Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver, co-driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system; the series consists of 14 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow and ice. Each rally is split into 15 -- 25 special stages; the WRC was formed from well-known and popular international rallies, most of, part of the European Rally Championship or the International Championship for Manufacturers, the series was first contested in 1973. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series, it evolved from Group A cars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1.6-litre four-cylinder cars, but feature turbochargers, anti-lag systems, four-wheel-drive, sequential gearboxes, aerodynamic parts and other enhancements bringing the price of a WRC car to around US$1 million. The WRC features three support championships, the Junior World Rally Championship, the World Rally Championship-2, the World Rally Championship-3 which are contested on the same events and stages as the WRC, but with different regulations.
The WRC-2, WRC-3 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The World Rally Championship was formed from well-known international rallies, nine of which were part of the International Championship for Manufacturers, contested from 1970 to 1972; the 1973 World Rally Championship was the inaugural season of the WRC and began with the Monte Carlo Rally on January 19. Alpine-Renault won the first manufacturer's world championship with its Alpine A110, after which Lancia took the title three years in a row with the Ferrari V6-powered Lancia Stratos HF, the first car designed and manufactured for rallying; the first drivers' world championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italy's Sandro Munari and Finland's Markku Alén respectively. Sweden's Björn Waldegård became the first official world champion, edging out Finland's Hannu Mikkola by one point. Fiat took the manufacturers' title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977, 1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979 and Talbot with its Sunbeam Lotus in 1981.
Waldegård was followed by Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers' world champions. The 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful. However, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, with only a few restrictions allowed unlimited power. Audi took the constructors' title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers' title in 1983 and 1984. Audi's French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982, but had to settle for second place after Opel rival Röhrl. 1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and teammate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had a more severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse and died instantly. The 1986 started with impressive performances by Finns Henri Toivonen and Alén in Lancia's new turbo- and supercharged Delta S4, which could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 2.3 seconds, on a gravel road. However, the season soon took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200. At the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars and ban them from competing in 1987. More controversy followed when Peugeot's Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén; as the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997.
A separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC in 1986, with Sweden's Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V. Lancia was quickest in adapting to the new regulations and controlled the world rally scene with Lancia Delta HF, winning the constructors' title six years in a row from 1987 to 1992 and remains the most successful marque in the history of the WRC. Kankkunen and Miki Biasion both took two drivers' titles with the Lancia Delta HF; the 1990s saw the Japanese manufacturers, Toyota and Mitsubishi, become title favourites. Spain's Carlos Sainz driving for Toyota Team Europe took the 1990 and 1992 titles with a Toyota Celica GT-Four. Kankkunen moved to Toyota for the 1993 season and won his record fourth title, with Toyota taking its first manufacturers' crown. Frenchman Didier Auriol brought the team further success in 1994, soon Subaru and Mitsubishi continued the success of the Japanese constructors. Subaru's Scotsman Colin McRae won the drivers' world championship in 1995 and Subaru took the manufacturers' title three years in a row.
Monte Carlo Rally
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles. In 1909 the Automobile Club de Monaco started planning a car rally at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco; the Monte Carlo Rally was to converge on Monte Carlo. In January 1911 23 cars set out from 11 different locations and Henri Rougier was among the nine who left Paris to cover a 1,020 kilometres route; the event was won by Rougier in a Turcat-Méry 25 Hp. The rally comprised both driving and somewhat arbitrary judging based on the elegance of the car, passenger comfort and the condition in which it arrived in the principality.
The outcry of scandal when the results were published changed nothing, so Rougier was proclaimed the first winner. The 1966 event was the most controversial in the history of the Rally; the first four finishers, driving three Mini-Coopers, Timo Mäkinen, Rauno Aaltonen and Paddy Hopkirk, Roger Clark's 4th-placed Ford Cortina were all disqualified because they used non-dipping single filament quartz iodine bulbs in their headlamps, in place of the standard double filament dipping glass bulbs, which are fitted to the series production version of each models sold to the public. This elevated Pauli Toivonen into first place overall. Rosemary Smith was disqualified from sixth place, after winning the Coupe des Dames, the ladies' class. In all, ten cars were disqualified. Teams threatened to boycott the event; the headline in Motor Sport read "The Monte Carlo Fiasco." From 1973 to 2008 the rally was held in January as the first event of the FIA World Rally Championship, but between 2009 to 2011 it has been the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge programme, a championship for N/A 4WD cars, before returning to the WRC championship season again in 2012.
As as 1991, competitors were able to choose their starting points from five venues equidistant from Monte Carlo itself. With varying conditions at each starting point, this event places a big emphasis on tyre choices, as a driver has to balance the need for grip on ice and snow with the need for grip on dry tarmac. For the driver, this is a difficult choice as the tyres that work well on snow and ice perform badly on dry tarmac; the Automobile Club de Monaco confirmed on 19 July 2010 that the 79th Monte-Carlo Rally would form the opening round of the new Intercontinental Rally Challenge season. To mark the centenary event, the Automobile Club de Monaco has confirmed that Glasgow, Barcelona and Marrakesh have been selected as start points for the rally; this rally features one of the most famous special stages in the world. The stage is run from La Bollène-Vésubie to Sospel, or the other way around, over a steep and tight mountain road with many hairpin turns. On this 31km route it passes over the Col de Turini, a mountain pass road which has ice and/or snow on sections of it at that time of the year.
Spectators throw snow on the road—in 2005, Marcus Grönholm and Petter Solberg both ripped a wheel off their cars when they skidded on snow placed there by spectators, crashed into a wall. Grönholm went on to finish fifth, but Solberg was forced to retire as the damage to his car was extensive. In the same event, Sébastien Loeb set one of the fastest times in the modern era, with 21 minutes 40 seconds. Sospel has an elevation of 479m, the D70 has a maximum elevation of 1603m, for an average gradient of 6.7%. The Turini is driven at night, with thousands of fans watching the "Night of Turini" known as the "Night of the Long Knives" due to the strong high beam lights cutting through the night. In the 2007 edition of the rally, the Turini was not used. For both the 2009 and 2010 event the stage was shown live on Eurosport. † – Event was shortened after stages were cancelled. Monte Carlo or Bust! Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo Official website
Gilles Andruet was a French chess player, an International Master and a former national champion. He was the son of rally driver Jean-Claude Andruet. Andruet was a member of the French team at the 1984 and 1988 Chess Olympiad. In 1988 he reached his peak Elo rating. During the 1989 Championship, Andruet was involved in a violent altercation with Jean-Luc Seret and subsequently withdrew from the tournament despite the fact that he was in the lead after 10 of 14 rounds, he played less after 1991. For a detailed account, see Murder of Gilles Andruet. Andruet was a gambler. Starting in 1993, he played backgammon and blackjack in casinos and although he won significant amounts of money, he became a pathological gambler riddled with debt. On 22 August 1995 Andruet's body was found on the shores of the Yvette in Saulx-les-Chartreux, he had been beaten to death. The investigation focused on Joseph Liany and his son Franck who had helped Andruet cash a check of 398,000 French francs. Josepth Liany was tried eight years convicted of murder and sentenced to a 15-year prison term.
His son Franck received a seven-year sentence for his role in the affair. Joseph Liany subsequently identified his nephew Sacha Rhoul as the man responsible for the murder. A new trial in 2006 convicted Rhoul in absentia. Rhoul had been living in Marrakech where he and his father managed the Palais Rhoul, a well-known luxury hotel. Jean-Claude Andruet, Gilles' father called for the arrest and extradition of Rhoul. On 25 February 2010, Moroccan authorities arrested Rhoul following an Interpol mandate and extradited him on 6 March. Four years Sacha Rhoul was acquitted; this article is a translation of that appearing on the French Wikipedia site - see the language link in the left margin to gain access. Gilles Andruet player profile and games at Chessgames.com
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other t
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has