Waiting to Exhale
Waiting to Exhale is a 1995 American romance film directed by Forest Whitaker and starring Whitney Houston and Angela Bassett. The film was adapted from the 1992 novel of the same name by Terry McMillan. Lela Rochon, Loretta Devine, Dennis Haysbert, Michael Beach, Gregory Hines, Donald Faison, Mykelti Williamson rounded out the rest of the cast; the original music score was composed by Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds. The story centers on four women living in the Phoenix, Arizona area and their relationships with men and one another. All of them are "holding their breath" until the day they can feel comfortable in a committed relationship with a man. Waiting to Exhale is a story about four African-American women who are good friends: Savannah, Robin and Gloria; the four women get together to provide support, to listen to each other vent about life and love. They all want to be in a couple but they all have difficulties finding a good man. Savannah "'Vannah" Jackson is a successful television producer who believes that one day her married lover will leave his wife for her.
She realizes he will never leave his wife, that she must find her own man who will love her for who she is. Bernadine "Bernie" Harris had abandoned her own career dream of having a catering business -- instead she raised a family and supported her husband, who announces he is leaving her for a white woman he works with. Robin Stokes is a high-powered executive, the long-time mistress of married Russell, she has problems finding someone suitable. Gloria "Glo" Matthews is a single mother, her ex-husband, the father of her son, tells her he was always bisexual and now realizes he is gay. Gloria falls in love with a new neighbor, Marvin King; the situations all resolve themselves for the better. Savannah ends up dumping her married lover for good. Bernadine gets a large divorce settlement from her ex-husband, she finds love with a widowed father, a civil rights attorney and who encourages Bernie to pursue her catering dream. Robin ends up pregnant by her married lover, but dumps him, chooses to raise the baby on her own.
Gloria learns not to be so overprotective to her son. She lets him go on an "Up With People" trip to Spain, she apologizes to her neighbor for snapping at him when he suggested that she should let her son grow up and experience the world, she finds love while learning to take care of herself rather than being overly self-sacrificing in her devotion to her son and her business. Whitney Houston as Savannah "Vannah" Jackson. Angela Bassett as Bernadine "Bernie" Harris. Savannah and Bernadine have been best friends since college, she vents her anger on John by burning his clothes and car and selling the remainder of his personal items for $1 apiece. Lela Rochon as Robin Stokes, she is the long-time mistress of Russell. After dumping him, she has problems finding a decent man of her own. Loretta Devine as a beauty salon owner and single mother. Gregory Hines as Marvin King, Gloria's neighbor with whom she falls in love. Dennis Haysbert as Kenneth Dawkins, Savannah's married lover Mykelti Williamson as Troy Michael Beach as John Harris Sr. Bernie's husband, who leaves her for a white woman.
Donald Adeosun Faison as Tarik Matthews, Gloria's teenage son. Leon as Russell. Wendell Pierce as Michael Davenport. Jeffrey D. Sams as Lionel. Jazz Raycole as Onika Harris. Brandon Hammond as John Harris Jr. Kenya Moore as Denise. Lamont Johnson as Joseph. Kelly Preston as Kathleen. Wesley Snipes as James Wheeler. Giancarlo Esposito as David Matthews, Gloria's ex-husband and father of Tarik. Parts of the film were shot at Monument Valley in Utah as well as Chandler, Fountain Hills and Paradise Valley in Arizona. Waiting to Exhale was a financial success, opening at number-one at the North American box office, grossing $14.1 million in its first weekend of release. In total, the film grossed $67.05 million in North America, $14.4 million internationally, for a total worldwide gross of $81.45 million. Its widest release was in just over 1,400 theatres and was the 26th highest-grossing film of 1995. Upon release, the film received mixed reviews from critics. Film critic Susan Stark from The Detroit News stated, "For all the pleasure there is in seeing effective, great-looking black women grappling with major life issues on screen, Waiting to Exhale is an uneven piece."
Reviewer Liam Lacey from The Daily Globe and Mail wrote of the film, " never escapes the queasy aura of Melrose Place: just another story about naive people with small problems." However, film critic Roger Ebert positively reviewed the film, stating that it is "an escapist fantasy that women in the audience can enjoy by musing,'I wish I had her problems'—and her car, wardrobe and men wrong men." The film is notable for having an all-African-American cast. The Los Angeles Times called it a "social phenomenon"; the film received a 56% approval rating at review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 27 reviews. In the book Is Marriage for White People? Writer and Stanford Law School professor Ralph Richard Banks states that the film is a perfect example of the problems African-American women have in finding serious relationships; the soundtrack to the film featured female African-American artists. The soundtrack included the number-one hit songs "Exhale", sung by the film's star, Whitney Houston, "Let It Flow" by Toni Braxton as well as "Not Gon' Cry" by Mary J. Blige, "Sittin' Up in My Room" by Brandy, "Count on Me" by Whitney Houston and CeCe Winans, all of which reached the top ten of Billboard's Hot 100 chart.
Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses; the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, it was the first community in California to have a name not of Spanish or Native American origin; the city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an estimated population of 320,554 by the California Department of Finance for 2017. Stockton is the 63rd largest city in the United States, it was named an All-America City in 1999, 2004, 2015 and again in 2017. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stockton's seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and beyond, it provided easy access for transportation to the southern gold mines. The University of the Pacific, chartered in 1851, is the oldest university in California, has been located in Stockton since 1923; as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection.
Stockton exited bankruptcy in February 2015. Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of California's San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways. Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland California's major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west. Stockton and Sacramento are California's only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies a total area of 64.8 square miles, of which 61.7 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, it was occupied by the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians, they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton.
The Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley. It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that led through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades and into present-day Oregon; the extensive network of waterways in and around Stockton was fished and navigated by Miwok Indians for centuries. During the California Gold Rush, the San Joaquin River was navigable by ocean-going vessels, making Stockton a natural inland seaport and point of supply and departure for prospective gold-miners. From the mid-19th century onward, Stockton became the region's transportation hub, dealing with agricultural products. Mexican eraCapt. Charles Maria Weber, a German, emigrated to America in 1836. After spending time in Texas, he came overland from Missouri to California with the Bartleson-Bidwell Party in 1841. Weber went to work for John Sutter. In 1842 Weber settled in the Pueblo of San José; as an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, so he formed a partnership with Guillermo Gulnac.
Born in New York, Gulnac had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which ruled California. He applied in Weber's place for Rancho Campo de los Franceses, a land grant of 11 square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Gulnac and Weber dissolved their partnership in 1843. Gulnac's attempts to settle the Rancho Campo de los Franceses failed, Weber acquired it in 1845. In 1846 Weber had induced a number of settlers to locate on the rancho, when the Mexican–American War broke out. Considered a Californio, Weber was offered the position of captain by Mexican Gen. José Castro, which he declined. Capt. Weber's decision to change sides lost him a great deal of the trust he had built up among his Mexican business partners; as a result, he moved to the grant in 1847 and sold his business in San Jose in 1849. Gold rush eraAt the start of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area of Weber's rancho on their way to the goldfields; when Weber decided to try his hand at gold mining in late 1848, he soon found selling supplies to gold-seekers was more profitable.
As the head of navigation on the San Joaquin River, the city grew as a miners' supply point during the Gold Rush. Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the Gold Rush, the location of what is now Stockton developed as a river port, the hub of roads to the gold settlements in the San Joaquin Valley and northern terminus of the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. During its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including "Weberville," "Fat City," "Mudville" and "California's Sunrise Seaport." In 1849 Weber laid out a town, which he named "Tuleburg," but he soon decided on "Stockton" in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. Stockton was the first community in California to have a name, neither Spanish nor Native American in origin. Chinese immigrationThousands of Chinese came to Stockton from the Kwangtung province of China during the 1850s due to a combination of political and economic unrest in China and the discovery of gold in California.
After the gold rush, many worked for the railroads and land reclamation projects in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and remained in Stockton. By 1880 Stockton was home to the third-largest Chinese community in California. Discriminatory laws
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Everybody Hates Chris
Everybody Hates Chris is an American period sitcom, based on the troubled teenage experiences of comedian Chris Rock during the 1980s. The show is set between 1982 and 1987, although Rock himself was a teenager between 1978 and 1984, having been born in 1965; the show's title parodies the hit CBS sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond. The show aired for four seasons from 2005 to 2006 on UPN for its first season, The CW for the remaining three seasons. In 2008, the CW moved The Game to the Friday night death slot; the fourth season of the series premiered October 3, 2008, at 8:00 PM Eastern/7: 00PM Central. On May 21, 2009, The CW announced. Prior to this, Rock announced that the end of season 4 matched up with his own past, dropping out of high school to become a comedian, that it was time to end the show. Everybody Hates Chris received critical acclaim; the American Film Institute selected Everybody Hates Chris as one of the best 10 television series of 2007, stating that the show "provides a real look at growing up in America – a challenge that demands a discussion of race and class absent from television today."
Everybody Hates Chris was named one of the Best School Shows of All Time by AOL TV. Common Sense Media's Marjorie Kase and Shanel Walker & Emily Kofoed gave the show 4 stars, said it was "a prime example of how to take serious issues and approach them in a humorous yet thought-provoking way; the series is innovative and stereotype-defying – enjoyable for teens and their parents." UPN September 2005 – May 2006: Thursdays 8:00 PM/7:00 PM The CW October 1, 2006 – October 8, 2006: Sundays 7:00 PM/6:00 PM October 16, 2006 – March 2008: Mondays 8:00 PM/7:00 PM March 2008 – May 2008: Sundays 8:00 PM/7:00 PM October 2008 – November 2008: Fridays 8:00 PM/7:00 PM December 2008 – May 2009: Sundays 5:00 PM/4:00 PM September 2009 – present: syndicationMTV, MTV2 & TV One As of 2014 MTV has stopped airing Everybody Hates Chris. The show airs on MTV 2 at random times during the week. Fuse As of 2015, Fuse airs the show at random times during the week; the show airs on broadcast TV during the week. The show was launched on September 7, 2009 on Nick at Nite, becoming the youngest syndicated show on the channel, beating George Lopez.
The series has since expanded from Nick at Nite, has joined sister network TeenNick, with the first run from July 18, 2011 to August 15, 2011. The show was replaced by Zoey 101; the show aired on YTV in Canada, now airs on Much in that country. MTV2 aired episodes of the show in the early morning hours, it aired on TV One until 2016. Now, the series reruns on Fuse. In 2017, VH1 started airing reruns every morning. In 2018, the series reruns on BET. Everybody Hates Chris won a NAACP Image Award for its writing in 2007, it has been nominated for many Golden Globe and Emmy Awards. In December 2008, Entertainment Weekly lists the Kwanzaa episode from this show as seventh on the magazine's "Must List: 10 Holiday Things We Love." Boldface type indicates a win. Golden Globes2006 – Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy Emmy Awards2009 – Outstanding Cinematography for a Half-Hour Series – Darrian Jones for episode "Everybody Hates Back Talk" 2006 – Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series – Mark Doering-Powell for episode "Everybody Hates Funerals."
2006 – Outstanding Costumes for a Series – Kendra Long & Laura Haas for episode "Everybody Hates The Pilot" Writers Guild of America2006 – New Series Young Artist Awards2006 – Best Family Television Series 2006 – Best Performance in a TV Series – Leading Young Actor – Tyler James Williams 2006 – Best Performance in a TV Series – Supporting Young Actor – Vincent Martella 2008 – Best Performance in a TV Series – Leading Young Actor – Tyler James Williams 2008 – Best Performance in a TV Series – Supporting Young Actor – Vincent Martella Television Critics Association Awards2006 – Outstanding Achievement in Comedy 2006 – Outstanding New Program of the Year Teen Choice Awards2006 – TV – Choice Actor: Comedy – Tyler James Williams 2006 – TV – Choice Actress: Comedy – Tichina Arnold 2006 – TV – Choice Breakout Show 2006 – TV – Choice Comedy/Musical Show 2006 – TV – Choice Parental Unit – Tichina Arnold & Terry Crews 2006 – TV – Choice Sidekick – Vincent Martella Image Awards2010 – Outstanding Actor in a Comedy Series – Tyler James Williams 2010 – Outstanding Actress in a Comedy Series – Tichina Arnold 2010 – Outstanding Comedy Series 2010 – Outstanding Directing in a Comedy Series – Ali LeRoi for episode "Everybody Hates the G.
E. D." 2009 – Outstanding Actor in a Comedy Series – Tyler James Williams 2009 – Outstanding Actor in a Comedy Series – Terry Crews 2009 – Outstanding Actress in a Comedy Series – Tichina Arnold 2009 – Outstanding Comedy Series 2009 – Outstanding Directing in a Comedy Series – Ali LeRoi for episode "Everybody Hates Port Authority" 2008 – Outstanding Writing in a Comedy Series – Ali LeRoi for episode "Everybody Hates Guidance Counselor" 2008 – Outstanding Actor in a Comedy Series – Tyler James Williams 2008 – Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series – Terry Crews 2008 – Outstanding Actress in a Comedy Series – Tichina Arnold 2008 – Outstanding Comedy Series 2008 – Outstanding Directing in a Comedy Series – Al
The Soul Man
The Soul Man is an American sitcom created by Suzanne Martin and Cedric the Entertainer. The series is a spin-off from Hot in Cleveland, in which Cedric guest starred in the 2011 episode "Bridezelka", the backdoor pilot for The Soul Man; the series premiered on TV Land on June 2012 with a 12-episode order. On December 13, 2012, TV Land picked up The Soul Man for a second season of 10 episodes with Yvette Lee Bowser replacing Phoef Sutton as showrunner; the second season premiered on June 19, 2013. On December 4, 2013, The Soul Man was renewed for a third season. Season 3 premiered on March 2014 with a special live episode. On August 4, 2014, TV Land renewed The Soul Man for a 12-episode fourth season; the fourth season debuted on March 2015 with the series' second live episode. On July 28, 2015, The Soul Man was renewed for a 12-episode fifth and final season, which premiered on March 30, 2016 at 10:30 PM ET/PT; the series aired its final episode on June 22, 2016. The series follows R&B superstar-turned-minister Reverend Boyce "The Voice" Ballantine, living the high life in Las Vegas at the top of the music charts when he got "the calling" and decided to relocate to St. Louis with his family to become a preacher in his father's church.
However, his family members — including wife Lolli, daughter Lyric and younger brother Stamps — are not eager to give up the fabulous superstar life for their new humble one. Cedric the Entertainer as Reverend Sherman Boyce Ballentine – the show's main protagonist, he is a former R&B singer turned minister. Niecy Nash as Lolli Ballentine – Boyce's wife, a beauty salon owner. Wesley Jonathan as Fletcher Emmanuel "Stamps" Ballentine – Boyce's carefree younger brother, he was Boyce's tour manager in the music business, but now struggles to find employment. Jazz Raycole as Lyric Ballentine – Boyce's daughter, adjusting to her father's new lifestyle. John Beasley as Barton Moses Ballentine – Boyce's and Stamps' father, a retired minister who now serves on the church Board of Elders to Boyce's annoyance. Gary Anthony Williams as Lester – member of the Ballentines' church who serves the church in various capacities, including choir director Hattie Winston as Sister Coriann Pearly – member of the Ballentines' church Kim Coles as Wanda – member of the Ballentines' church Cedric Yarbrough and Yvette Nicole Brown as Paul and Robyn – the Ballentines' bickering former neighbors from Las Vegas Kellee Stewart as Kim – Lolli's younger sister, an anesthesiologist.
Factory released the complete first season on DVD in Region 1 on July 8, 2014. Season 2 was released on October 21, 2014. On April 18, 2011, it was announced that Cedric the Entertainer would guest star in a season 2 episode of Hot in Cleveland, as a minister that gets caught up in the girls' problems; the episode served as a backdoor pilot for a spin-off series to star Cedric. The episode entitled "Bridezelka" was written by Hot in Cleveland creator Suzanne Martin and aired on August 24, 2011. In November 2011, it was. John Beasley, Wesley Jonathan, Jazz Raycole, were cast, with Beasley playing Boyce's father. Suzanne Martin and Cedric wrote the pilot and are executive producing with Sean Hayes and Todd Milliner; the pilot was filmed on December 2, 2011. On January 12, 2012, TV Land picked up the pilot to series, under the title Have Faith, set the first season at 12 episodes. On March 11, 2012 it was announced that the series' title was changed from Have Faith to The Soul Man. For the first season, former Cheers writer/producer Phoef Sutton was hired as the showrunner.
Stan Lathan, who directed Cedric in every episode of The Steve Harvey Show, served as the director of the first season. Anthony Anderson, Tamar Braxton, Trina Braxton, Robert Forster, Cee Lo Green, Tim Reid and Sherri Shepherd all guest starred during the show's first season; the series has received positive reviews from critics, with an initial score 65 out of 100 on Metacritic. Official website The Soul Man on IMDb
The Office (U.S. TV series)
The Office is an American television sitcom that aired on NBC from March 24, 2005, to May 16, 2013, lasting nine seasons. It is an adaptation of the original BBC series of the same name and was adapted for American television by Greg Daniels, a veteran writer for Saturday Night Live, King of the Hill, The Simpsons, it was co-produced by Daniels' Deedle-Dee Productions, Reveille Productions, in association with Universal Television. The original executive producers were Greg Daniels, Howard Klein, Ben Silverman, Ricky Gervais, Stephen Merchant, with numerous others being promoted in seasons; the series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. To simulate the look of an actual documentary, it was filmed in a single-camera setup, without a studio audience or a laugh track; the series debuted on NBC as a midseason replacement and aired 201 episodes over the course of its run. The Office featured Steve Carell, Rainn Wilson, John Krasinski, Jenna Fischer, B. J. Novak as the main cast.
Notable stars outside the original main cast include Ed Helms, Mindy Kaling, Craig Robinson, James Spader, Ellie Kemper. The Office was met with mixed reviews during its abbreviated first season, but the following four seasons received widespread acclaim from television critics; these seasons were included on several critics' year-end top TV series lists, winning several awards such as a Peabody Award in 2006, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, a Golden Globe Award for Carell's performance, four Primetime Emmy Awards, including one for Outstanding Comedy Series in 2006. Seasons were criticized for a decline in quality, with many seeing Carell's departure in season seven as a contributing factor. However, earlier writers oversaw the final season and ended the series' run with a positive reception; the series finale was viewed by an estimated 5.69 million viewers, preceded by an hour-long series retrospective. Greg Daniels served as the senior series showrunner for the first four seasons of the series and developed the British Office series for American television.
He left the position when he co-created the comedy series Parks and Recreation with fellow Office writer Michael Schur and divided his time between the two series. Paul Lieberstein and Jennifer Celotta were named the series showrunners for the fifth season. Celotta left the series after the sixth season and Lieberstein stayed on as showrunner for the following two seasons, he left the showrunner spot after the eighth season for the potential Dwight Schrute spin-off, The Farm, passed up by NBC. Daniels returned to the showrunner position for the final season. Other executive producers include cast members B. J. Novak and Mindy Kaling. Kaling, Daniels and Schur made up the original team of writers. Kaling and Lieberstein serve multiple roles on the series, as they play regular characters on the show, as well as write and produce episodes. Credited with twenty-four episodes, Kaling is the most prolific writer among the staff. Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, who created the original British series, are credited as executive producer and wrote the pilot and the third-season episode, "The Convict."
Merchant directed the episode "Customer Survey" while Gervais appeared in the episodes "The Seminar" and "Search Committee."Randall Einhorn is the most frequent director of the series, with 15 credited episodes. The series had several guest directors, including Lost co-creator J. J. Abrams, Buffy the Vampire Slayer creator Joss Whedon, both of whom are fans of the series, filmmakers Jon Favreau, Harold Ramis, Jason Reitman, Marc Webb. Episodes have been directed by several of the actors on the show including Steve Carell, John Krasinski, Rainn Wilson, Ed Helms, Brian Baumgartner. Prior to the second episode airing, the writers spent time conducting research in offices; this process was used for Recreation. The pilot is a direct adaptation of the first episode of the original British series. Daniels chose to go this route because "completely starting from scratch would be a risky thing to do" owing to the show being an adaptation, he had considered using the idea for "The Dundies" as the pilot episode.
After the writers knew who the cast was, they were allowed to write for the actors, which allowed the show to be more original for the following episode, "Diversity Day". Following the mixed reaction toward the first season, the writers attempted to make the series more "optimistic" and to make Michael Scott more likable, they established the supporting characters of the series more, giving them actual personalities. They made the lights in the office brighter, which allowed the series to differentiate itself from the British series. A common problem with the scripts, according to Novak, is that they tended to run too long for the regular 22-minute time slot, leading to several cuts. For example, the script for the episode "Search Committee" was 75 pages, 10 pages too long. A complete script was written for each episode. Fischer said, "Our shows are 100 percent scripted, they put everything down on paper. But we get to play around a little bit, too. Steve and Rainn are brilliant improvisers." These improvisations lead to a large number of deleted scenes with every episode of The Office, all of which are considered part of the show's canon and storyline by Daniels.
Deleted scenes have sometimes been restored in repeats to make episodes longer or draw back peop
Jericho (2006 TV series)
Jericho is an American post-apocalyptic action-drama television series, which centers on the residents of the fictional city of Jericho, Kansas, in the aftermath of a limited nuclear attack on 23 major cities in the contiguous United States. The show was produced by CBS Paramount Network Television and Junction Entertainment, with executive producers Jon Turteltaub, Stephen Chbosky, Carol Barbee, it was shown in more than 30 countries. Jericho ran on CBS from September 20, 2006, to March 25, 2008, it was canceled after its first full season, because of poor ratings. A fan campaign persuaded the network to bring the show back for another season, of seven episodes, after which it was canceled again. In November 2008, TV Guide reported that The CW would air repeats of Jericho to replace the canceled series Valentine. In 2007, Jericho was ranked. In 2009, plans were announced for a feature film based on the series, cancelled, a continuation of the Jericho storylines in a comic-book series. IDW Publishing released a new comic-book series for Season 4 in August 2012.
The storyline centers on the residents of Jericho, a small northwest Kansas town, in the aftermath of a limited nuclear attack on 23 major cities in the contiguous United States. The series begins with a visible nuclear detonation of unknown origin in Colorado. Despite initial belief that it was an accident, Dale Turner, one of the characters, receives a phone call from his mother in Atlanta, Georgia; the call is cut out by the sound of a nuclear blast. Upon showing this to others, it is revealed. Problems are compounded by loss of power and modern communications isolating Jericho. Power is restored to Jericho by what is alluded to as the efforts of the U. S. government but an electromagnetic pulse from an unknown source disables all electronics. While the first few episodes are about restoring life after the attacks, about halfway through the season some of the citizens meet with citizens of a nearby town, New Bern. At first, relations are established, resulting in a trade of windmills, built in New Bern's factory, for supplies for food from Jericho's farms and salt from its mine.
Relations sour as New Bern scapegoats Jericho for its problems and the New Bern sheriff declares war, leading to the season's climax. Several themes addressed in the show included the gathering of information, community identity, public order, limited resources, the value of family, hardships of fatherhood and internal and external threats; the show features several mysteries involving the backgrounds of major characters, the perpetrators of the attack and the extent of damage to the United States and its government. The pivotal character in this story is the 32-year-old son of Mayor Johnston Green. Jake had fled the town of Jericho five years earlier, when he became mixed up with the wrong people and was involved in questionable activity, he returns home to claim his inheritance, before being stranded by the catastrophe. After a somewhat awkward return home and a tense reunion with his father, Jake steps up to become a leader in Jericho, fighting to protect the town and its citizens; as the people of Jericho struggle to survive in a changed world, most remain unaware that one of the newest residents, Robert Hawkins, knows a lot more about the attacks than he is letting on.
It is revealed that he is in possession of an unexploded nuclear bomb, supposed to be used in the attack but how he obtained it and what side he is on remain anything but clear. Grey Anderson encounters a Federal Emergency Management Agency camp outside of Topeka, where he learns that the attack on New York City was foiled by alert New York City Police who shot the bomber before he could detonate the nuclear bomb that he had in the back of a van. Mayor Green reports that the NYPD captured the van in New York with a 20-kiloton nuclear bomb on board but Washington, D. C. has been bombed. On the way back from the FEMA camp, Anderson's car is stolen by 12 looters and he is forced to walk home to Jericho. Anderson reports that Lawrence, Kansas has been attacked. Robert Hawkins receives a morse code message on a ham radio stating that Denver, Chicago, Kansas City, San Diego and several more cities not shown on screen have been attacked. A black box flight data recorder that Jake recovers from a crashed airliner indicates that air traffic control is non-existent, a mushroom cloud is rising 60 km into the atmosphere and that flashes have been seen towards Texas.
A radiation-burn victim walks into Jericho from Denver, leading a rescue party to Bear Lake but the 20 radiation-burn victims there are dead. Before the unnamed radiation-burn victim dies, while he is interrogated by Hawkins, it is revealed that he is an accomplice of Hawkins and that there is a traitor in the attack. In the season one finale, armed residents of New Bern attack Jericho with crude mortars made at the factories in New Bern; the mortar bombardment injure people in Jericho. Jake and Johnston Green along with Robert Hawkins lead a counter-attack on New Bern's forces outside of town, killing many of the attackers. Army units arrive to separate the combatants; the military forces of the new Allied States of America, which now govern most of what was the Western United States, except the independent Republic of Texas, have restored order to Jericho and its hinterland, putting an abrupt end to the conflict between Jericho and its rival town, New Bern. As a sense of normality returns to Jericho, the plot shifts away from day-to-day survival to life and p