William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
The Malcolm S. Forbes Jr.'70 College is one of the six residential colleges that house all freshmen and sophomores at Princeton University. The College was a gift to the school by Malcolm S. Forbes Sr.'41 in 1984 in honor of Steve. Steve's daughter, Catherine Forbes' 99, was a member of Forbes College; the college consists of two main parts, each with a subsection: The Main Inn and its subsidiary New Wing, the Addition, with its Annex. In addition, a two-story house adjacent to Forbes, 99 Alexander Street, houses up to 10 juniors per year; the Main Inn and its New Wing were part of The Princeton Inn, a hotel with a colonial fieldstone style. The hotel was built by the architect Andrew Jackson Thomas in 1923-1924, it was a popular among parents visiting their sons. The New Wing was added in 1946, built of red brick. To the south of the main building, is the Annex with additional housing; the hotel was acquired by the university in 1970, the Addition was built connecting the Annex and the Main Inn.
From 1970 to 1983 the hotel was called the Princeton Inn College, which cultivated a unique campus culture. Forbes is said to foster a more close-knit community and social life, because of its unique set up; the Forbes College Addition includes a single-sex floor, one of only two in the Princeton University residential colleges. Forbes has some excellent amenities; these include private bathrooms for many of the suites, a dining hall, library and café that can be reached without going outdoors. The dining hall was noted for outstanding Sunday brunch. Forbes is close to the late-night snack mecca, Wawa. Forbes is a two-year college, paired with nearby Whitman College. Only first- and second-year students live in Forbes. Forbesians who wish to live in a residential college past their sophomore year may move into one of the three four-year colleges, Whitman and Butler. Since Forbes is paired with Whitman College, priority for housing in Whitman is given to students who spent their first two years living in Forbes or Whitman.
Therefore, although it is possible for a Forbesian to move into any of the three four-year colleges after sophomore year, it is most advantageous for him or her to move into Whitman. Forbes College hosts a diverse range of intellectual and cultural events. Over dinner, about two to three times a semester, invited guests speak to Forbes residents about their travels, their work or research, their latest publication, or provoke with some unconventional ideas. Friday afternoons at 4:00 p.m. the College Office staff invite students to join them for tea and pastries and some informal conversation on just about anything. The Music Society encourages performances by student artists and brings a number of music related events to Forbes each year. Performers have included instrumentalists, chamber groups, the University Chamber Orchestra, the Jazz Ensemble, folk singers, classical ensembles. Forbes College participates vigorously in the University's program of intramural sports, has been the residential college champion 11 out of 22 years.
Men's, women's, co-ed teams are formed in many different sports. Forbes finished this past year with a significant lead; the Forbes Film Society hosts regular film screenings and lectures related to cinema. Members of the Forbes community are encouraged to join the FFS and participate in organizing screening schedules, to work as projectionists, to share in the pleasure of watching and discussing a good movie in the company of friends. Forbes College facilities include a TV lounge, a large and a small dining room, a multi-purpose room, a seminar room, music practice rooms, a black box theater, an art and ceramics studio, a dance studio, a library, study rooms, a cafe, a multi-media lab, a darkroom, game room, an organic garden; the Norman Thomas 1905 Library at Forbes College contains a general collection, reference books and periodicals, as well as an extensive science fiction collection. The Forbes College Council consists of twelve to fifteen representatives of the student body; the Council organizes and coordinates College activities, which include social and cultural events and films, makes proposals on the allocation of student activities funds.
The weekly meetings are open to any Forbesian. The FCC works hand in hand with the College Office to plan events. Forbes College website
Caribbean literature is the term accepted for the literature of the various territories of the Caribbean region. Literature in English from the former British West Indies may be referred to as Anglo-Caribbean or, in historical contexts, West Indian literature, although in modern contexts the latter term is rare. Most of these territories have become independent nations since the 1960s, though some retain colonial ties to the United Kingdom, they all share, apart from the English language, a number of political and social ties which make it useful to consider their literary output in a single category. The more wide-ranging term "Caribbean literature" refers to the literature of all Caribbean territories regardless of language—whether written in English, French, Hindustani, or Dutch, or one of numerous creoles; as scholarship expands, there is debate about the correct term to use for literature that comes from the region. Both terms are used interchangeably despite having different origins and referring to different groups of people.
Since so much of Caribbean identity is linked to "insidious racism" and "the justification of slave labor", it is usual to refer to the author of the piece for their identity preference. West Indian is defined as coming from the "West Indies", which includes "the islands of the Caribbean" and was "used first indigenous population, subsequently both settlers of European origin and of people of African origin brought to the area as slaves." West Indian can refer to things that can be "traced back" to the West Indies but the creators "live elsewhere". West Indian "was a term coined by colonising European powers." Caribbean, on the other hand, is defined as "of the Caribbean...its people, their cultures" only. Further issues include language classifications like Creole Caribbean literature and Anglophone Caribbean literature. Different languages make different references to the texts. While there is no terminology, obsolete, the issue requires acknowledgement due to it being literature of oppressed people.
The literature of Anguilla and Barbuda, Curaçao, the Bahamas, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Martin, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Tobago, Turks and Caicos and the U. S. Virgin Islands would be considered to belong to the wider category of West Indian literature; some literary scholars might include Bermuda, though geographically Bermuda is not part of the Caribbean and cultural ties with the region are not strong. The term "West Indies" first began to achieve wide currency in the 1950s, when writers such as Samuel Selvon, John Hearne, Edgar Mittelholzer, V. S. Naipaul, George Lamming began to be published in the United Kingdom. A sense of a single literature developing across the islands was encouraged in the 1940s by the BBC radio programme Caribbean Voices, which featured stories and poems written by West Indian authors, recorded in London under the direction of producer Henry Swanzy, broadcast back to the islands.
Magazines such as Kyk-Over-Al in Guyana, Bim in Barbados, Focus in Jamaica, which published work by writers from across the region encouraged links and helped build an audience. Many—perhaps most—West Indian writers have found it necessary to leave their home territories and base themselves in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Canada in order to make a living from their work—in some cases spending the greater parts of their careers away from the territories of their birth. Critics in their adopted territories might argue that, for instance, V. S. Naipaul ought to be considered a British writer instead of a Trinidadian writer, or Jamaica Kincaid and Paule Marshall American writers, but most West Indian readers and critics still consider these writers "West Indian". West Indian literature ranges over subjects and themes as wide as those of any other "national" literature, but in general many West Indian writers share a special concern with questions of identity and language that rise out of the Caribbean historical experience.
One unique and pervasive characteristic of Caribbean literature is the use of "dialect" forms of the national language termed creole. The various local variations in the language adopted from the colonial powers such as Britain, Portugal and the Netherlands, have been modified over the years within each country and each has developed a blend, unique to their country. Many Caribbean authors in their writing switch liberally between the local variation—now termed nation language—and the standard form of the language. Two West Indian writers have won the Nobel Prize for Literature: Derek Walcott, born in St. Lucia, resident in Trinidad during the 1960s and'70s, in the United States since then. Other notable names in Caribbean literature have included Earl Lovelace, Austin Clarke, Claude McKay, Orlando Patterson, Andrew Salkey, Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Velma Pollard and Michelle Cliff, to name only a few. In more recent times, a number of literary voices have emerged from the Caribbean as well as the Caribbean diaspora, including Kittitian Caryl Phillips.
University of Puerto Rico
The University of Puerto Rico is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico. The Spanish-language institution consists of 11 campuses and has 58,000 students and 5,300 faculty members. UPR has the largest and most diverse academic offerings in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, with 472 academic programs of which 32 lead to a doctorate. In 1900, at Fajardo, the Escuela Normal Industrial was established as the first higher education center in Puerto Rico, its initial enrollment was 5 professors. The following year it was moved to Río Piedras. On March 12, 1903, the legislature authorized founding of the University of Puerto Rico, that day the "Escuela Normal" was proclaimed as its first department. 1908 - The Morrill-Nelson Act is extended to Puerto Rico, making the University a "Land Grant College," which authorizes use of federal land to establish colleges of agriculture and engineering. 1910 - Establishment of the College of Liberal Arts. 1911 - Establishment of the College of Agriculture at Mayagüez.
A year the name was changed to College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 1913 - The Departments of Pharmacy and Law were established. 1913 - University High School is founded to provide clinical experience and supervised practice for teacher applicants, support staff and other teaching professionals. 1923 - The University Act of 1923- the University reorganized administratively it independent Insular Department of Education, provides the Board of Trustees as the governing board, make the position of Rector as the principal officer. In 1924 the governor appointed the first Rector; the enrollment is 1,500 students. 1924 - The administrative structure and identity of the University of Puerto Rico is independent of the Department of Public Instruction. 1925 - Act 50 gave the UPR educational autonomy. This led to the beginning of a period of rapid growth. 1926- The College of Business Administration and the School of Tropical Medicine were established. 1927 - Opening of the first graduate program: the Master of Arts in Hispanic Studies.
1928 - The San Felipe hurricane struck the island of Puerto Rico and caused serious damage in the Río Piedras campus. Staff and faculty began a reconstruction effort. 1935 - The U. S. Congress extended to Puerto Rico the benefits of Bankhead-Jones Act, which provided funding for research and the construction of more buildings. 1936 - 1939 - Major structures in Spanish Renaissance style are built in the quadrangle in Río Piedras, including buildings such as the Tower Theatre and the University. 1938 - Augusto Rodríguez composed the music and lyrics Arriví Francisco's Alma Mater, the University anthem. 1939 - The "chime" mechanism was installed in the tower to play bells at the Río Piedras Campus. 1942 - Act No. 135 of May 7, 1942, amendment to the University, created the Higher Education Council as the governing board of the institution and regulator of the higher education system in Puerto Rico. 1943 - The university adopted the general education core courses modality. 1946 - The University received accreditation from the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.
1950 - Beginning of courses in the School of Medicine. 1966 - Act No. 1 of 1966, restructuring the university. The system becomes a three campuses-Río Piedras, Mayagüez and Medical Sciences, a regional school management to group those that may be created in the future, under the direction of a President. Create a College Board with representation from the regional campuses and colleges, renamed to the governing Council of Higher Education. 1967 - Creation of the regional colleges: Arecibo and Humacao. Five more were created in the following years: Ponce, Bayamón, Aguadilla and Utuado. 1979 - WRTU-FM began broadcasting from the Río Piedras campus. 1993 - Act No. 16 of June 6, 1993, divided the functions of the Council for Higher Education, assigning the functions of government at the University Board of Trustees to a newly created. 1998 - Act No. 186 of August 7, 1998, provides for the gradual autonomy of regional schools as provided by the Board of Trustees, to lead to eleven autonomous units.
In 2010 the Master Plan for the Río Piedras Campus was completed, to direct future growth for the largest campus in the system. It is expected to serve 27,000 students by 2020; the study reviewed existing facilities, identified attainable development scenarios, provided phasing and implementation strategies. Planned new development includes recreation center; the $700 million development plan is being implemented. The Master Plan for the Bayamón Campus addresses its pressing capital needs. Built as a campus of temporary structures to serve 2,500 students, today it serves more than 5,000 students, a figure expected to double by the year 2020. Much of the physical plant needs replacement. In July 2010, the Middle States Commission on Higher Education placed the accreditation of the University on probation citing concerns about shortfalls in the governance of the institution. By the end of 2011, all 11 campuses had regained full accreditation after demonstrating significant progress in this area; the board of trustees is the governing body of the University of Puerto Rico.
Its membership consists of private citizens who are supposed to represent the public interest, faculty members, student representatives, may or may not include an exofficio political officeholder. This inconsistency happens as the board's structure chang
Haiti–United States relations
Haiti – United States relations are bilateral relations between Haiti and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 79% of Haitians approve of U. S. leadership, with 18% disapproving and 3% uncertain, the highest rating for any surveyed country in the Americas. Because of Haiti's location, Haiti has the potential to affect the stability of the Caribbean and Latin America and is therefore strategically important to the United States; the United States viewed Haiti as a counterbalance to Communist Cuba. Haiti's potential as a trading partner and an actor in the drug trade makes the nation strategically important to the United States. Moreover, both nations are tied by a large Haitian diaspora residing in the United States. After Haiti gained its independence from France in 1804, through slave rebellion, the pro-slavery south worried this event could influence slaves in the US, America refused to recognize Haiti's independence until 1862. President Andrew Johnson suggested annexing the island to secure influence over Europe in the Caribbean.
The US government never followed through, but did post active military on the island during this period. Through the nineteenth century, people who were mixed-race and blacks entered into conflicts and called on foreign intervention. During this period according to historian Hans Schmidt, the U. S. Navy sent ships to Haiti 19 times between 1857 and 1913 to "protect American lives and property" until the United States occupied Haiti in 1915. One example of a US-Haiti conflict was the Môle Saint-Nicolas affair. From 1915 to 1934 the U. S. Marines occupied Haiti. Prior to the occupation, the U. S. military collected $500,000 to hold in New York. The Haitian constitution was written in a manner that prevented foreign entities from owning land or operating in Haiti. However, as a result of the occupation, the United States had influenced the Haitian government to rewrite the constitution to repeal an 1804 provision that forbade foreigners from owning land in Haiti; this occupation impacted the nation's economy as well as independence.
Haitians united in resistance of the U. S. occupation and U. S. forces left in 1934. Left behind was a newly trained Haitian Army consisting of black soldiers and mulatto officers, who dominated political office until 1947. From 1957 to 1971, Francois Duvalier governed Haiti under a repressive dictatorship, but some argue the United States tolerated the regime because it was staunchly anti-Communist and a counterbalance to Communist Cuba during the Cold War; when Duvalier died, his son, Jean-Claude maintained many of his father's policies. The Reagan administration forced Baby Doc to leave in 1986, when a repressive military dictatorship arose, President Reagan suspended aid; the George H. W. Bush Administration embargoed and blockaded Haiti, suspending all but humanitarian aid. After the fall of the Duvalier family and other military regimes, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected in 1990, but he was toppled in a coup 7 months later. From 1991–1994 the Clinton Administration imposed an economic blockade, which further impoverished the country, the Clinton Administration intervened militarily in 1994 to restore Aristide to power.
U. S. support for Aristide waned following corruption concerns, a February 2004 armed rebellion led to his exile. After Rene Preval succeeded Aristide, aid flowed again to Haiti, totaling $1.5 billion from 1990 to 2005. Some policy experts argue that U. S. policy and interventions have made problems in Haiti worse, making the country's well-being a U. S. responsibility. U. S. policy toward Haiti is intended to foster and strengthen democracy. The U. S. supports and facilitates bilateral trade and investment along with legal migration and travel. U. S. policy goals are met through direct bilateral action and by working with the international community. The United States has taken a leading role in organizing international involvement with Haiti; the United States works with the Organization of American States through the Secretary General's "Friends of Haiti" group, the Caribbean Community, individual countries to achieve policy goals. According to a 2005–2006 poll, 67 percent of Haitians would emigrate if they could, 2 million people of Haitian descent live in the United States, 60 percent of whom are American-born.
Four-fifths of Haiti's college-educated citizens live outside Haiti. Following the January 2010 earthquake, the Department of Homeland Security temporarily stopped deportations of Haitians and granted Temporary Protected Status for 18 months for Haitian Nationals. In 2010, Bill Clinton apologized for his role in demanding that Haiti drop tariffs on the importation of subsidized US rice, which had a negative effect on Haitian rice farmers in the North. On May 24, 2010, the Haiti Economic Lift Program was signed into US law, ensuring preferential tariffs for Haitian-produced garments. On October 22, 2012 acting US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton gave the keynote speech for the opening of the controversial Caracol industrial park. In 2011 WikiLeaks leaked info that showed the Obama Administration fought to keep Haitian wages at 31 cents an hour when the Haiti government passed a law raising its minimum wage to 61 cents an hour. Political insecurity and the failure of Ha
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T