Pfizer Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, it is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 2004. Pfizer ranked No. 57 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On December 19, 2018, Pfizer announced a joint merger of their consumer healthcare division with UK pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline; the company develops and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology, cardiology and neurology. Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor, used to lower LDL blood cholesterol. In 2016, Pfizer Inc. was expected to merge with Allergan, Plc to create the Ireland-based "Pfizer plc" in a deal that would have been worth $160 billion. The merger was called off in April 2016, because of new rules from the United States Treasury against tax inversions, a method of avoiding taxes by merging with a foreign company.
The company has made the second-largest pharmaceutical settlement with the United States Department of Justice. Pfizer was founded in 1849 by German-American Charles Pfizer and his cousin Charles F. Erhart from Ludwigsburg, Germany, they launched the chemicals business Charles Pfizer and Company from a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett Street in Williamsburg, where they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that kick-started Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street, Harrison Avenue, Gerry Street, Flushing Avenue. Pfizer's original administrative headquarters was at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan. By 1906, sales totaled $3.4 million. World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate which Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, the company began a search for an alternative supply.
Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid, they were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919, the company developed expertise in fermentation technology as a result. These skills were applied to the mass production of the antibiotic penicillin during World War II in response to the need to treat injured Allied soldiers. Penicillin became inexpensive in the 1940s, Pfizer searched for new antibiotics with greater profit potential, they discovered Terramycin in 1950, this changed the company from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. Pfizer developed a drug discovery program focusing on in vitro synthesis in order to augment its research in fermentation technology; the company established an animal health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. By the 1950s, Pfizer had established offices in Belgium, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom. In 1960, the company moved its medical research laboratory operations out of New York City to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut.
In 1980, they launched Feldene, a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer's first product to reach one billion dollars in total sales. During the 1980s and 1990s, Pfizer Corporation growth was sustained by the discovery and marketing of Zoloft, Norvasc, Aricept and Viagra. In this decade, Pfizer grew by mergers, including those with Warner–Lambert and Wyeth. In 2003, the company acquired Esperion Therapeutics for $1.3 billion, protecting Lipitor from ETC-216. In 2004, Pfizer announced. In 2005, the company made a number of acquisitions: Vicuron Pharmaceuticals for $1.9 billion, Idun for just less than $300 million and Angiosyn for $527 million. On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit to Johnson & Johnson for $16.6 billion. Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled in December 2006. During a Phase III clinical trial involving 15,000 patients, more deaths occurred in the group that took the medicine than expected, a sixty percent increase in mortality was seen among patients taking the combination of torcetrapib and Lipitor versus Lipitor alone.
Lipitor alone was not implicated in the results, but Pfizer lost nearly $1 billion developing the failed drug and the market value of the company plummeted afterwards. The company announced it would acquire Powermed and Rivax. In September 2009, Pfizer pleaded guilty to the illegal marketing of the arthritis drug Bextra for uses unapproved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, agreed to a $2.3 billion settlement, the largest health care fraud settlement at that time. A July 2010 article in BusinessWeek reported that Pfizer was seeing more success in its battle against makers of counterfeit prescription drugs by pursuing c
Senomyx is an American biotechnology company working toward developing additives to amplify certain flavors and smells in foods. The company claims to have "reverse engineered" the receptors in humans that react for taste and aroma, that they are capitalizing on these discoveries to produce chemicals that will make food taste better. On 17 Sept 2018, Firmenich completed the acquisition of Senomyx. Senomyx was founded by prominent biochemist Lubert Stryer in 1999. In May 2001, Stryer returned to his professorship at Stanford University and resigned from Senomyx, but continues to be the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board; the company developed Substance 951, a potentiator used to amplify the sweetness of sugar in food products, thereby allowing the manufacturer to reduce the amount of sugar used. Senomyx develops patented flavor enhancers by using "proprietary taste receptor-based assay systems", which have been expressed in human cell culture, in HEK293 cells. HEK293 cells are a cell line used in biological and medical research, immortalised through a genetic modification and many, many generations removed from the original human embryonic kidney cells taken from a healthy, electively aborted human fetus in the early 1970s.
The receptors in the assay are used to identify flavours. No human taste receptors are used as ingredients in any flavourings. Using information from the human genome sequence, Senomyx has identified hundreds of taste receptors and owns 113 patents on their discoveries. Senomyx collaborates with seven of the world's largest food companies to further their research and to fund development of their technology. Senomyx's products work by amplifying the intensity of flavors; because small amounts of the additive are used Senomyx's chemical compounds will not appear on labels, but will fall under the broad category of "artificial flavors." For the same reason, the company's chemicals have not undergone the FDA's usual safety approval process for food additives. Senomyx's MSG-enhancer gained the Generally Recognized as Safe status from the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association, an industry-funded organization, in less than 18 months, which included three months of tests on rats. According to Senomyx's website, it "received a positive review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, which determined that there were no safety concerns with the use of the Company's savory flavor ingredients in foods.
The positive assessment by JECFA is expected to expedite regulatory approvals in a number of countries those that do not have independent regulatory approval systems." Two of Senomyx's newest innovations include a Cool Flavor Program that seeks to enhance cooling, menthol sensations, a Bitter Blocker Program. According to Senomyx's website, the company is collaborating with Solae, the international soy ingredients supplier, "to develop new bitter blockers that better modulate and control bitterness in certain soy-based products." Senomyx has identified the receptors in the mouth responsible for sensing bitter taste and developed a chemical additive to knock out these receptors when eaten with hydrolyzed soy protein and other soy derivatives. Senomyx's revenues for the last quarter of 2007 were up 87% from the same period in 2006, its stock prices are rising. CEO Kent Snyder reports that corporate goals include "continuing to achieve significant progress in all of our discovery and development programs such as regulatory approval for our S2383 sucralose enhancer and selection of a sucrose enhancer for regulatory development.
We expect expanded commercialization of food products containing our savory flavor ingredients and additional new business development accomplishments."
The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune; the name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were: San Diego Herald, founded 1851 and closed April 7, 1860. Both the Union and the Tribune were acquired by Copley Press in 1928 and were merged on February 2, 1992; the merged newspaper was sold to the private investment group Platinum Equity of Beverly Hills, California, on March 18, 2009. On August 17, 2010, the Union-Tribune changed its design to improve "clarity and ease of use".
Changes included being printed on thinner, 100 percent recycled paper, moving the comics to the back of the business section, abbreviating the title The San Diego Union-Tribune on the front page to U-T San Diego. The U-T nameplate was created by Jim Parkinson, a type designer who created nameplates for The Rolling Stone and Newsweek. In November 2011, Platinum Equity sold the newspaper to MLIM Holdings, a company led by Doug Manchester, a San Diego real estate developer and "an outspoken supporter of conservative causes"; the purchase price was in excess of $110 million. Manchester built two landmark downtown hotels, the Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel and the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina, his group owns the Grand Del Mar luxury resort in San Diego. On January 3, 2012, the newspaper announced that it would use the name U-T San Diego "on all of our media products and communications"; the official announcement explained the change as being intended to "unify our print and digital products under a single brand with a clear and consistent expectation of quality".
U-T San Diego bought the North County Times in 2012. On October 15, 2012, the North County Times ceased publication and became the U-T North County Times, an edition of the U-T with some North County–specific content. Six months the U-T North County Times name was dropped and the newspaper became a North County edition of the U-T. In June 2012, U-T San Diego launched a television news channel; the network featured news and editorial content produced by the newspaper's staff, was created as part of the newspaper's growing emphasis on multi-platform content under Manchester. By October 2013, just over a year after its launch, the network re-formatted with a focus on news, amidst a number of major departures among the channel's staff. On February 19, 2014, U-T TV was discontinued, but the network's remaining staff was retained to produce video content for the newspaper's digital properties. In November 2013, the newspaper bought eight more local weekly newspapers in the San Diego area, which continued publication under their own names.
On May 7, 2015, it was announced that the Tribune Publishing Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, other newspapers, had reached a deal to acquire U-T San Diego and its associated properties for $85 million. The sale ended the newspaper's 146 years of private ownership; the transaction was completed on May 21, 2015. On the same date, the newspaper reintroduced its previous branding as The San Diego Union-Tribune; the Union-Tribune and the Los Angeles Times became part of a new operating entity known as the California News Group, with both newspapers led by Times publisher and chief executive officer Austin Beutner. The two newspapers would retain distinct operations, but there would be a larger amount of synergy and content sharing between them; the acquisition did not include the newspaper's headquarters, retained by Manchester and would be leased by the newspaper. On May 26, 2015, the newspaper announced it would lay off 178 employees, representing about thirty percent of the total staff, as it consolidated its printing operations with the Times in Los Angeles.
In 2016, The San Diego Union Tribune acquired the monthly entertainment magazine Pacific San Diego. On June 13, 2015, at 10:02 p.m. PDT the final run of The San Diego Union Tribune was printed at the San Diego headquarters in Mission Valley began, it was to print the Sunday edition newspaper for June 14, 2015. The following Monday's newspaper would be printed at the Los Angeles Times location; the dismantling of the printing presses in Mission Valley began in mid-September 2015. In 2016 rival newspaper publisher Gannett Company offered to buy the Tribune Publishing Company; the offer was rejected by management, spurring some shareholder dissatisfaction and a shareholder lawsuit. Meanwhile, the Tribune Publishing Company renamed itself Tronc Inc. Tronc is an acronym for Tribune online content. Effective June 20, the renamed company will trade on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol TRNC. In February 2018, a deal was reached to sell the Union-Tribune to Patrick Soon-Shiong, a medical doctor who has made billions as a biotech entrepreneur.
The deal included the Los Angele
Taylor University is a private, interdenominational, evangelical Christian college in Upland, United States. Founded in 1846, it is one of America's oldest evangelical Christian colleges. Taylor University was ranked first in U. S. News and World Report’s 2017 guide to America’s Best Colleges among 94 Midwest region colleges, it is finished a ten-year building initiative and a review and reorganization of its university and academic programs. Taylor's campus features several residential facilities, they are the home of the Taylor University Trojans, including a wide variety of collegiate sport teams. The university is named after Bishop William Taylor; the university sits on an 950 acres campus on the south side of Upland. It preserves a 680 acres arboretum and an additional 668 acres of undeveloped land northeast of campus which have 80 acres more of arboretum space. Taylor University has 1,910 undergraduate students, 108 graduate students, 524 distance learning students; the student body hails with 35 percent from Indiana.
Taylor is a member of NAIA with women's sports teams. The university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities and the Christian College Consortium. Being a Christian institution and programs at Taylor are biblically anchored and centered on Christ, with a focus on the "integration of faith and learning." Adhering to a strict statement of faith and community lifestyle covenant, the university seeks to project the Gospel. The university has a special focus on global servant leadership; the university takes a special pride in its heritage and traditions, invests in fostering a community for its faculty, alumni and their families. The university holds chapel worship services three times a week during the academic year which community members are expected to attend. Lowell Haines, a 1975 Taylor graduate, is the university's thirty-first and current president. Taylor University was established as Fort Wayne Female College in Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1846.
In the first full year of the school, about 100 women were enrolled. During this time, it was common for women to obtain an M. E. L. Degree, the Mistress of English Literature. Fort Wayne Female College was founded by the Methodist Church as an all-female school. Fort Wayne Female College started admitting men coeducationally in 1850 and changed its name to Fort Wayne College. In 1890, Fort Wayne College acquired the former facilities of nearby Fort Wayne Medical College that were vacated after Fort Wayne Medical College's merger with Indiana Asbury College, another Methodist-affiliated college. Upon completing this acquisition, Fort Wayne College changed its name to Taylor University in honor of Bishop William Taylor; the original Taylor University campus was on College Street in Fort Wayne. A guest-preaching engagement in 1882 in the Upland Methodist Church afforded Taylor University president Thaddeus Reade the chance to meet the minister of Upland Methodist Church, Rev. John C. White; because the school was having financial difficulties at its location in Fort Wayne and Upland citizen J.
W. Pittinger worked to bring the school to Upland. In the spring of 1893 White negotiated an agreement between the Taylor trustees and the Upland Land Company, whereby the university agreed to move to Upland and the company agreed to provide Taylor with $10,000 in cash and 10 acres of land. In the summer of 1893, Taylor University relocated to Upland. White was able to find the resources to support Taylor University because of the recent discovery of large deposits of natural gas in the area. In 1915, Taylor paid seven thousand dollars to purchase 70 acres more from Charles H. and Bertha Snyder. The university added another 80 acres to its present location in the early 1920s when the Lewis Jones farm was purchased. In 1992, ninety-nine years after moving to Upland, Taylor University acquired Summit Christian College. Summit Christian College was named Fort Wayne Bible College and Fort Wayne Bible Institute. Prior to acquisition by Taylor University, Summit Christian College was affiliated with the Missionary Church.<With the urban setting of Fort Wayne, this campus' academic programs tended to be more vocational and its student body more non-traditional.
Reflecting this, of TUFW's 1,040 member student body 224 students lived on campus with the rest commuting or taking courses online. Popular majors included Professional Writing, Biblical Studies, Christian Ministries, Education and Business. Annual Report of the Taylor University Center for Ethics. 2014-2015. The focus of the 2014-2015 academic year for the Center for Ethics has been engaging all; the Taylor University Fort Wayne Falcons participated in the United States Collegiate Athletic Association. The school offered basketball for men and women, soccer for men and women, women's volleyball. On October 13, 2008, the university announced plans to discontinue traditional undergraduate programs on the Fort Wayne Campus. Programs that remained after the closure or were transitioned to the Upland campus include the MBA program, the online program, the radio station, WBCL. On April 26, 2006, Taylor received national attention when a University van was involved in a fatal accident outside Marion, while traveling between the Fort Wayne and Upland campuses.
The accident happened when a northbound
Case Western Reserve University
Case Western Reserve University is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. It was created in 1967 through the federation of two longstanding contiguous institutions: Western Reserve University, founded in 1826 and named for its location in the Connecticut Western Reserve, Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880 through the endowment of Leonard Case, Jr.. Time magazine described the merger as the creation of "Cleveland's Big-Leaguer" university. Seventeen Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Case Western Reserve or one of its two predecessors. In U. S. News & World Report's 2018 rankings, Case Western Reserve was ranked 37th among national universities and 146th among global universities. In 2016, the inaugural edition of The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education ranked Case Western Reserve as 32nd among all universities and 29th among private institutions; the campus is 5 miles east of Downtown Cleveland in the neighborhood known as University Circle, an area encompassing 550 acres containing what has been called the greatest concentration of educational and cultural institutions within one square mile of the United States.
Case Western Reserve has a number of programs taught in conjunction with University Circle institutions, including the Cleveland Clinic, the University Hospitals of Cleveland, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland Institute of Music, the Cleveland Hearing & Speech Center, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Play House. Severance Hall, home of the Cleveland Orchestra, resides on Case Western Reserve campus. Case Western Reserve is well known for its medical school, business school, dental school, law school, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Department of Biomedical Engineering and its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Case Western Reserve is a member of the Association of American Universities. Case is a leading institution for research in electrochemical engineering; the famous Michelson–Morley interferometer experiment was conducted in 1887 in the basement of a campus dormitory by Albert A. Michelson of Case School of Applied Science and Edward W. Morley of Western Reserve University.
This experiment proved the non-existence of the luminiferous ether and was understood as convincing evidence in support of special relativity as proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905. Michelson became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science; the commemorative Michelson-Morley Memorial Fountain as well as an Ohio Historical Marker are located on campus, near where the actual experiment was performed. Case Western Reserve University was created in 1967, when Western Reserve University and Case Institute of Technology, institutions, neighbors for 81 years, formally federated. Western Reserve College, named from the Connecticut Western Reserve, was founded in 1826 in Hudson, Ohio. Western Reserve College, or "Reserve" as it was popularly called, was the first college in northern Ohio. Along with Presbyterian influences of its founding, the school's origins were associated with the pre-Civil War Abolitionist movement due to the influence of President Charles Backus Storrs, Elizur Wright, David Hudson.
In fact, Western Reserve was to first university in Ohio and west of the Appalachian Mountains to enroll and graduate an African American student, John Sykes Fayette. The abolitionist views were so strong, Frederick Douglass gave the commencement speech in 1854. In 1838, the Loomis Observatory was built by astronomer Elias Loomis, today remains the second oldest observatory in the United States. In 1852, the Medical School became the second school in the United States to graduate a woman, Nancy Talbot Clark. Five more women graduated over the next four years, including Emily Blackwell, giving Western Reserve the distinction of graduating six of the first eight female physicians in the United States. By 1875, Cleveland had emerged as the dominant population and business center of the region, the city wanted a prominent higher education institution. In 1882, with funding from Amasa Stone, Western Reserve College moved to Cleveland and changed its name to Adelbert College of Western Reserve University.
Adelbert was the name of Stone's son. In 1877, Leonard Case Jr. began laying the groundwork for the Case School of Applied Science by secretly donating valuable pieces of Cleveland real estate to a trust. He asked his confidential advisor, Henry Gilbert Abbey, to administer the trust and to keep it secret until after his death in 1880. On March 29, 1880, articles of incorporation were filed for the founding of the Case School of Applied Science. Classes began on September 15, 1881; the school received its charter by the state of Ohio in 1882. For the first four years of the school's existence, it was located in the Case family's home on Rockwell Street in downtown Cleveland. Classes were held in the family house, while the chemistry and physics laboratories were on the second floor of the barn. Amasa Stone's gift to relocate Western Reserve College to Cleveland included a provision for the purchase of land in the University Circle area, adjacent to Western Reserve University, for the Case School of Applied Science.
The school relocated to University Circle in 1885. During World War II, Case School of Applied Science was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Nav
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. The broad field may be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics. While traditional microbiology and microbial genome sequencing and genomics rely upon cultivated clonal cultures, early environmental gene sequencing cloned specific genes to produce a profile of diversity in a natural sample; such work revealed that the vast majority of microbial biodiversity had been missed by cultivation-based methods. Recent studies use either "shotgun" or PCR directed sequencing to get unbiased samples of all genes from all the members of the sampled communities; because of its ability to reveal the hidden diversity of microscopic life, metagenomics offers a powerful lens for viewing the microbial world that has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. As the price of DNA sequencing continues to fall, metagenomics now allows microbial ecology to be investigated at a much greater scale and detail than before.
The term "metagenomics" was first used by Jo Handelsman, Jon Clardy, Robert M. Goodman, Sean F. Brady, others, first appeared in publication in 1998; the term metagenome referenced the idea that a collection of genes sequenced from the environment could be analyzed in a way analogous to the study of a single genome. In 2005, Kevin Chen and Lior Pachter defined metagenomics as "the application of modern genomics technique without the need for isolation and lab cultivation of individual species". Conventional sequencing begins with a culture of identical cells as a source of DNA. However, early metagenomic studies revealed that there are large groups of microorganisms in many environments that cannot be cultured and thus cannot be sequenced; these early studies focused on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences which are short conserved within a species, different between species. Many 16S rRNA sequences have been found which do not belong to any known cultured species, indicating that there are numerous non-isolated organisms.
These surveys of ribosomal RNA genes taken directly from the environment revealed that cultivation based methods find less than 1% of the bacterial and archaeal species in a sample. Much of the interest in metagenomics comes from these discoveries that showed that the vast majority of microorganisms had gone unnoticed. Early molecular work in the field was conducted by Norman R. Pace and colleagues, who used PCR to explore the diversity of ribosomal RNA sequences; the insights gained from these breakthrough studies led Pace to propose the idea of cloning DNA directly from environmental samples as early as 1985. This led to the first report of isolating and cloning bulk DNA from an environmental sample, published by Pace and colleagues in 1991 while Pace was in the Department of Biology at Indiana University. Considerable efforts ensured that these were not PCR false positives and supported the existence of a complex community of unexplored species. Although this methodology was limited to exploring conserved, non-protein coding genes, it did support early microbial morphology-based observations that diversity was far more complex than was known by culturing methods.
Soon after that, Healy reported the metagenomic isolation of functional genes from "zoolibraries" constructed from a complex culture of environmental organisms grown in the laboratory on dried grasses in 1995. After leaving the Pace laboratory, Edward DeLong continued in the field and has published work that has laid the groundwork for environmental phylogenies based on signature 16S sequences, beginning with his group's construction of libraries from marine samples. In 2002, Mya Breitbart, Forest Rohwer, colleagues used environmental shotgun sequencing to show that 200 liters of seawater contains over 5000 different viruses. Subsequent studies showed that there are more than a thousand viral species in human stool and a million different viruses per kilogram of marine sediment, including many bacteriophages. All of the viruses in these studies were new species. In 2004, Gene Tyson, Jill Banfield, colleagues at the University of California and the Joint Genome Institute sequenced DNA extracted from an acid mine drainage system.
This effort resulted in the complete, or nearly complete, genomes for a handful of bacteria and archaea that had resisted attempts to culture them. Beginning in 2003, Craig Venter, leader of the funded parallel of the Human Genome Project, has led the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition, circumnavigating the globe and collecting metagenomic samples throughout the journey. All of these samples are sequenced using shotgun sequencing, in hopes that new genomes would be identified; the pilot project, conducted in the Sargasso Sea, found DNA from nearly 2000 different species, including 148 types of bacteria never before seen. Venter has circumnavigated the globe and explored the West Coast of the United States, completed a two-year expedition to explore the Baltic and Black Seas. Analysis of the metagenomic data collected during this journey revealed two groups of organisms, one composed of taxa adapted to environmental conditions of'feast or famine', a second composed of fewer but more abundantly and distributed taxa composed of plankton.
In 2005 Stephan C. Schuster at Penn State University and colleagues published the first sequences of an environmental sample generated with high-throughput sequencing, in this case massively parallel pyrosequencing developed by 454 Life Sciences. Another early paper in t
E. O. Wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, theorist and author, his biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he has been called the world's leading expert. Wilson has been called "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity", for his environmental advocacy, his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters. Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography, which he developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur, the foundation of the development of conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity of Stephen Hubbell. Wilson is the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, a lecturer at Duke University, a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, he is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.
He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction and a New York Times bestselling author for The Social Conquest of Earth, Letters to a Young Scientist, The Meaning of Human Existence. Wilson was born in Alabama. According to his autobiography Naturalist, he grew up around Washington, D. C. and in the countryside around Alabama. From an early age, he was interested in natural history, his parents and Inez Wilson, divorced when he was seven. The young naturalist grew up in several cities and towns, moving around with his father and his stepmother. In the same year that his parents divorced, Wilson blinded himself in one eye in a fishing accident, he suffered for hours. He did not complain, he did not seek medical treatment. Several months his right pupil clouded over with a cataract, he was admitted to Pensacola Hospital to have the lens removed. Wilson writes, in his autobiography, that the "surgery was a terrifying century ordeal". Wilson was left with full sight in his left eye, with a vision of 20/10.
The 20/10 vision prompted him to focus on "little things": "I noticed butterflies and ants more than other kids did, took an interest in them automatically."Although he had lost his stereoscopic vision, he could still see fine print and the hairs on the bodies of small insects. His reduced ability to observe mammals and birds led him to concentrate on insects. At nine, Wilson undertook his first expeditions at the Rock Creek Park in Washington, DC, he began to collect insects and he gained a passion for butterflies. He would capture them using nets made with brooms, coat hangers, cheesecloth bags. Going on these expeditions led to Wilson's fascination with ants, he describes in his autobiography how one day he pulled the bark of a rotting tree away and discovered citronella ants underneath. The worker ants he found were "short, brilliant yellow, emitted a strong lemony odor". Wilson said the event left a "vivid and lasting impression on ", he earned the Eagle Scout award and served as Nature Director of his Boy Scout summer camp.
At the age of 18, intent on becoming an entomologist, he began by collecting flies, but the shortage of insect pins caused by World War II caused him to switch to ants, which could be stored in vials. With the encouragement of Marion R. Smith, a myrmecologist from the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, Wilson began a survey of all the ants of Alabama; this study led him to report the first colony of fire ants near the port of Mobile. Concerned that he might not be able to afford to go to a university, Wilson tried to enlist in the United States Army, he planned to earn U. S. government financial support for his education, but failed the Army medical examination due to his impaired eyesight. Wilson was able to afford to enroll in the University of Alabama after all, earning his B. S. and M. S. degrees in biology there in 1950. In 1952 he transferred to Harvard University. Appointed to the Harvard Society of Fellows, he could travel on overseas expeditions, collecting ant species of Cuba and Mexico and travel the South Pacific, including Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Sri Lanka.
In 1955, he received his Ph. D. and married Irene Kelley. From 1956 until 1996 Wilson was part of the faculty of Harvard, he began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats. He developed a theory of the "taxon cycle". Just after completing is PhD in 1955, Wilson started supervising Stuart A. Altmann on the social behavior of rhesus macaques, which gave Wilson a first impetus to imagine sociobiology as a global theory of animal social behavior, he collaborated with mathematician William Bossert, discovered the chemical nature of ant communication, via pheromones. In the 1960s he collaborated with ecologist Robert MacArthur. Together, they tested the theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys, he observed the re-population by new species. A book The Theory of Island Biogeography about this experiment became a standard ecology text. In 1971, he published the book The Insect Societies about the biology of social insects like ants, bees and termites.
In 1973, Wilson was appointed'Curator of Insects' at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1975, he published the book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis applying his theories of insect behavior to vertebrates, in the last chapter, humans, he speculated that evolved and inherited tendencies were responsible for hierarc