MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database that is similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the placed on the Compact Disc Database. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become an open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their works, and the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, and these entries are maintained by volunteer editors who follow community written style guidelines. Recorded works can store information about the date and country. As of 26 July 2016, MusicBrainz contained information about roughly 1.1 million artists,1.6 million releases, end-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC. As with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge for maintaining and reviewing the data, besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint.
A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this, in 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatables patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching. This feature attracted many users and allowed the database to grow quickly, however, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions. This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, tRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND, some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought. The Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský, while AcoustID and Chromaprint are not officially MusicBrainz projects, they are closely tied with each other and both are open source.
Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second, additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns. The AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity, since 2003, MusicBrainzs core data are in the public domain, and additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL, the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, in December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye
In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve harmony, counterpoint, timbre, Variation forms include ground bass, passacaglia and theme and variations. Ground bass and chaconne are typically based on brief ostinato motifs providing a repetitive harmonic basis and are typically continuous evolving structures. Theme and variation forms are based specifically on melodic variation, in which the fundamental musical idea. This form may in part have derived from the practical inventiveness of musicians, Court dances were long, Variation forms can be written as free-standing pieces for solo instruments or ensembles, or can constitute a movement of a larger piece. Most jazz music is structured on a pattern of theme. 56, Elgars Enigma Variations, Francks Variations Symphoniques, and Richard Strausss Don Quixote, both Schuberts Death and the Maiden Quartet and Trout Quintet take their titles from his songs used as variation movements. Although the first isolated example emerged in the 14th century, works in theme-and-variation form first emerge in the sixteenth century.
Possibly the earliest published example is the diferencias for vihuela by Luis de Narváez, a favorite form of variations in Renaissance music was divisions, a type in which the basic rhythmic beat is successively divided into smaller and smaller values. Keyboard works in form were written by a number of 16th-century English composers, including William Byrd, Hugh Aston. Outstanding examples of early Baroque variations are the ciaccone of Claudio Monteverdi, in the Classical era, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote a great number of variations, such as the first movement of his Piano Sonata in A, K.331, or the finale of his Clarinet Quintet. 103, the Drumroll, and the Variations in F minor for piano, ludwig van Beethoven wrote many variation sets in his career. Some were independent sets, for instance the Diabelli Variations, Op.120, others form single movements or parts of movements in larger works, such as first movement of the Piano Sonata No. 12, Op.26, or the variations in the movement of the Third Symphony.
Variation sets occur in several of his works, such as the slow movement of his String Quartet No. 12, Op.127, the movement of his final Piano Sonata No. 32, Op.111, and the third movement of the Ninth Symphony. Franz Schubert wrote five variation sets using his own lieder as themes, amongst them is the slow movement of his string quartet Death and the Maiden D.810, an intense set of variations on his somber lied of the same title
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet, it is pitched in B♭. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A, Bass clarinets regularly perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands, occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular. Someone who plays a clarinet is called a bass clarinetist. Most modern bass clarinets are straight-bodied, with a small upturned silver-colored metal bell, Early examples varied in shape, some having a doubled body making them look similar to bassoons. The bass clarinet is fairly heavy and is supported either with a strap or with an adjustable peg attached to its body. While Adolphe Sax imitated its upturned metal bell in his design of the larger saxophones, Bass clarinet bodies are most often made of grenadilla or plastic resin, while saxophones are typically made entirely of metal. More significantly, all including the bass have a bore that is basically the same diameter along the body of the instrument.
This cylindrical bore differs from the saxophones conical one and gives the clarinet its characteristic tone, causing it to overblow at the twelfth compared with the saxophones octave. A majority of modern bass clarinets, like other clarinets in the family, have the Boehm system of keys and fingering, most modern Boehm system bass clarinets have an extension key allowing them to play to the E♭. This key was added to allow easy transposition of parts for the relatively rare bass clarinet pitched in A. A significant difference between soprano and bass clarinet key work is a key pad played by the index finger with a vent that may be uncovered for certain high notes. This allows a form of half-hole fingering that allows notes in higher registers to be played on the instrument, in addition, older bass clarinets have two register keys, one for middle D♯ and below, the other for middle E and higher. Newer models typically only have one, the second register key makes the altissimo range much easier to play.
In addition to differences in keywork, many professional and advanced bass clarinetists own instruments with extensions down to a C a full two octaves below written middle C. At concert pitch this note is the B♭ below the second ledger line below the bass staff, the instrument sounds an octave lower than the B♭ soprano clarinet. As with all instruments, the upper limit of the range depends on the quality of the instrument. According to Aber and Lerstad, who give fingerings up to written C8, the bass clarinet has been regularly used in scoring for orchestra and concert band since the late 19th century, becoming more common during the middle and latter part of the 20th century
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Martin Berteau was a French cellist, cello teacher, and composer. He is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of cello playing, descriptions of Berteaus life are often unreliable and exaggerated. As a result, little is certain about his life and he probably studied viola da gamba in Germany with Bohemian, Kozecz. Fétis, who wrote a Biographie universelle des musiciens and said that Berteau made his debut on the cello in 1739 at the Concert Spirituel, his name is not mentioned in any media of the time, and nether his concerto nor sketches of it have been found. The only reference of his name was made by Jean-Jacques Rousseau who mentioned having heard Berteau perform in Paris in 1753, with the exception of a few cello sonatas, much of Berteaus work has been lost. For many decades Berteau’s well known Cello Sonata in G major, free scores by Martin Berteau at the International Music Score Library Project
A duet is a musical composition for two performers in which the performers have equal importance to the piece. It is often used to describe a composition involving two singers and it differs from a harmony, as the performers take turns performing a solo section rather than performing simultaneously. In classical music, the term is most often used for a composition for two singers or pianists, a piece performed by two pianists performing together on the same piano is referred to as piano duet or piano four hands. A piece for two pianists performing together on separate pianos is referred to as a piano duo, duet is used as a verb for the act of performing a musical duet, or colloquially as a noun to refer to the performers of a duet. The word is occasionally used in reference to non-musical activities performed together by two people. A musical ensemble with more than two solo instruments or voices is called trio, quintet, septet, when Mozart was young, he and his sister Marianne played a duet of his composition at a London concert in 1765.
The four-hand, described as a duet, was in many of his compositions included five sonatas. The first published sonata or duet was in 1777, in Renaissance music, a duet specifically intended as a teaching tool, to be performed by teacher and student, was called a bicinium. Duets have always been a part of the structure of operas, early 16th-century operas such as LOrfeo and Lincoronazione di Poppea involve duets throughout the performance. In 17th-century Italy duets were often used in comic scenes within serious operas, in Baroque France the duet was popular in tragedies, such as songs of vengeance and confrontation. The love duet was characterized by singing in close harmonies of 3rds and 6ths, some songs were written to be heard as conversations, such as Baby, Its Cold Outside. Others were performed around a theme, for example New York in Empire State of Mind, occasionally duets are an improvisation between artists, such as Under Pressure. David Bowie and Freddie Mercury reportedly composed the lyrics in a day by improvising together, the dictionary definition of duet at Wiktionary
The Concert Spirituel was one of the first public concert series in existence. The concerts began in Paris in 1725 and ended in 1790, concerts or series of concerts of the name occurred in Paris, London. The series was founded to provide entertainment during the Easter fortnight, the programs featured a mixture of sacred choral works and virtuosic instrumental pieces, and for many years took place in a magnificently-decorated Salle des Cent Suisses in the Tuileries Palace. They started at six o’clock in the evening and were attended by well-to-do bourgeois, the lower aristocracy. In 1784 the concerts were moved to the area of the Salle des Machines, and in 1790. The first concert took place of 18 March 1725 where two of Delalandes motets and Corellis Christmas Concerto were performed, the first director was Anne Danican Philidor, brother of the composer and chess master François-André Danican Philidor. Philidor went bankrupt two years. His successors, Pierre Simart and Jean-Joseph Mouret, expanded the operation with a series of French Concerts, because no one was willing to take their place, the series was administered by the Académie Royale de Musique for the next fourteen years.
During this period, the works of French composers were favored, the series was finally profitable because the Académie did not have to pay the license fee, but in general this was a period of stagnation. They continued to new and existing French works, but presented the most famous Italian singers. Beginning in 1755, oratorios with French texts were introduced and became popular, in 1762 a well-connected royal functionary, Antoine Dauvergne, forced Royers widow out of the operation she had run since her husbands death in 1755. Dauvergne and various associates managed the concerts until 1773, the interest of the public was excited by adding a motet competition and by expanding the presentation of instrumental virtuosi beyond violinists to include masters of wind instruments. Although the concerts remained profitable, Dauvergne abandoned the concerts, as a result the Académie replaced him with Pierre Gaviniès, Simon Le Duc and François Joseph Gossec. From 1777 the Concert Spirituel was directed by Joseph Legros, its last and most brilliant director, Legros, a star singer at the Opera, who managed the concerts until they came to an end in 1790 with the French Revolution.
The final concert took place on 13 May 1790, during the Napoleonic period concerts were occasionally held in Paris under the title concert spirituel, particularly after 1805 as religious feeling revived in France. During the Restoration, the Théâtre-Italien and Académie Royale de Musique gave 6 to 9 concerts spirituels per year and they became a regular feature at the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire shortly after it was founded in 1828 and remained so for most of the nineteenth century. They were frequently benefit performances featuring notable soloists - for example, entry on Le Concert Spirituel on the Naxos. com website Michel Brenet, Les Concerts en France sous lAncien Régime, Fischbacher,1900, réimprimé à New York, Da Capo Press,1970. Joann Élart, Musiciens et répertoires de concert en France à la fin de lAncien Régime, patrick Taïeb, université de Rouen,2005
The cello or violoncello is a bowed or plucked string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. The strings from low to high are generally tuned to C2, G2, D3 and A3 and it is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which includes the violin and viola and the double bass. The cello is used as a musical instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras. It is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the symphony orchestra. Cello parts are written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clefs are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a cellist or violoncellist, in a small Classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello typically plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece. In orchestra, in Baroque era and Classical music period, the cello plays the bass part.
In Baroque era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline, in a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined by other bass instruments, playing double bass, viol or other low-register instruments. The name cello is a contraction of the Italian violoncello, which means little violone, in modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument. Thus, the name contained both the augmentative -one and the diminutive -cello. By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to cello and it is now customary to use cello without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the viola, which was derived from Medieval Latin vitula. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3 and it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola, but an octave lower. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello is most closely associated with European classical music, and has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice.
The instrument is a part of the orchestra, as part of the string section. A large number of concertos and sonatas have been written for the cello, among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bachs six unaccompanied Suites. The Prelude from the First Suite is particularly famous, romantic era repertoire includes the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms. The cello is increasingly common in traditional music, especially Scottish fiddle music
Sonata, in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata, a piece sung. The term evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms until the Classical era, when it took on increasing importance, by the early 19th century, it came to represent a principle of composing large-scale works. It was applied to most instrumental genres and regarded—alongside the fugue—as one of two methods of organizing and analyzing concert music. Though the musical style of sonatas has changed since the Classical era, most 20th-, the term sonatina, pl. sonatine, the diminutive form of sonata, is often used for a short or technically easy sonata. In the Baroque period, a sonata was for one or more instruments almost always with continuo, sonatas for a solo instrument other than keyboard have been composed, as have sonatas for other combinations of instruments. Although the four, five, or six movements of the sonata da chiesa are most often in one key, one or two of the internal movements are sometimes in a contrasting tonality.
This scheme, was not very defined, until the works of Arcangelo Corelli when it became the essential sonata. The sonata da camera consisted almost entirely of idealized dance-tunes, on the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera tended to be freely intermixed. Although nearly half of Bachs 1,100 surviving compositions and they are frequently virtuosic, and use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of the time. They were admired for their variety and invention. Both the solo and trio sonatas of Vivaldi show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time. He composed over 70 sonatas, the majority of which are of the solo type, most of the rest are trio sonatas. The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works with a graceful and this evolution stretched over fifty years. The term came to both to the structure of individual movements and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work. In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento, the usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s.
Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771, after which the term divertimento is used sparingly in his output, the term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone, or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello. It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists, for piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano, violin. Initially the most common layout of movements was, which at the time was understood to not only a tempo
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a number of performers. However, by convention, it usually does not include solo instrument performances, because of its intimate nature, chamber music has been described as the music of friends. Playing chamber music requires special skills, both musical and social, that differ from the skills required for playing solo or symphonic works, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe described chamber music as four rational people conversing. The analogy to conversation recurs in descriptions and analyses of chamber music compositions, from its earliest beginnings in the Medieval period to the present, chamber music has been a reflection of the changes in the technology and the society that produced it. During the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, instruments were used primarily as accompaniment for singers, String players would play along with the melody line sung by the singer.
There were purely instrumental ensembles, often of stringed precursors of the violin family, some analysts consider the origin of classical instrumental ensembles to be the sonata da camera and the sonata da chiesa. These were compositions for one to five or more instruments, the sonata da camera was a suite of slow and fast movements, interspersed with dance tunes, the sonata da chiesa was the same, but the dances were omitted. These forms gradually developed into the trio sonata of the Baroque – two treble instruments and an instrument, often with a keyboard or other chording instrument filling in the harmony. Both the bass instrument and the instrument would play the basso continuo part. During the Baroque period, chamber music as a genre was not clearly defined, works could be played on any variety of instruments, in orchestral or chamber ensembles. The Art of Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach, for example, sometimes composers mixed movements for chamber ensembles with orchestral movements.
Telemanns Tafelmusik, for example, has five sets of movements for various combinations of instruments, Baroque chamber music was often contrapuntal, that is, each instrument played the same melodic materials at different times, creating a complex, interwoven fabric of sound. Because each instrument was playing essentially the same melodies, all the instruments were equal, in the trio sonata, there is often no ascendent or solo instrument, but all three instruments share equal importance. In the second half of the 18th century, tastes began to change, many preferred a new, lighter Galant style. And clearly defined melody and bass to the complexities of counterpoint, now a new custom arose that gave birth to a new form of chamber music, the serenade. Patrons invited street musicians to play evening concerts below the balconies of their homes, their friends and musicians commissioned composers to write suitable suites of dances and tunes, for groups of two to five or six players. These works were called serenades, divertimenti, or cassations, the young Joseph Haydn was commissioned to write several of these