Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Gopikrishnan Kottoor is the pen name of Raghav G. Nair, an award-winning Indian English poet, he is best known for his internationally acclaimed poem "Father, Wake Us In Passing". He is the founder editor of the quarterly poetry journal Poetry Chain. Kottoor presently lives in Trivandrum, Kerala India, where he works as a senior banker with Reserve Bank of India. Kottoor had Arya Central School, Trivandrum, he took his B. A. in English Literature, Masters in English from the Institute of English, where with Dr. Ayyappa Paniker, professor of English, they formed a college poetry club that invited Indian poets in English such as Kamala Das, R Parthasarathy, Keki Daruwalla to read at the college. Meanwhile, Kottoor won his first poetry prize, a first, in the University college poetry competitions, published his poems in Thought, The Illustrated Weekly of India and in the Bennet and Coleman magazine Youth Times that featured poetry in their middle page, selected by poets as Shiv K. Kumar and Kamala Das.
He soon published his poetry in Opinion, Kavya Bharati and Chandrabhaga, Indian Literature, Kavi India, The Literary Half Yearly, Triveni, The Hindu Literary Supplement, most other Indian magazines publishing poetry in English. Instrumental in his development as a poet was the Tamil novelist and poet T. K. Doraiswamy, better known by his pen name'Nakulan', who read his poetry notebooks every Sunday and introduced him to the world of English and American poetry. Kottoor attended the Master of Fine Arts program of the Texas State University, Southwest Texas, US, having won the Philip McCormick scholarship of the University,during the year 2000. In 2005, Kottoor was Poet-in-Residence in the University of Augsburg, Germany, on a sponsorship by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations in association with Tagore Centre, Germany. Kottoor was invited to read from his translation of the 15c Bhakti poet Poonthanam's Gyanappana at the University of Vienna, Austria, in the same year. Gopi Kottoor won both the All-India Special Poetry Prize of the British Council-Poetry Society, India All India Poetry Competitions in 1997 for his poem "These are the things we could talk about" as the Second Prize for his poem "Digging" in the General Category of the Competition in 1997.
Between 1995 and 1998, he won two more major poetry prizes presented by the British Council – Poetry Society sponsored All India Poetry Competitions. Writing to him soon after he won his poetry prizes, the leading poet and editor of Chandrabhaga Jayanta Mahapatra, a part of the jury wrote to him saying "You write exceptionally well.... My admiration grows for you for your poems". Kottoor's "Father, Wake Us In Passing", which won for the poet a Residency in the University of Augsburg, Germany, is a touching poem sequence on his father in coma, dying; the book is a thanksgiving to his father who first noticed and nurtured his talent for poetry. The German translation of this poem by the German poet Wolfgang Heyder appeared as a Laufschrift Book edition in Fürth, Germany in 2004; this work is considered peerless in its genre in Indian English writing and has received rave reviews in India and abroad since it was first published. In the words of the eminent poet-critic Ayyappa Paniker, Kottoor is "a poet who has discovered his own voice distinct from that of his ancestors or his compeers."
His poetry, known for its rich visual imagery embalmed with feeling has won him accolades both in his home country and abroad. Kottoor's poetry has appeared in a wide range of international journals, that include Orbis, Toronto Review, Arabesques Review, Bluefifth Online, Chiaroscuro Magazine, Levure littéraire, Big bridge, Nth Position, New English Review and others, his poems have featured in significant imprints of Contemporary Indian Poetry in English. His recent poems can be read at New English Review, Nthposition online, his poems are featured in The Dance of the Peacock. Kottoor's play The Nectar of the Gods is a socio-historical take on the life of the palace soldier Devasahayam, executed following his conversion to Christianity, during the reign of King Marthanda Varma, his other plays include The Mask of Death, a radio-play on the dying days of the Romantic poet John Keats in Rome, Fire in the Soul, a play on the life and times of the Nationalist rebel poet of India, Subramania Bharati, A Woman in Flames.
Kottoor's novels are based on true life incidents. His first novel, A Bridge Over Karma, was translated into Malayalam and serialized in the popular Malayalam journal Kala Kaumudi, his novel Presumed Guilty has parallels with the life of the fashion designer Anand Jon. His third novel Hill House is based on the life and acts of the Hungarian serial killer Bela Kiss. Kottoor's transcreations are Gynapana of Puntanam Namboothiri, Rati Rahasya of Kukoka. Kottoor founded and edited Poetry Chain, a quarterly for Indian poetry in English, which ran uninterruptedly for ten years from 1997–2007. Ayyappa Paniker, the English Professor and major Malayalam poet, was its leading patron. Gopi Kottoor edited Everyman's Guide, he presently edits www.undergroundflowers.com. A New Book of Indian Poems In English ed. by Gopi Kottoor and published by Poetry Chain and Writers Workshop, Calcut
Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is the headquarters of the Cuttack district; the name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka which means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city developed. Cuttack is known as the Millennium City as well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and famous silver filigree works, it is considered as the judicial capital of Odisha as the Odisha High Court is located here. It is the commercial capital of Odisha which hosts a large number of trading and business houses in and around the city. Cuttack is famous for its Durga puja, the most important festival of Odisha and West Bengal. Cuttack is the birth place of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose; the old and the most important part of the city is centred on a strip of land between the Kathajodi River and the Mahanadi River, bounded on the southeast by Old Jagannath Road. The city, being a part of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation consisting of 59 wards.
Cuttack stretches from Phulnakhara across the Kathajodi in the south to Choudwar in north across the Birupa River, while in the east it begins at Kandarpur and runs west as far as Naraj. Four rivers including Mahanadi and its distributaries Kathajodi, Birupa run through the city. Further Kathajodi is distributed into Devi and Biluakhai which makes the geographical area look like fibrous roots. Cuttack and Bhubaneswar are referred to as the Twin-Cities of Odisha; the metropolitan area formed by the two cities has a population of 1.862 million in 2018. Cuttack is categorised as a Tier-II city as per the ranking system used by Government of India. Cuttack an unplanned city, is characterized by a maze of streets, lanes and by-lanes which has given it the nickname of a city with Baban Bazaar, Tepan Galee and i.e. 52 markets and 53 streets. Cuttack is best known as a City of Brotherhood or Bhai-Chara where people of all religious communities have been residing for centuries in harmony and co-operation.
The name Cuttack is derived from Sanskrit meaning capital and military establishment or a cantonment. The city was known as Bidanasi Katak during the days. Bidanasi is now one of the localities of the city. In the ancient time, capitals were called as Cuttack like Bidanasi Cuttack, Ayodhya Cuttack, Mathura Cuttack, Varanasi Cuttack, etc. Being the Capital it has been called as Cuttack instead of Bidanasi Cuttack. Established in 989 CE, by Maharaja Markata Keshari, Cuttack was the seat of government in Odisha for close to a thousand years before its burgeoning size forced the creation of a new capital at Bhubaneswar in 1948; the two cities are collectively referred to as the Twin Capitals. Cuttack is famous for its unique silver filigree works, woven textiles and horn works, it is famous for its Dussehra celebrations across India only after Kolkata. It is famous for "Dahibara", a local delicacy made using black gram and potato curry and for "Chhena poda" and "Rasagola", local dessert made of unripened curd cheese made from water buffalo or regular cow milk by Odisha famous bikalananda kar rasgulla.
The earliest written history of Cuttack may go back to the Keshari dynasty. As stated by the distinguished historian Andrew Stirling, present-day Cuttack was established as a military cantonment by king Nrupa Keshari of Keshari dynasty in 989 CE. Stirling based his opinion on a chronicle of the Jagannath temple of Puri; the reign of Maharaja Markata Keshari was distinguished for the stone embank built to protect the new capital from flood in 1002 CE. Historical and archaeological evidence suggests Cuttack becoming capital of a kingdom founded by Raja Anangabhimadeva III of Ganga dynasty in 1211 CE. After the end of Ganga rule, Odisha passed to the hands of the Suryavamsi Gajapati dynasty under whom Cuttack continued to be the capital of Odisha. After the death of Raja Mukunda deva, the last Hindu king of Orissa, Cuttack first came under Muslim rule and under Mughals, who made Cuttack the seat of the new Orissa Subah under Shah Jahan. By 1750, Cuttack came under Maratha rule and it grew fast as a business centre being the convenient point of contact between the Marathas of Nagpur and the English merchants of Bengal.
It was occupied by the British in 1803 and became the capital of Odisha division in 1816. From 1948 onwards, when the capital was shifted to Bhubaneswar, the city remained the administrative headquarters for the state of Odisha; the introduction of the Sharadiya Utsav tradition in the city dates back to the visit of Saint Chaitanya in the 16th century when the consecration of the idol of Durga by using the mask pattern was conducted in his presence at Binod Behari Devi Mandap. The remains of the old moated Barabati Fort still exist in the heart of Cuttack. Cuttack has an average elevation of 36 metres; the city is spread across an area of 192.5 km2. The city, being a Cuttack Municipal Corporation wards; the city stretches from Phulnakhara in south to Choudwar in north and Kandarpur in east to naraj in west while main city is located at the apex of the Mahanadi River delta. Apart from Mahanadi, four of its distributaries run through the city; the distributaries include Mahanadi, Kathajodi and Birupa where Kathajodi further has two distributaries.
Mahanadi runs through the city on the northern side separating the main city from the Jagatpur Industrial Area. The Kathajodi river forms a riverine island of Bayalis Mouza a
Ravenshaw University is a co-educational state university situated in Cuttack, Odisha on the eastern coast of India. Founded as Ravenshaw College in 1868, the institution became a university in 2006; the university has nine schools, thirty three academic departments and a student enrolment of nearly 8,000. It is one of the oldest educational institutes in the country and its history is synonymous with the history of modern Odisha. After the great famine of 1866, the people of Odisha and some liberal Britons wanted to start a college at Cuttack. Thomas Edward Ravenshaw, officiating commissioner of Odisha Division made the government of Bengal realise the difficulties of Oriya students in getting college educations and succeeded in obtaining permission to start collegiate classes in the Cuttack Zilla School, thus the first college in Odisha was born in January 1868 with intermediate classes and six students. Commissioner Ravenshaw proposed to convert the Collegiate School into a full-fledged degree college.
The government of Bengal accepted the demand with the condition that a public contribution of Rs.30,000 be deposited for the proposed college. Ravenshaw took up the matter as an object of personal interest and guaranteed the collection of the required amount. H. Woodrew, DPI of Bengal supported Ravenshaw. H. J. Reynolds, secretary to the government of Bengal requested the government of India to sanction the incidental charges and the post of the principal on the additional condition of meeting half the monthly expenses by public donation. Due to Ravenshaw's efforts and the financial support of Maharaja of Mayurbhanj, HH Shri Krushna Chandra Bhanjdeo, the college department of the Collegiate School was converted in 1876 to a full-fledged Government Degree College bearing the name Cuttack College affiliated to the University of Calcutta. Samuel Ager was appointed as the first principal; the college had only 19 students. H. H. Sri Krushna Chandra Bhanjdeo donated Rs. 20,000 as a permanent endowment which fulfilled the condition imposed by the government for public contribution.
On his insistence the name was changed to Ravenshaw College in 1878 after Thomas Edward Ravenshaw to commemorate his services to the cause of education in Odisha. The college was granted permanent status by 1881. Growth in the initial days was slow. Altogether 94 graduates were produced by the closing year of the 19th century and the student strength had increased to 97. Science stream remained confined only to intermediate level until 1912 when Bihar and Odisha were separated from Bengal.it is the college where many of our freedom fighters have completed their graduation. The college entered a new phase of development after 1912. School and survey classes were removed. Teachers of Indian Education Service were appointed as professors. New subjects such as Political Economy, Political Philosophy and honours in History and Persian were introduced. Infrastructure facilities for teaching of science at B. Sc. Level were augmented; the student strength rose to 280 in 1912 and 375 in 1915. A new site for the college at Chakkar Padia was located by the government to construct a complete set of new buildings at an approximate cost of Rs.10,00,000.
In 1916 the University Bill proposed the transfer of Ravenshaw College from Calcutta University to Patna University. Although there was some public resistance for the change of affiliation, the commissioner rightly supported the transfer by writing "Divorced from the Calcutta University, its progress would be rapid and in course of time it should be able to supply every educational need of the people of Odisha." Accordingly, the affiliation was transferred to newly created Patna University on 1 October 1917. The college was shifted to its present site in the erstwhile Chakkar Padia in 1921. While laying the foundation stone of the present building in November 1919 Sir Edward Gait, the governor of Bihar and Odisha wished that this mighty monument would one day grow into a university; the Maharaja of Mayurbhanj donated Rs. 1,00,000 for the electrification of the new building and purchase of equipment for science laboratories. A library building with an area of 9,000 sq ft was opened in 1922 by Lt.
Governor of Bihar and Odisha. Maharaja of Kanika Sri Rajendra Narayan Bhanjadeo generously donated Rs. 55,000 for its construction which stands today as a beautiful piece of architecture. In his honour the library is named Kanika Library and is close to the hearts of educated Odias. In recognition of the public generosity, the government sanctioned Rs. 25,000 towards purchase of books for the new Kanika Library. After the shifting of the main library to the centenary building, the old premises houses the journal section. Legislators from Odisha such as Utkalmani Gopabandhu Das and Sri Krishna Mohapatra demanded time and again for further growth of the college in Bihar Odisha Legislative Council and Viceroy’s Council. In the words of Krishna Mohapatra "Orissa had a pet child and that child was the Ravenshaw College." In response to public pressure, Mathematics honours got recognition by 1920. A year affiliation was granted to B. Sc. in Botany and the college became a postgraduate institution with M.
A. classes in English started in 1922 through munificence of Maharani Smt. Parvati Devi, the queen of Sonepur, in granting Rs. 1,71,500 for its opening. The staff position of Ravenshaw College was strengthened with the appointment, in 1918, of scholars such as Sir Jaudunath Sarkar and R. P. Khosla as professors of History and Economics respectively. By 1922 the sanctioned strength of teaching staff had reached 31, out of which 13 came from Indian Education Service, two were Europeans and the rest were from provincial Education Service. Honours classes in Physics and Botany were opened from July 1930 and steps were initiated to start postg
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Gangadhar Meher University
Gangadhar Meher University Sambalpur College and Gangadhar Meher College, is a state university situated in Sambalpur, India. It is named after Gangadhar Meher; the University was established as college in 1944 as Sambalpur College with 192 students. The name of the institution was changed to Gangadhar Meher College in 1949, it was upgraded to a university in 2015, has been renamed as Gangadhar Meher University