Du'a Nudba is one of the major Shiite prayers about Muhammad al-Mahdi and his occultation. Nudba means to cry and Shiites read the prayer for ask to help them during the occultation; the supplication recite in Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Ghadeer, in every Friday morning. Mazar al-Kabir, Mazar al-Ghadim, Mesbaho al-Zaer were narrated the supplication; these books were written with authentic narrators such as Sayyed Ibn Tawus. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi wrote this prayer in Zaad-ul-Maad from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Albazofari, a person who lived in minor occultation, narrated from The Four Deputies of Imam Mahdi that Imam Mahdi said to read the prayer. Dua Ahd Du'a Kumayl Mujeer Du'a Jawshan Saqeer Du'a Abu Hamza al-Thumali Du,a sanam-e-Quraish Content of Dua Nudba
Husayn ibn Ali
Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and the first Imam of Shia Islam and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā', as well as the third Shia Imam. Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Muawiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor in a clear violation of the Hasan-Muawiya treaty; when Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husain pledge allegiance to him. Husain refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid though it meant sacrificing his life; as a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah, he was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 by Yazid, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.
Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution. Husayn is regarded by Shia Muslims for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid, the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust; the annual memorial for him and his children and companions occurs during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, the day he was martyred is known as Ashura. Husayn's actions at Karbala fueled Shia movements, the martyrdom of Husayn was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shia history; the timing of the Imam's life and martyrdom were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the seventh century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, the stand of Husain and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors and injustice. Throughout history, many notable personalities, such as Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi, have cited Husain's stand against oppression as an example for their own fights against injustice.
Husayn's maternal grandmother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad. Hasan and Husayn were regarded by Muhammad as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children as his own children and descendants, he said "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatimah for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah are the descendants of Muhammad, are part of his family. Husayn had several children: Ali Zayn al-'Ābidīn Sakinah, Ali al-Akbar Fatimah as-Sughra Sukaynah Ali al-Asghar Husayn was born on 10 October CE 625. However, Shia Hadith state that He was born AH 3. Husayn and his brother Hasan were the last male descendants of Muhammad living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them. Muhammad is reported to have said that "He who loves me and loves these two, their father and their mother, will be with me at my place on the Day of Resurrection." and that "Hussain is of me and I am of him.
Allah loves those. Hussain is a grandson among grandsons." A narration declares Hasan and Husain as the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise". The Shi'a maintain. "The theologians have defined the Imamate, saying: "Surely the Imamate is a grace from Allah, Who grants it to the most perfect and best of His servants to Him" Other traditions record Muhammad with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself, when they were young. According to Wilferd Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as people of his Bayt frequently, he has said: "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatima for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah were descendants of Muhammad, part of his Bayt. According to popular Sunni belief, it refers to the household of Muhammad. Shia popular view is the members of Muhammad's family that were present at the incident of Mubahalah. According to Muhammad Baqir Majlisi who compiled Bihar al-Anwar, a collection of ahadith, Chapter 46 Verse 15 and Chapter 89 Verses 27-30 of the Qur'an are regarding Al-Husayn.
In the year AH 10 a Christian envoy from Najran came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning'Īsā. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad was instructed to call them to Mubahalah where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families. "If anyone dispute with you in this matter [concern
Laylat al-Qadr, variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is an Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is one of the nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. Muslims believe that on this night the blessings and mercy of God are abundant, sins are forgiven, supplications are accepted, that the annual decree is revealed to the angels who descend to earth, specially the Angel Gabriel, referred to as "the Spirit", to perform every and any errand decreed by God. Islam holds that God Almighty alone answers our supplications and that He alone receives them and forgives humanity and gives them what they ask for and that on this particular night Muslims should seek God's forgiveness and engage in various acts of worship; some commentators believe. The Quran uses the word Inzal which justifies'the immediate revelation', according to Allamah Tabatabai.
However some others believe that the revelation of Quran occurred in two phases, with the first phase being the revelation in its entirety on Laylat al-Qadr to the angel Gabriel in the lowest heaven, the subsequent verse-by-verse revelation to Muhammad by Gabriel. The revelation started in 610 CE at the Hira cave on Mount Nur in Mecca; the first Surah, revealed was Sūrat al-ʿAlaq. During the first revelation the first five verses of this Surah, or chapter, were revealed; the specific date of Laylat al-Qadr is not mentioned in the Quran. In Islamic countries and Sunni communities all over the world, Laylat al-Qadr is found to be on the last ten nights of Ramadan in on one of the odd nights whereby night precedes day. Many traditions insist on the night before the 27th of Ramadan. Shia Muslims believe that Laylat al-Qadr is to be found in the last ten odd nights of Ramadan but on the 19th, 21st or 23rd of Ramadan with 23rd being the most important night; the 19th, according to the Shia belief coincides with the night Ali was attacked in the Mihrab while worshipping in the Great Mosque of Kufa, died on the 21st of Ramadan.
Mahdavi Muslims believe that God blessed them with this most valued night of might/power, by the virtue of Muhammad Jaunpuri while travelling from Thatta towards Farah. During his stay in Makran, Imam Mahdi, in compliance with divine order, offered Dogana Laylat al-Qadr past midnight of 27 Ramadan 908 AH along with his family members and companions at the nearby mountain, named after him as Koh-e-Murad; the night is not comparable to any others in view of Muslims and according to a tradition, the blessings due to the acts of worship during this night can't be equaled by worshipping throughout an entire lifetime. The reward of acts of worship done in this one single night is more than the reward of around 83 years of worship. Laylat al-Qadr is referenced in the Quran: We have indeed revealed this in the Night of Power: And what will explain to thee what the Night of Power is? The Night of Power is better than a thousand months. Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah's permission, on every errand: Peace!...
This until the rise of dawn! The verses above regard the night as better than one thousand months; the whole month of Ramadan is a period of spiritual training wherein believers devote much of their time to fasting, reciting the Quran, engaging in the remembrance of God and giving charity. However, because of the revealed importance of this night, Muslims strive harder in the last ten days of Ramadan since the Laylat al-Qadr could be one of the odd-numbered days in these last ten; some Muslims from each community perform iʿtikāf in the mosque: they remain in the mosque for the last ten days of the month for prayers and recitation. Women observe i'tikaf, they remain in prayer and meditation although they are allowed to do the minimum domestic work to run the family. When Muhammed observed i'tikaf in a tent, he saw a few tents around his, his wives joined him by pitching tents. Shia Muslims believe that Ali had special intimacy with Allah on this night. Imam Sadiq is quoted as saying: Once Imam Ali was reciting Surat al-Qadr and his sons, Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn were near him.
Imam Husayn asked his father: “Father, how come we feel a different sensation when you recite this surah?” Imam Ali replied, “O son of the Prophet and my son! I know things from this chapter; when this surah was sent down to the Prophet he asked me to go to him. When I went to him he recited this surah he put his hand on my right shoulder and said: O my brother and my successor! O the leader of my nation after me! O tireless fighter with my enemies! This surah is yours after me, is for your two sons after you. Gabriel, my brother among the angels informs me of the events of one year of my nation at the night of Qadr, and after me he will give this information to you. This surah will always have a shining light in your heart and in the heart of your successors until the rising of the dawn of the day of reappearance of Qa'im.” Predestination in Islam Glossary of Islam Islamic calendar Muslim holidays Lailatul Qadr Al Qa
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship a deity, through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity, or a deified ancestor. More prayer can have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, in comparative religion is associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells. Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. Today, most major religions involve prayer in another; the English term prayer is from Medieval Latin precaria "petition, prayer". The Vulgate Latin is oratio, which translates Greek προσευχή in turn the Septuagint translation of Biblical Hebrew תְּפִלָּה tĕphillah. Various spiritual traditions offer a wide variety of devotional acts. There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, reverent physical gestures.
Some Christians fold their hands. Some Native Americans regard dancing as a form of prayer; some Sufis whirl. Hindus chant mantras. Jewish prayer may involve bowing. Muslims practice salat in their prayers. Quakers keep silent; some pray according to standardized rituals and liturgies, while others prefer extemporaneous prayers. Still others combine the two. Friedrich Heiler is cited in Christian circles for his systematic Typology of Prayer which lists six types of prayer: primitive, Greek cultural, philosophical and prophetic; some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or purification such as in ghusl and wudhu. Prayer may be done and individually, or it may be done corporately in the presence of fellow believers. Prayer can be incorporated into a daily "thought life", in which one is in constant communication with a god; some people pray throughout all, happening during the day and seek guidance as the day progresses. This is regarded as a requirement in several Christian denominations, although enforcement is not possible nor desirable.
There can be many different answers to prayer, just as there are many ways to interpret an answer to a question, if there in fact comes an answer. Some may experience physical, or mental epiphanies. If indeed an answer comes, the time and place it comes is considered random; some outward acts that sometimes accompany prayer are: anointing with oil. One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting. A variety of body postures may be assumed with specific meaning associated with them: standing. Prayers may be recited from memory, read from a book of prayers, or composed spontaneously as they are prayed, they may be chanted, or sung. They may be with musical accompaniment or not. There may be a time of outward silence. There are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other significant events in the life of a believer, or days of the year that have special religious significance. Details corresponding to specific traditions are outlined below.
Anthropologically, the concept of prayer is related to that of surrender and supplication. The traditional posture of prayer in medieval Europe is kneeling or supine with clasped hands, in antiquity more with raised hands; the early Christian prayer posture was standing, looking up to heaven, with outspread arms and bare head. This is the pagan prayer posture. Certain Cretan and Cypriote figures of the Late Bronze Age, with arms raised, have been interpreted as worshippers, their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender. The kneeling posture with clasped hands appears to have been introduced only with the beginning high medieval period adopted from a gesture of feudal homage. Although prayer in its literal sense is not used in animism, communication with the spirit world is vital to the animist way of life; this is accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and shows the spirits' thoughts to the people.
Other ways to receive messages from the spirits include using astrology or contemplating fortune tellers and healers. Some of the oldest extant literature, such as the Sumerian temple hymns of Enheduanna are liturgy addressed to deities and thus technically "prayer"; the Egyptian Pyramid Texts of about the same period contain spells or incantations addressed to the gods. In the loosest sense, in the form of magical thinking combined with animism, prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of behavioral modernity, by anthropologists such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor a
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
Ali ibn Husayn known as Zayn al-Abidin and Imam al-Sajjad, was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn ibn Ali, his uncle Hasan ibn Ali, his grandfather Ali ibn Abi Talib. Ali ibn Husayn survived the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, after which he and other surviving family members and companions of Husayn were taken to Yazid I in Damascus, he was allowed to return to Medina, where he led a secluded life with a few intimate companions. Imam Sajjad's life and statements were devoted to asceticism and religious teachings in the form of invocations and supplications, his famous supplications are known as Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. Ali ibn al-Husayn was born in Medina, modern-day Saudi Arabia, in the year 38/658–9, he may have been too young to have remembered his grandfather Ali. It is said that Ali ibn al-Husayn was related through his mother Shahrbanu, the daughter of Yazdegerd, to the last Sassanian King of Persia. Ali ibn al-Husayn was known as Ibn al-Khiyaratayn, the "son of the best two". Ali ibn Abi Talib suggested allowing her to choose a husband from among the Muslims and paying her mahr from the public treasury.
Umar agreed. She is said to have died shortly after giving birth to her only son Ali, and in other stories this happened during the caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Taleb. Ali ibn al-Husayn is related through this Sassanid Persian bloodline to the Byzantine emperors Maurice and Tiberius II through princess Mariam the daughter of emperor Maurice, and to king David through Shushandukht mother of Bahram V. In 61/680, Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and a small group of supporters and relatives were martyred at the Battle of Karbala by the large military forces of the Umayyad caliph Yazid, to whom Husayn had refused to give an oath of allegiance. Zayn al-Abidin accompanied his father on a march toward Kufa. Once the Umayyad troops had martyred Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents and took the skin upon which he was laying, it is said that Shemr was about to kill Zayn al-Abidin but his aunt Zaynab made Umar ibn Sa'ad, the Umayyad commander, spare his life. Zain al-Abidin and the enslaved women were taken to the caliph.
During the journey, he delivered speeches in Kufa and Damascus, informed the people of his father's intentions. Several accounts record Zayn al-Abidin's deep sorrow over the massacre, it is said. One day a servant said to him, "O son of Allah’s Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?" He replied, "Oh person you did not do justice by saying this! Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, Allah made one of them disappear", his eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, his back became bent in the gloom,Quran, 12:84}} though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?"}}} Kufa's people invited Husayn to go to Kufa and be their Imam, but they did not back him and his family against Kufa's governor, who massacred them in Karbala. Thus they thought themselves responsible for the tragedy of Karbala and tried to compensate for it by throwing themselves into the struggle to obtain vengeance for Husayn's blood.
They chose Sulayman b. Surad al Khuza'I as their leader and called themselves Tawwabun, they were seeking an opportunity for action, until Mukhtar al-Thaqafi came to Kufa and claimed to represent Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah. He soon gained the authority of a leader and took vengeance on those who were involved in Husayn's killing. Umar ibn Sa'ad and Shemr were executed and their heads were sent to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah. Ubaid Allah was killed in the battle on the Zab; the governor of Medina did not consider that Zayn al-Abedin was responsible for Mukhtar's action, since he had left Medina for its outskirts to avoid being involved in political movements. Moreover, there is evidence that he was unmolested and excepted from giving allegiance to Yazid, after the Battle of Harra, where Medinans were sacked and looted by Yazid's army. Around that time, the question of the right of succession between Ali ibn al-Husayn and Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah gained the most attention. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was a brave man whom many considered him as their Imam.
Other Shia sects said Zayn al-Abedin had the right to inherit the Imamah, for his father Husayn had designated him the next Imam. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah said. After the death of Ibn Zubayr, the governor of Medina, Zayn al-Abedin and Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah agreed to go to Mecca and appeal to the Black Stone of the Kaaba to try to determine which one of them was the true successor, they went to the Kaaba. Muhammad prayed for a sign but no answer came. Afterwards, Zayn al-Abedin prayed and the Black Stone became agitated and nearly fell off the wall.