Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes was a French painter best known for his mural painting, who came to be known as'the painter for France'. He became the co-founder and president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, his work influenced many other artists, notably Robert Genin. Puvis de Chavannes was a prominent painter in the early Third Republic. Émile Zola described his work as "an art made of reason and will". Puvis de Chavannes was born Pierre-Cécile Puvis in a suburb of Lyon, France, he was the son of a mining engineer. Being descended from an old noble family of Burgundy, he added the ancestral'de Chavannes' to his name. Throughout his life, however, he spurned his Lyon origins, preferring to identify himself with the'strong' blood of the Burgundians, where his father originated. Puvis de Chavannes was educated at the Amiens College and at the Lycée Henri IV in Paris, he intended to follow his father's profession until a serious illness compelled him to convalesce at Mâcon with his brother and sister-in-law in 1844 and 1845, interrupting his studies.
A journey to Italy opened his mind to fresh ideas, on his return to Paris in 1846 he announced his intention to become a painter. He studied first under Eugène Delacroix, but only briefly, as Delacroix closed his studio shortly afterwards due to ill health, he studied subsequently under Henri Scheffer and Thomas Couture. His training was not classical as he found that he preferred to work alone, he took a large studio near the Gare de Lyon and attended anatomy classes at the Académie des Beaux Arts. It was not until a number of years when the government of France acquired one of his works, that he gained wide recognition. Puvis de Chavannes made his Salon debut in 1850 with Dead Christ, Negro Boy, The Reading Lesson, Portrait of a Man. In Montmartre, he had an affair with one of his models, Suzanne Valadon, who would become one of the leading artists of the day as well as the mother and mentor of Maurice Utrillo. From 1856, he was in a relationship with the Romanian princess, Marie Cantacuzène.
The couple were together for 40 years, were married before their deaths in 1898. Puvis de Chavannes' work is seen as symbolist in nature though he studied with some of the romanticists, he is credited with influencing an entire generation of painters and sculptors the works of the Modernists. One of his protégés was Georges de Feure. Puvis de Chavannes is best known for his mural painting, came to be known as'the painter for France.' His first commission was for his brother's chateau, Le Brouchy, a medieval-style structure near Cuiseaux in Saône-et-Loire. The principal decorations take the four seasons as their theme, his first public commissions came early in the 1860s, with work at the Musée de Picardie at Amiens. The first four works were Concordia, Bellum, Le Travail and Le Repos. Over the course of his career, Puvis received a substantial number of commissions for works to be carried out in public and private institutions throughout France, his early work at the Musée de Picardie had helped him to develop his classicizing style, the decorative aesthetic of his mural works.
Among his public works are the cycles completed at Amiens, at Marseille, at Lyon and at Poitiers. Of particular importance is the cycle at the Palais de Beaux Arts in Lyon, which includes three significant works, filling the wall space in the main staircase. From left to right, the works are Antique Vision, The Wood Dear to the Arts and the Muses, Christian Inspiration. Puvis' career was tied up with a complicated debate, ongoing since the beginning of the Third Republic, at the end of the violence of the Paris Commune; the question at stake was the identity of France and the meaning of'Frenchness'. Royalists felt that the revolution of 1789 had been an immense disaster and that France had been thrown off course, while the Republicans felt that the Revolution had allowed France to revert to its true course. Works that were to be displayed in public spaces, such as murals, had the important task of fulfilling the ideology of the commissioning party. Many scholars of Puvis's works have noted that his success as a'painter for France' was due to his ability to create works which were agreeable to the many ideologies in existence at this time.
His first Parisian commission was for a cycle at the church of Saint Genevieve, now the secular Pantheon, begun in 1874. His two subjects were L'Education de Sainte Geneviève and La Vie Pastoral de Sainte Geneviève; this commission was followed by works at the Sorbonne, namely the enormous hemicycle, The Sacred Grove or L'Ancienne Sorbonne amongst the muses in the Grand Amphitheater of the Sorbonne. His final commission in this trinity of Republican commissions was the crowning glory of Puvis's career, the works Summer and Winter, at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. Many of these works are characterized by their nod to classical art, visible in the careful balanced compositions, the subject matter is a direct reference to visions of Hellenistic Greece in the case of Antique Vision. Puvis de Chavannes was president and co-founder in 1890 of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts founded in Paris, it became the dominant salon of art at the time and held exhibitions of contemporary art, selected only by a jury composed of the officers of the Société.
Those who translated best the spirit of the work of Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes' in their own creations were, in Germany, the painter Ludwig von Hofmann and in France, Auguste Rodin. His easel paintings may be found in many Am
Capitole de Toulouse
The Capitole is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse and its city hall. It is on the spot that St Saturninus was martyred; the bishop of Toulouse is said to have been tied to the legs of a bull, driven down the steps of the town's capitol, causing his head to be bashed open. The Capitouls of Toulouse embarked on the construction of the original building in 1190 to provide a seat for the government of a province growing in wealth and influence; the name "Capitole" referred not only to the Roman Capitol but to the capitulum, the chapter of the governing magistrates. It was a centre of contention during the 1562 Toulouse Riots, with Huguenot forces holding it with captured cannon. In the 20th century, the structures surrounding the vast Place du Capitole were redesigned, but the current façade, 135 m long and built of the characteristic pink brick in Neoclassical style, dates from 1750, built according to plans by Guillaume Cammas; the eight columns represent the original eight capitouls.
In 1873, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc built a bell tower typical of the style of northern France on top of the donjon of the building. It was in this donjon that Jean Calas, a Protestant victim of a religiously-biased trial, was interrogated. Only the Henri IV courtyard and gate survive from the original medieval buildings, it was in this courtyard that the Duke de Montmorency was decapitated after his rebellion against Cardinal Richelieu. A thorough redesign of the Place du Capitole in 1995 reserved the space for pedestrians; some of the interior of the Capitole can be traced back to the 16th century. Today the Capitole houses the city hall, as well as the Théâtre du Capitole de Toulouse opera company and the Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse; the Salle des Illustres contains 19th century works of art. Capitoulsiament of Toulouse]] Turning, Municipal Officials, Their Public, the Negotiation of Justice in Medieval Languedoc: Fear Not the Madness of the Raging Mob, Later Medieval Europe, No. 10, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-23464-2
French Third Republic
The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, the establishment of the Paris Commune; the early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy and who should be awarded the throne caused those talks to stall. Thus, the Third Republic, intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France; the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic.
It consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. Issues over the re-establishment of the monarchy dominated the tenures of the first two presidents, Adolphe Thiers and Patrice de MacMahon, but the growing support for the republican form of government in the French population and a series of republican presidents during the 1880s quashed all plans for a monarchical restoration; the Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century. The early years of the 20th century were dominated by the Democratic Republican Alliance, conceived as a centre-left political alliance, but over time became the main centre-right party; the period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured polarized politics, between the Democratic Republican Alliance and the more Radicals.
The government fell during the early years of World War II as the Germans occupied France and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France. Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s "the form of government that divides France least". On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution. On the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army. In spite of France's divided electorate and persistent attempts to overthrow it, the Third Republic endured for seventy years, which as of 2018 makes it the longest lasting system of government in France since the collapse of the Ancien Régime in 1789; the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France and the overthrow of Emperor Napoleon III and his Second French Empire. After Napoleon's capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870.
The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president. This first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris; as Paris was cut off from the rest of unoccupied France, the Minister of War, Léon Gambetta, who succeeded in leaving Paris in a hot air balloon, established the headquarters of the provisional republican government in the city of Tours on the Loire river. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, national elections were called with the aim of creating a new French government. French territories occupied by Prussia at this time; the resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, nominally. Due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters; the new government negotiated a peace settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire: the Treaty of Frankfurt signed on 10 May 1871.
To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of financial laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities, to pay reparations. In Paris, resentment against the government built and from late March – May 1871, Paris workers and National Guards revolted and established the Paris Commune, which maintained a radical left-wing regime for two months until its bloody suppression by the Thiers government in May 1871; the following repression of the communards would have disastrous consequences for the labor movement. The French legislative election of 1871, held in the aftermath of the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, resulted in a monarchist majority in the French National Assembly, favourable to making a peace agreement with Prussia; the "Legitimists" in the National Assembly supported the candidacy of a descendant of King Charles X, the last monarch from the senior line of the Bourbon Dynasty, to assume the French throne: his grandson Henri, Comte de Chambord, alias "Henry V."
The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch i
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution; the fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ball room and gathering place. The exhibition was "used as showcases for scientific and technological advances, but often included exhibits of objects from the past, including prehistoric times." The 1889 Exposition covered a total area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai d'Orsay, a part of the Seine and the Invalides esplanade. Transport around the Exposition was provided by the 3 kilometre 600 mm gauge Decauville railway at Exposition Universelle, it was claimed. Some of the locomotives used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados and the Diégo Suarez Decauville railway.
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, would be the site of the 1900 exposition. Since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform. Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the necessary construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure; when speaking of the dedicated workers, M. Salles, the son-in-law of Eiffel made the statement that "no soldier on the battle field deserved better mention than these humble toilers, will never go down in history." No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform. An significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin, it was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910.
At 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is an extensive description, with illustrations, of the Exposition's two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation: the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features. In the first place, for its buildings the Eiffel tower and the Machinery Hall; the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable "Great Model of the Earth" created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard. There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing some distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition, as reported by the Engineering issues at that time; the Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq. This was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style.
After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, the work being completed by 1893. Known as the Schoelcher Library it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today, it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, stands as a tribute to the man it is named after who led the movement to abolish slavery in Martinique. A "Negro village" where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. Matching the opening day of the Exposition, the Opéra Comique premiered on 14 May 1889 with a work specially composed for that event: Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and entertaining crowds of visitors for the more than 50 evenings the Exposition lasted. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music, performed by an ensemble from Java; this influenced some of his compositions. William Stroudley, locomotive superintendent of the London and South Coast Railway died whilst at the exhibition, where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives.
Heineken received the Grand Prix at the exposition. Buffalo Bill recruited American sharpshooter Annie Oakley to rejoin his "Wild West Show" which performed for packed audiences throughout the Exposition. Other prominent visitors included the Shah of Persia Nasereddin Shah, Prince of Wales and his wife, Princess Alexandra. S. journalist and diplomat Whitelaw Reid. A central attraction in the French section was the Imperial Diamond, at the time the largest diamond in the world; the Mexican pavi
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges is a commune and former episcopal see in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. It is a member of the Les Plus Beaux Villages de France association. In 72 B. C. the Roman General Pompey, while on the way back to Rome after a military campaign in Spain, founded a Roman colony there. The goal was to defend the passage to the Iberian peninsula; the colony had reached around 30,000 people at its highest point. It belonged to the Roman province of Novempopulana and had a growing Christian community, which by the late fourth century got its own Diocese of Comminges, suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Eauze, it is believed to have been the place of exile from 39 AD of Herod Antipas, with his wife Herodias, under Emperor Caligula's orders. In 405 the Vandals forced the peasantry to move to the citadel. In 585 another Germanic invasion, by the Burgundians under king Guntram razed the site in the course of their pursuit of Gundoald, it would remain deserted for nearly five centuries.
The bishopric however persisted under the name of Comminges and was transferred in the ninth century to the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Auch. In 1083 a knight related to the Counts of Toulouse, Bertrand de l'Isle-Jourdain, canon of Saint Augustine in Toulouse, was nominated bishop of Comminges, he ordered the construction of the Romanesque cloister. The place became used by pilgrims as a stage on the route to Santiago de Compostela. Bertrand de l'Isle was canonised and became known as Saint-Bertrand in the 13th century and Lugdunum Convenarum became known as Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges; the term Comminges itself comes from the Latin word "Convenae", meaning "those who came together" at Pompey's new settlement. In July 19, 2012, during the 99th edition of Tour de France, was one of the villages which cyclists passed by. Aside of the former cathedral, the village has a Romanesque basilica as well as Roman ruins. There is an archeological site close to the Cathedral in which it is possible to identify the remains of a Roman thermae and of a theatre.
The village itself is a medieval one, with several vaults. It has several gates entering it. Another gate, the Majou Gate, is interesting in. Following the ramparts it is possible to observe the Matacan Rock from which, according to the legend, Gondoald had been executed by Gunther. Entering the nave people will see three distinct architectural styles at the same time: the Romanesque part of the 12th century; the Gothic part of the 14th century commissioned by Bertrand de Goth. the Renaissance part as well as the organ from the sixteenth century. The narthex ends by two huge pillars with a circumference of no less than 11.45m. Over the northern and southern walls one can see the Romanesque arches, the floors are made of marble and include some tombs and sepulchres; the choir is clearly Romanesque and offers an impressive view over the entire valley. The Gothic part is built in the Meridional Gothic style. There is a single nave, 55m long, 16m wide and 28m tall. Over the arrow arches there are "coat of arms" from the founding bishops.
The stained glasses are impressive by their level of details comparable to those of Auch. The stalls within the choir were commissioned by Jean de Mauléon but because of the lack of documentation it is impossible to name the artist that made them. Although and by comparison with other stalls it is considered it was the work of Nicolas Bachelier, or rather of his school, using artists from France and Italy. Most of the work had been done in oak and walnut, the choir seems cut off from the rest of the church contrasting so much with the Gothic and Romanesque parts; the sixty-seven stalls represent characters from both the Old and the New Testaments, including scenes like: temptation and lust. The former cathedral has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France; the mediaeval scholar and ghost story writer M. R. James used Saint-Bertrand, more its cathedral, as a setting for his classic tale of terror "Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book", which can be found in the collection Ghost Stories of an Antiquary.
The English composer Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji wrote a piano piece inspired by James's story entitled St. Bertrand de Comminges: "He was laughing in the tower". According to ancient Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Lugdunum Covenarum - in the Roman province of Spain - was the place of exile of Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Galilee in the time of Jesus Christ. Herod and his wife Herodias were sent there under the orders of the Emperor Caligula in AD39, they remained there until their death about two years later. Confusion of this place with present-day Lyon also called Lugdunum, is still frequent nowadays, though the Hispanic reference makes this geographically impossible. Isábena, 2018 Comminges Communes of the Haute-Garonne department List of Catholic dioceses in France INSEE Website of the former cathedral GCatholic, with Google satellite map - former cathedral of Our lady
L'Illustration was a weekly French newspaper published in Paris from 1843 to 1944. It was founded by Édouard Charton and the first issue was published on March 4, 1843. In 1891, L'Illustration became the first French newspaper to publish a photograph. Many of these photographs came from syndicated photo-press agencies like Chusseau-Flaviens, but the publication employed its own photographers such as Léon Gimpel and others. In 1907, L'Illustration was the first to publish a color photograph, it published Gaston Leroux' novel Le mystère de la chambre jaune as a serial a year before its 1908 release. Editor-in-chieffrom 1923 Gaston Sorbets. IllustratorGeorges BarbierPhotojournalistAlbert RudominejournalistGustave BabinDuring the Second World War, while it was owned by the Baschet family, L'Illustration supported Marshal Philippe Pétain's Révolution nationale. However, it turned down pro-German articles by Jacques Bouly de Lesdain. However, Lesdain became its political editor; the magazine was shut down in 1944 following the Liberation of Paris.
Another version re-opened in 1945 under the name France-Illustration, but went bankrupt in 1957. Marchandiau Jean-Noël.. L'Illustration: vie et mort d'un journal, 1843-1944. Toulouse: Éditions Privat. ISBN 978-2-7089-5335-2. L'Illustration, digitized issues