Albrecht Dürer sometimes spelt in English as Durer or Duerer, without umlaut, was a painter and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties due to his high-quality woodcut prints, he was in communication with the major Italian artists of his time, including Raphael, Giovanni Bellini and Leonardo da Vinci, from 1512 he was patronized by Emperor Maximilian I. Dürer is commemorated by both the Episcopal Churches. Dürer's vast body of work includes engravings, his preferred technique in his prints, altarpieces and self-portraits and books; the woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series, are more Gothic than the rest of his work. His well-known engravings include the Knight and the Devil, Saint Jerome in his Study and Melencolia I, the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation, his watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium.
Dürer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists, has secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatises, which involve principles of mathematics and ideal proportions. Dürer was born on 21 May 1471, third child and second son of his parents, who had at least fourteen and as many as eighteen children, his father, Albrecht Dürer the Elder, was a successful goldsmith who in 1455 had moved to Nuremberg from Ajtós, near Gyula in Hungary. One of Albrecht's brothers, Hans Dürer, was a painter and trained under him. Another of Albrecht's brothers, Endres Dürer, took over their father's business and was a master goldsmith; the German name "Dürer" is a translation from the Hungarian, "Ajtósi". It was "Türer", meaning doormaker, "ajtós" in Hungarian. A door is featured in the coat-of-arms. Albrecht Dürer the Younger changed "Türer", his father's diction of the family's surname, to "Dürer", to adapt to the local Nuremberg dialect.
Dürer the Elder married Barbara Holper, daughter of his master when he himself qualified as a master in 1467. Dürer's godfather was Anton Koberger, who left goldsmithing to become a printer and publisher in the year of Dürer's birth, became the most successful publisher in Germany owning twenty-four printing-presses and built a number of offices in Germany and abroad. Koberger's most famous publication was the Nuremberg Chronicle, published in 1493 in German and Latin editions, it contained an unprecedented 1,809 woodcut illustrations by the Wolgemut workshop. Dürer may have worked on some of these; because Dürer left autobiographical writings and became famous by his mid-twenties, his life is well documented by several sources. After a few years of school, Dürer started to learn the basics of goldsmithing and drawing from his father. Though his father wanted him to continue his training as a goldsmith, he showed such a precocious talent in drawing that he started as an apprentice to Michael Wolgemut at the age of fifteen in 1486.
A self-portrait, a drawing in silverpoint, is dated 1484 "when I was a child", as his inscription says. Wolgemut was the leading artist in Nuremberg at the time, with a large workshop producing a variety of works of art, in particular woodcuts for books. Nuremberg was an important and prosperous city, a centre for publishing and many luxury trades, it had strong links with Italy Venice, a short distance across the Alps. After completing his apprenticeship, Dürer followed the common German custom of taking Wanderjahre—in effect gap years—in which the apprentice learned skills from artists in other areas, he left in 1490 to work under Martin Schongauer, the leading engraver of Northern Europe, but who died shortly before Dürer's arrival at Colmar in 1492. It is unclear where Dürer travelled in the intervening period, though it is that he went to Frankfurt and the Netherlands. In Colmar, Dürer was welcomed by Schongauer's brothers, the goldsmiths Caspar and Paul and the painter Ludwig. In 1493 Dürer went to Strasbourg, where he would have experienced the sculpture of Nikolaus Gerhaert.
Dürer's first painted self-portrait was painted at this time to be sent back to his fiancée in Nuremberg. In early 1492 Dürer travelled to Basel to stay with another brother of Martin Schongauer, the goldsmith Georg. Soon after his return to Nuremberg, on 7 July 1494, at the age of 23, Dürer was married to Agnes Frey following an arrangement made during his absence. Agnes was the daughter of a prominent brass worker in the city. However, no children resulted from the marriage, with Albrecht the Dürer name died out; the marriage between Agnes and Albrecht was not a happy one, as indicated by the letters of Dürer in which he quipped to Willibald Pirckheimer in an rough tone about his wife. He made other vulgar remarks. Pirckheimer made no secret of his antipathy towards Agnes, describing her as a miserly shrew with a bitter tongue, who helped cause Dürer's death at a young age, it is speculated by many scholars Albrecht was bisexual, if not homosexual, due to several of his works containing themes of homosexual desire, as well as the in
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli
Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli was a French Napoleonic princess and the eldest daughter of Lucien Bonaparte and Christine Boyer. She became princess Gabrielli following her marriage to Mario Gabrielli, prince of Prossedi and Roccasecca, duke of Pisterzo. In Italy, she was known as Carlotta, she was born at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, the daughter of Lucien Bonaparte, the first prince of Canino and Musignano, his first wife Christine Boyer, herself the daughter of Pierre Boyer. She was the granddaughter of Carlo Buonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino, the niece of the emperor Napoleon I, her paternal grandmother, Letizia Ramolino, nicknamed her "Lolotte." When she was six years of age and Christine-Egypta, her younger sister, was two, their mother died at Le Plessis of a pulmonary disease while pregnant with a third sibling. She spent her childhood from 1804 onwards was educated by nuns in Italy; when Napoleon's first marriage to Joséphine de Beauharnais was annulled, the possibility that he might marry Charlotte was suggested by her aunt Pauline Bonaparte, as this would have consolidated family power.
Under pressure from Napolean, who wished to arrange her marriage, she was sent to Paris stay with his mother, Madame Mère. Marriage arrangements to the Spanish prince Ferdinando of the Asturias and the grand-duke of Wurzburg were planned for her by Napoleon but not concluded. Charlotte continuously wrote letters to her father which complained of the hypocritical French court and the ugliness of her female relatives, she criticized Napolean himself, when these letters were intercepted by his secret police, she was sent home. As a consequence of the abrasive relationship between Lucien and Napoleon, her father, her stepmother Alexandrine de Bleschamps and household attempted to sail to the United States on 5 August 1810, they were captured by the British and forced to reside, first in the British colony of Malta, in England until the fall of Napoleon in May 1814. During the restoration of her uncle Napoleon for a period known as the Hundred Days, Charlotte was granted the title of French princess and the qualification of Imperial Highness.
Charlotte was married on 27 December 1815 to the Roman prince Mario Gabrielli. He was the scion of an old Italian Catholic family from Gubbio, the son of the Napoleonic deputy mayor of Rome and nephew of a former Cardinal Secretary of State, she thus became the Princess Gabrielli until his death in 1841. An outspoken and sincere woman, the Italians referred to Princess Gabrielli as "a true Bonaparte". After the fall of Napoleon, she always remained loyal to her uncle's memory, had a particular affection for her paternal grandmother, Madame Mère, to whom she remained attached until her death at Palazzo Bonaparte-d'Aste, in the Roman Piazza Venezia, in 1836, she was an avid book collector and the patroness of a literary and intellectual circle that met at her husband's villa on the Janiculum from the years 1820-1840. The "Villa Gabrielli al Gianicolo" was one of the must-see stops of Grand Tour travelers because of the magnificent view on the city, is the Roman headquarters of the Pontifical North American College.
Charlotte survived her husband as the Dowager Princess Gabrielli and the following year she remarried to her faithful admirer the Cavaliere Settimio Centamori. With the rise of Emperor Napoleon III, Charlotte was again included in the Imperial family and recognized as Princess Bonaparte with the qualification of Highness. Princess Gabrielli died on 6 May 1865, aged seventy, at Palazzo Gabrielli in Rome. On 27 December 1815, in Rome, Charlotte Bonaparte married prince Don Mario Gabrielli, prince of Prossedi, with whom she had eight children: Donna Letizia Gabrielli. Donna Cristina Gabrielli. Donna Lavinia Gabrielli. Don Angelo Gabrielli. Donna Camilla Gabrielli. Donna Emilia Gabrielli. Don Placido Gabrielli. Donna Francesca Gabrielli. After Don Mario Gabrielli's death, she married chevalier Settimio Centamori in 1842; the marriage was childless. She was represented by the French painter Jean-Baptiste Wicar as a young peasant woman in a life-size portrait, today in the collections of the Museo Napoleonico in Rome.
Another life-size portrait by Jean-Pierre Granger is at the Palace of Versailles. Yacinthe Saint-German Leca. Un aspect meconnu de Lucien Bonaparte. Paris, Imprimerie Jouve, 2006
Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit, he was noted as a daring and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King". Joachim Murat was born on 25 March 1767 in La Bastide-Fortunière, in Guyenne to Pierre Murat-Jordy, an affluent farmer and an innkeeper, his wife Jeanne Loubières, daughter of Pierre Loubières and of his wife Jeanne Viellescazes. Pierre Murat-Jordy was the son of his wife Marguerite Herbeil. Joachim Murat's parents intended that he pursue a career in the church, he was taught by the parish priest, after which he won a place at the College of Saint-Michel at Cahors when he was ten years old, he entered seminary of the Lazarists at Toulouse, but when a regiment of cavalry passed through the city in 1787, he ran away from seminary and enlisted on 23 February 1787 in the Chasseurs des Ardennes, which the following year became known as the Chasseurs de Champagne known as the 12th Chasseurs.
In 1789, an affair forced him to resign, he returned to his family, becoming a clerk to a haberdasher at Saint-Ceré. By 1790, he had joined the National Guard, when the Fête of the Nation was organized on 14 July 1790, the Canton of Montaucon sent Murat as its representative, he became reinstated into his old regiment. Part of the 12th Chasseurs had been sent to Montmédy to protect the royal family on its flight to Varennes, meaning regiment had to defend its honor and loyalty to the Republic. In 1792, he left it that same year. An ardent Republican, Murat wrote to his brother in 1791 stating he was preoccupied with revolutionary affairs and would sooner die than cease to be a patriot. Upon his departure from the Constitutional Guard, he reported to the Committee of Surveillance of the Constitutional Assembly that the Guard was guilty of treason and that his Lieutenant Colonel, a man named Descours, had encouraged him to serve in the émigré army of Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé stationed in Koblenz.
This garnered for him the support of the Republicans, for he rejoined his former regiment and was promoted to Corporal in April of that year, to Sergeant in May. By 19 November 1792, he was 25 years old and elated at his latest promotion; as a sous-lieutenant, he thought, his family must recognize that he had no great tendency for the priesthood, he was hoping to prove that he had not been wrong in wishing to be a soldier. One of the Ministers had accused him of being an aristocrat, confusing him with the noble family of Murat d'Auvergne, an accusation that continued to haunt him for the next several years. In the autumn of 1795, three years after King Louis XVI of France was deposed and counter-revolutionaries organised an armed uprising. On 3 October, General Napoleon Bonaparte, stationed in Paris, was named commander of the French National Convention's defending forces; this constitutional convention, after a long period of emergency rule, was striving to establish a more stable and permanent government in the uncertain period after the Reign of Terror.
Bonaparte tasked Murat with the gathering of artillery from a suburb outside the control of the government's forces. Murat managed to take the cannons of the Camp des Sablons and transport them to the centre of Paris while avoiding the rioters; the use of these cannons – the famous "whiff of grapeshot" – on 5 October allowed Bonaparte to save the members of the National Convention. For this success, Joachim Murat was made chef de brigade and thereafter remained one of Napoleon's best officers. In 1796, with the situation in the capital and government stabilised and the war going poorly, Napoleon lobbied to join the armies attempting to secure the revolution against the invading monarchist forces. Murat went with Bonaparte to northern Italy as his aide-de-camp, was named commander of the cavalry during the many campaigns against the Austrians and their allies; these forces were seeking to restore a monarchy in revolutionary France. His valour and his daring cavalry charges earned him the rank of général in these important campaigns, the battles of which became famous as Bonaparte used speed of maneuver to fend off and defeat individually superior opposing armies closing in on the French forces from several directions.
Thus, Murat's skills in no small part helped establish Bonaparte's legendary fame and enhance his popularity with the French people. Murat commanded the cavalry of the French Egyptian expedition of 1798, again under Bonaparte. In the 1799, some remaining staff officers, including Murat, Bonaparte ret
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, he was a close friend of Martin Luther. Cranach painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art, he continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from religion. Cranach had a large workshop and many of his works exist in different versions, he has been considered the most successful German artist of his time. He is commemorated in the liturgical calendars of the Lutheran churches, he was born at Kronach in upper Franconia in 1472. His exact date of birth is unknown, he learned the art of drawing from his father Hans Maler. His mother, with surname Hübner, died in 1491; the name of his birthplace was used for his surname, another custom of the times.
How Cranach was trained is not known, but it was with local south German masters, as with his contemporary Matthias Grünewald, who worked at Bamberg and Aschaffenburg. There are suggestions that Cranach spent some time in Vienna around 1500. According to Gunderam Cranach demonstrated his talents as a painter before the close of the 15th century, his work drew the attention of Duke Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, known as Frederick the Wise, who attached Cranach to his court in 1504. The records of Wittenberg confirm Gunderam's statement to this extent that Cranach's name appears for the first time in the public accounts on the 24 June 1504, when he drew 50 gulden for the salary of half a year, as pictor ducalis. Cranach was to remain in the service of the Elector and his successors for the rest of his life, although he was able to undertake other work. Cranach married Barbara Brengbier, the daughter of a burgher of Gotha and born there. Cranach owned a house at Gotha, but most he got to know Barbara near Wittenberg, where her family owned a house, that also belonged to Cranach.
The first evidence of Cranach's skill as an artist comes in a picture dated 1504. Early in his career he was active in several branches of his profession: sometimes a decorative painter, more producing portraits and altarpieces, woodcuts and designing the coins for the electorate. Early in the days of his official employment he startled his master's courtiers by the realism with which he painted still life and antlers on the walls of the country palaces at Coburg and Locha. Before 1508 he had painted several altar-pieces for the Castle Church at Wittenberg in competition with Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair and others. In 1509 Cranach went to the Netherlands, painted the Emperor Maximilian and the boy who afterwards became Emperor Charles V; until 1508 Cranach signed his works with his initials. In that year the elector gave him the winged snake as an emblem, or Kleinod, which superseded the initials on his pictures after that date. Cranach was the court painter to the electors of Saxony in Wittenberg, an area in the heart of the emerging Protestant faith.
His patrons were powerful supporters of Martin Luther, Cranach used his art as a symbol of the new faith. Cranach made numerous portraits of Luther, provided woodcut illustrations for Luther's German translation of the Bible. Somewhat the duke conferred on him the monopoly of the sale of medicines at Wittenberg, a printer's patent with exclusive privileges as to copyright in Bibles. Cranach's presses were used by Martin Luther, his apothecary shop was open for centuries, was only lost by fire in 1871. Cranach, like his patron, was friendly with the Protestant Reformers at a early stage; the oldest reference to Cranach in Luther's correspondence dates from 1520. In a letter written from Worms in 1521, Luther calls him his "gossip", warmly alluding to his "Gevatterin", the artist's wife. Cranach first made an engraving of Luther in 1520, he was godfather to their first child, Johannes "Hans" Luther, born 1526. In 1530 Luther lived at the citadel of Veste Coburg under the protection of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and his room is preserved there along with a painting of him.
The Dukes became noted collectors of Cranach's work, some of which remains in the family collection at Callenberg Castle. The death in 1525 of the Elector Frederick the Wise and Elector John's in 1532 brought no change in Cranach's position.