SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jean-Antoine Watteau

Jean-Antoine Watteau referred to as Antoine Watteau, was a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement, as seen in the tradition of Correggio and Rubens. He revitalized the waning Baroque style, shifting it to the less severe, more naturalistic, less formally classical, Rococo. Watteau is credited with inventing the genre of fête galantes, scenes of bucolic and idyllic charm, suffused with a theatrical air; some of his best known subjects were drawn from the world of Italian ballet. Watteau was born in October 1684 in the town of Valenciennes which had passed from the Spanish Netherlands to France, his father, Jean-Philippe Watteau, was a roofer given to brawling. Showing an early interest in painting, Jean-Antoine may have been apprenticed to Jacques-Albert Gérin, a local painter, his first artistic subjects were charlatans selling quack remedies on the streets of Valenciennes. Watteau left for Paris in 1702. After a period spent as a scene-painter, in poor health, he found employment in a workshop at Pont Notre-Dame, making copies of popular genre paintings in the Flemish and Dutch tradition.

His drawings attracted the attention of the painter Claude Gillot, by 1705 he was employed as an assistant to Gillot, whose work, imbued with the spirit of the Renaissance, represented a reaction against the turgid official art of Louis XIV's reign. In Gillot's studio Watteau became acquainted with the characters of the commedia dell'arte, a favorite subject of Gillot's that would become one of Watteau's lifelong passions. After a quarrel with Gillot, Watteau moved to the workshop of Claude Audran III, an interior decorator, under whose influence he began to make drawings admired for their consummate elegance. Audran was the curator of the Palais du Luxembourg, from him Watteau acquired his knowledge of decorative art and ornamental design. At the palace, Watteau was able to see the magnificent series of canvases painted by Peter Paul Rubens for Queen Marie de Medici; the Flemish painter would become one of his major influences, together with the Venetian masters that he would study in the collection of his patron and friend, the banker Pierre Crozat.

During this peroid Watteau painted The Departing Regiment, the first picture in his second and more personal manner, showing influence of Rubens, the first of a long series of camp pictures. He showed the painting to Audran, who made light of it, advised him not to waste his time and gifts on such subjects. Watteau determined advancing as excuse his desire to return to Valenciennes, he found a purchaser, at the modest price of 60 livres, in a man called Sirois, the father-in-law of his friend and patron Edme-François Gersaint, was thus enabled to return to the home of his childhood. In Valenciennes he painted a number of the small camp-pieces, notably the Camp-Fire, again bought by Sirois, the price this time being raised to 200 livres. In 1709, Watteau tried to obtain a one-year stay in Rome by winning the Prix de Rome from the Academy, but managed only to get awarded with the second prize. In 1712 he tried again and was persuaded by Charles de La Fosse that he had nothing to learn from going to Rome.

He took those five years to deliver the required "reception piece", but it was one of his masterpieces: the Pilgrimage to Cythera called the Embarkation for Cythera. Watteau went to live with the collector Crozat, who on his death in 1740 left around 400 paintings and 19,000 drawings by the masters, thus Watteau was able to spend more time becoming familiar with the works of Rubens and the Venetian masters. He lacked aristocratic patrons. Among his most famous paintings, beside the two versions of the Pilgrimage to Cythera, one in the Louvre, the other in the Schloss Charlottenburg, are Pierrot, Fêtes venitiennes, Love in the Italian Theater, Love in the French Theater, "Voulez-vous triompher des belles?" and Mezzetin. The subject of his hallmark painting, Pierrot, is an actor in a white satin costume who stands isolated from his four companions, staring ahead with an enigmatic expression on his face. Watteau's final masterpiece, the Shop-sign of Gersaint, exits the pastoral forest locale for a mundane urban set of encounters.

Painted at Watteau's own insistence, "in eight days, working only in the mornings... in order to warm up his fingers", this sign for the shop in Paris of the paintings dealer Edme François Gersaint is the final curtain of Watteau's theatre. It has been compared with Las Meninas as a meditation on illusion; the scene is an art gallery where the façade has magically vanished, the gallery and street in the canvas are fused into one contiguous drama. Watteau alarmed his friends by a carelessness about his future and financial security, as if foreseeing he would not live for long. In fact he had been physically fragile since childhood. In 1720, he travelled to London, England, to consult Dr. Richard Mead, one of the most fashionable physicians of his time and an admirer of Watteau's work. However, London's damp and smoky air offset any benefits of medicines. Watteau returned to France, spending six months with Gersaint, spent his last few months on the estate of his patron, Abbé Haranger, where he died in 1721 from tuberculous laryngit

Georg Nees

Georg Nees was a German academic, a pioneer of computer art and generative graphics. He studied mathematics and philosophy in Erlangen and Stuttgart and was scientific advisor at the SEMIOSIS, International Journal of semiotics and aesthetics. In 1977, he was appointed Honorary Professor of Applied computer science at the University of Erlangen Nees is one of the "3N" computer pioneers, an abbreviation that has become acknowledged for Frieder Nake, Georg Nees and A. Michael Noll, whose computer graphics were created with digital computers. George Nees was born in 1926 in Nuremberg, he showed scientific curiosity and interest in art from a young age and among his favorite pastimes were viewing art postcards and looking through a microscope. He attended a school in Schwabach near Nuremberg, graduating in 1945. From 1945 to 1951, he studied mathematics and physics at the University of Erlangen worked as an industry mathematician for the Siemens Schuckertwerk in Erlangen from 1951 to 1985. There he started to write his first programs in 1959.

The company was incorporated into the Siemens AG. From 1964 onwards, he studied philosophy under Max Bense, he received his doctorate with his thesis on Generative Computergraphik under Max Bense in 1969. His work is considered one of the first theses on Generative Computer Graphics. In 1969, his thesis was published as a book entitled "Generative Computergraphik" and included examples of program code and graphics produced thereby. After his retirement in 1985 Nees worked in the field of computer art. In February 1965, Nees showed - as works of art - the world's first computer graphics created with a digital computer; the exhibition, titled computer graphik took place at the public premises of the "Study Gallery of Stuttgart College". In 1966, he started to work on "computer-sculptures". In the catalog of the Biennale 1969 Nuremberg, Nees describes how the computer program controlled the milling machine so that instead of a workpiece, a sculpture was created. Three painted several graphics were shown at the Biennale 1969 Nuremberg.

In 1970 at the 35th Venice Biennale his work was part of the special exhibition "Research and Design. Proposals for an experimental exposure" and showcased his sculptures and graphics of art and architectural design. In 1963, Nees was instrumental in the purchase of a flatbed plotter, the Zuse Graphomat Z64 designed by Konrad Zuse, for the data center at the Schuckertwerke in Erlangen. At the exhibition Georg Nees – The Great Temptation at the ZKM Nees said: ″There it was, the great temptation for me, for once not to represent something technical with this machine but rather something ‘useless’ – geometrical patterns.″Using the ALGOL language, Nees created drawings and graphics for production and architectural drawings. He wrote the new graphics libraries G1, G2 and G3 with ALGOL, for controlling the Z64 and random number generation. In 1965 Nees experimented with random numbers and circle arcs; the graphic Kreisbogengewirre was a graphic of this series known as Locken. Frieder Nake explains how this graphic was created: ″In fact, the picture does consist of one continuous path of arcs.

… The length and radius of the individual arcs are randomly chosen within the limits defined by the programmer … The picture in it present form is due to a serious programming error … It was designed to be less complex and it had to be ended manually because of the error.″Nees worked with the Siemens System 2002 to create aesthetic graphics, such as the graphic ″gravel ″ in 1968. This artwork can be seen on the website of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; when writing the program Nees introduced commands for random numbers, which produced from a designated point on the resulting chaos. This causes the graphic to develop from order to disorder or vice versa, if the graphic is turned through 180 degrees. Robert J. Krawczyk wrote in his text A Shattered Perfection: Crafting a Virtual Sculpture: ″Georg Nees’s Gravel Stones … What attracted me to this piece was the simplicity of the concept and the overall interpretation of transforming order into disorder. … What intrigues me with this "ancient" piece was the use of exact mathematical computations to model a chaotic image and the progression from the ordered to the disordered.″ The first computer graphic produced in architecture by Nees was the motive corridor in 1968.

In 1968 started his collaboration with the architect Ludwig Rase for the Siemens Pavilion at the Hannover Industrial Fair in 1970. The drawings of the truss roof was first calculated with the System 2002 and drawn with the Graphomat Z64. For the Hannover fair in 1970 the drawings were created with the modern System 4004 again. One of the drawings was printed as a poster for the Hannover Fair and for the 35th Venice Biennale in 1970. There were computer drawings for fair pavilions of the Siemens AG, such as the "German Industry Exhibition" in São Paulo in 1971. Ludwig Rase experimented based on the cuboctahedron for residential dwellings and urban design with Nees creating the computer aided design plans for the project; the graphic Kubo-Octaeder developed during this was used for the cover and poster of the exhibition Computer art. Nees rase in the Hamburger Kunsthalle in 1972.. Nees started his research and experiments again, he devoted his time to semiotics and aesthetics for media and design.

He published the results from 1995 onwards in several articles. In 1985, Alex Kempkens asked Nees whether he wished to participate in the exhibition Bilder Images Digital in the ″Gallery

Outwood railway station

Outwood railway station is situated in the Outwood district of Wakefield in West Yorkshire, England. Outwood is the first stop on the Wakefield Line 7.5 miles after Leeds for trains going towards Wakefield Westgate and Sheffield. The original station was opened by the Bradford and Leeds Railway in 1858, was named Lofthouse; this was renamed Lofthouse and Outwood in July 1865. It closed on 13 June 1960. A different Lofthouse and Outwood station, on a different route, opened in 1869 and closed in 1957; the station was reopened on 12 July 1988. The station is unstaffed and has two wooden platforms with waiting shelters, customer help points, digital display screens, timetable posters and automated train announcements provide running information. Level access to both platforms is via ramps. Monday to Saturdays two trains per hour head northbound to Leeds and southbound one train per hour goes to Doncaster and one to Sheffield, both operate via Wakefield Westgate. In addition, the Sheffield service goes via Rotherham Central.

Sundays there is an hourly service to Leeds and a two-hourly service to Doncaster and Sheffield respectively. Train times and station information for Outwood railway station from National Rail