States with self-government, while at the national level he is allied with the Democratic Party; as governor, García Padilla shared his legislative powers with the 25th Senate and 29th House of Representatives, both controlled by his party. Regardless of this, he was not able to persuade several members of his own party to support his proposals; this failure, in addition to his low popularity led him to not seek re-election thus becoming the second governor in Puerto Rican history to not do so after their first term. García Padilla was born on 3 August 1971 in Coamo, Puerto Rico to Luis Gerardo García Sánchez and María de los Ángeles Padilla Passalacqua and is the youngest of six brothers including Juan Carlos and Antonio.
His father Luis, a World War II veteran, held various jobs throughout his life to support his family, including machinery operator, returned from the war to become a general manager of a manufacturing company. His mother has been a dedicated homemaker, he is of paternal Asturian descent with his grandfather Carlos Garcia Cadorniga born 1890 in Navia, Spain who settled in Ponce. He has Corsican lineage from his maternal great-great grandfather. García Padilla was raised in Barrio Cuyón in his hometown, he attended the Colegio Valvanera High School. After graduating, he obtained his bachelor's degree in Political Science and Economics from the University of Puerto Rico, a juris doctor from the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico School of Law. García Padilla is the first and only governor to be educated in Puerto Rico, the first and only governor who has resided only in Puerto Rico during his entire life, he is the first and only governor born in a rural municipality. García Padilla began his law career working at Puerto Rico's Court of Appeals as a law clerk.
He worked as an attorney, specializing in Property, Estates and Administrative Law. He worked as a law professor at the Interamerican University, he served as a legislative aide for the committees on Internal Affairs, Women's Affairs, Agriculture, among others. He was a member of the board of the Puerto Rico Bar Association. In January 2005, García Padilla was confirmed as Secretary of the Puerto Rico Department of Consumer Affairs under the administration of Aníbal Acevedo Vilá. During his tenure at the agency, he was known for his credibility and aggressive fiscalization. In 2007, García Padilla resigned his position as Secretary and announced that he would run for Senator. In the 2008 general elections, he received the highest number of votes among all senatorial candidates. After the election, he was selected by José Dalmau Santiago, Senate Minority Leader, to serve as the ranking member on several committees, including Governmental Affairs, Public Safety, Judicial Affairs. On 6 March 2011, García Padilla announced his plans to run for Governor of Puerto Rico in 2012.
He announced his candidacy for President of the Popular Democratic Party, running unopposed, took office on 4 April 2011. On 26 October 2011 he named Rafael Cox Alomar as his running mate for Resident Commissioner, replacing Héctor Ferrer Ríos, who withdrew from the congressional race in order to run as the PPD's candidate for Mayor of San Juan. After the 2012 gubernatorial elections of 6 November 2012, García Padilla was elected as the next Governor of Puerto Rico, by a narrow margin, defeating incumbent Luis Fortuño 47.73% to 47.13%. Puerto Rican law requires that a formal process is followed when the government must transition from one Governor to another; as such, García Padilla formed the 2012 Incoming Committee on Government Transition composed of aides and advisors who would become part of his Cabinet. García Padilla was inaugurated as the 11th Governor of Puerto Rico on 2 January 2013 by Federico Hernández Denton, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, at an event held in the Puerto Rico Capitol.
He will serve as governor concurrently with the 16th Cabinet of Puerto Rico and in parallel with the 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the 25th Senate of Puerto Rico, the 29th House of Representatives of Puerto Rico. García Padilla formed a cabinet composed of former aides and members of the private sector to form the 16th Cabinet of Puerto Rico, he holds office in parallel with the 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the 25th Senate of Puerto Rico, the 29th House of Representatives of Puerto Rico. His primary challenge will be taking a government with high deficit, his first executive orders were proclaimed on 3 January one day after being sworn in. One of them activated the Puerto Rico National Guard to monitor Puerto Rico's coasts and ports in order to reduce illegal immigration and the flow of illegal goods into the island, while another established that the Puerto Rico Chief of Staff must be consulted before making any appointments to empty seats, issuing contracts or amending existing contracts.
The third executive order was proclaimed to control spending in agencies with credit cards, escorts, official cars, overseas travel, cell phones and personal digital assistants. On 30 June 2013
David Enrique "Quique" Bernier Rivera is a Puerto Rican dentist and politician that has served in various roles in public service in Puerto Rico. Bernier first served as executive director of the Office of Youth Affairs of Puerto Rico and was confirmed as the youngest Secretary of Sports and Recreation of Puerto Rico in history. Four years he was unanimously confirmed as Secretary of State of Puerto Rico for the administration of Alejandro García Padilla, he was the 2016 candidate for Governor of Puerto Rico of the Popular Democratic Party. Ideologically, Bernier is affiliated with two parties: one within Puerto Rico and another within the United States as a whole. Within Puerto Rico, he used to preside the Popular Democratic Party and identifies as a sovereigntist—a member of a faction within the PPD that advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States rather than continuing the status quo. At the national level, Bernier is a member of the Democratic Party of the United States and a staunch supporter of President Barack Obama.
Outside politics, Bernier was an accomplished athlete. He was a member of the Puerto Rican national fencing team, in which he represented the island in the Pan American Games and in the Central American and Caribbean Games; as a Pan American athlete, he was a Pan American Youth Champion for three consecutive years. He won a bronze medal in the 1998 Central American and Caribbean Games celebrated in Maracaibo, Venezuela, his accomplishments as an athlete led him to public service. As an accomplished youngster, governor Sila María Calderón decided to appoint Bernier to lead the Puerto Rico Office of Youth Affairs in 2003. Two years governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá appointed him as Secretary of Sports of Puerto Rico, but as a different political party took over the government, Bernier opted to leave his incumbency after four years of service. A few months he was elected president of the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee. In that capacity Bernier led the efforts to organize the 2010 Central American and Caribbean Games celebrated in Mayaguez.
A few years and as he was preparing for his re-election for president of the committee, governor Alejandro García Padilla appointed him as Secretary of State of Puerto Rico. In that role, Bernier transformed the Department of State of Puerto Rico by creating the Morales Carrión Diplomatic and Foreign Relations School, by opening several Puerto Rican trade promotion offices in foreign countries, by reducing the backlog of business charters filings and intellectual property filings. Bernier, left his incumbency once again but this time to run for governor of Puerto Rico in the 2016 general election for the Popular Democratic Party. Bernier campaigned to become the 12th Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, he began his tour in February 2016 under the name "Tour Colorao" in reference to his redheadedness. On November 8, 2016, Bernier lost the 2016 Governor's race, losing to main rival Ricky Rosselló of the New Progressive Party Bernier was born in Patillas, the fifth of six children, to Luis David Bernier Rivera, a professor at the University of Puerto Rico at Ponce, Celia Rivera Guzmán, a nurse.
He and his younger brother, Víctor, attended the María Dávila Semidey School in Patillas, where they received their primary education. After this, they enrolled in the school of sports of the Albergue Olímpico located in Salinas. Bernier became a member of the National Fencing Selection of Puerto Rico, during his school years, represented Puerto Rico in events worldwide, he was president of the first graduating class of the Albergue Olímpico school. Bernier studied at the University of Puerto Rico at Cayey where he received a bachelor's degree in natural sciences, graduating magna cum laude, he completed a doctorate in odontology at the University of Puerto Rico School of Dental Medicine. He was president of the student council and was named president of the Association of Athletes of High Endurance; as a member of the National Fencing Selection of Puerto Rico, Bernier was the Panamerican Youth Champion for three consecutive years. He won the Bronze Medal in the 1998 Central American and Caribbean Games, celebrated in Maracaibo, Venezuela.
Bernier and his brother went to Carolina. On 2004, Bernier was inducted into the Puerto Rican Sports Hall of Fame. On September 2008, Bernier resigned to his position as Secretary of Sports and Recreation to run for President of the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee; the election for president of the Olympic Committee took place on October 1, 2008. Bernier won the seat receiving 26 votes from the Federation delegates versus 13 votes in favor of incumbent Héctor Cardona; as president of the Olympic Committee, Bernier dealt with the 2010 Central American and Caribbean Games in Mayagüez, the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. In 2003, Governor Sila Calderón appointed Bernier as executive director of the Office of Youth Affairs. On September 26, 2003, the Senate of Puerto Rico confirmed Bernier for the position. On January 4, 2005, he resigned his post at the Office of Youth Affairs after being named Secretary of the Puerto Rico Department of Sports and Recreation by Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá.
He was unanimously confirmed in that post by the Senate of Puerto Rico, presided over by Kenneth McClintock, who preceded him as secretary of state. In 2006, after the Senate failed to confirm two nominees to replace him at the Office of Youth Affairs, the Governor nominated him once again to that job, which he held with the po
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico)
The Popular Democratic Party is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government. The party was founded in 1938 by dissidents from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party and promoted policies on the center-left. In recent years, its leaders have described the party as centrist; as one of the long-standing parties on the island, the PPD has played a significant role in the history of Puerto Rico. In the early 1950s, for example, the party held a majority in the delegation convened to draft the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Once the constitution was ratified, the document was proclaimed by the party's leader and co-founder, Luis Muñoz Marín—who, in doing so, became the first Puerto Rican governor elected by the people of Puerto Rico; the party ruled all branches of the Puerto Rican government afterward for 36 of the past 67 years, while establishing many of the institutions that permeate Puerto Rican society today.
Today, the party is one of the two major parties in Puerto Rico with significant political strength. In the executive branch, the party's last governor was Alejandro García Padilla who governed the island from 2013–2017, it holds minorities in the legislative and judicial branches by holding minorities in the Senate, in the House, in the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, however, is from the PPD. In the municipal landscape, the party holds more than half of the seats of mayors. Ideologically, the PPD differs from the other parties active in the island. For example, the party's opponent has been the New Progressive Party, which advocates for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. Both parties have ruled the island unopposed for years after the Puerto Rican constitution was ratified in 1952. Members of the party are referred to in different terms depending on their faction. In general, those affiliated to the party are called populares and affiliate with the Democratic Party of the United States.
Internally, members aligned with the delegation that drafted the constitution compose the largest faction and are referred to as'conservatives'. A smaller'liberal' faction is referred to as the soberanistas, advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States rather than remain an unincorporated part of the United States. Dissidents expelled from the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, founded the PPD in 1938. Many of them were part of the old socialist movement of Puerto Rico; the dissident faction calling themselves the Partido Liberal, Auténtico y Completo, was led by Luis Muñoz Marín. In 1937, the debate had concerned the differences between the moderate demands of autonomy leading to gradual independence by the Liberal Party faction led by Barcelo, the desire for more radical demands of immediate independence and social reform by Muñoz and his followers. In 1940, the highest elective political office in Puerto Rican was as president of its Senate. At the time, the governor was appointed by the president of the United States.
In the 1940 election, the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico finished in a dead heat with the Liberal Party. Luis Muñoz Marin of the PPD brokered an alliance with minor Puerto Rican factions so as to secure his position as Senate president; the elections in 1944 and 1948 resulted in greater victory margins for the PPD. Once Jesús T. Piñero stepped down as the first Puerto Rican named governor, the governor's office became an elected position. In 1949, under the leadership of Luis Muñoz Marín, the PPD won the first gubernatorial elections in Puerto Rico, Muñoz became the first elected governor of the island, he served for what is the longest continuous rule by a governor in Puerto Rican history, being re-elected three times, serving a total of four 4-year terms, or 16 years. This record has been surpassed only by one of the governors under Spanish rule. On May 21, 1948, one of the PPD introduced a bill that would restrain the rights of the independence and nationalist movements in the island.
Controlled by the PPD, the legislature passed the Bill. The Bill known as the "Ley de la Mordaza", made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, to fight for the liberation of the island; the Bill which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States, was signed and made into law on June 10, 1948, by the U. S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Jesús T. Piñero and became known as "Ley 53"; the new law made it a crime to print, sale, to exhibit or organize or to help anyone organize any society, group or assembly of people whose intentions are to paralyze or destroy the insular government. Anyone accused and found guilty of disobeying the law could be sentenced to ten years of prison, be fined $10,000 dollars or both. According to Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa, a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was repressive and violated the First Amendment of the US Constitution which guarantees Freedom of Speech, he pointed out that the law was a violation of the civil rights of the peopl