Lessines is a Picard municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. As of the 2014 census, Lessine's total population was 18,637; the total area is 72.29 km² which gives a population density of 247 inhabitants per km². The municipality consists of the following sub-municipalities: Lessines proper, Bois-de-Lessines, Papignies, Deux-Acren and Ollignies, it is known as the birthplace of the Surrealist painter René Magritte. The LESSINES post-office opened before 1830, it used a postal code 71 with bars, 214 with points before 1874. DEUX-ACREN on 15 May 1866, it used a postal code 104 with points before 1874. The PAPIGNIES post-office opened on 18 February 1880, GHOY and OLLIGNIES on 25 May 1905, OGY on 5 November 1907. Postal codes in 1969: -7850 Ollignies -7851 Bois-de-Lessines -7860 Lessines -7861 Papignies -7862 Ogy -7863 Ghoy -7870 Deux-Acren Postal codes since at least 1990: -7860 Lessines -7861 Papignies, Wannebecq -7862 Ogy -7863 Ghoy -7864 Deux-Acren -7866 Bois-de-Lessines, Ollignies.
The Underwear Museum, created by Jan Bucquoy, is in Lessines. Media related to Lessines at Wikimedia Commons Official website One alternative site, with lots of further information on the city Another alternative site, with lots of further information on the city
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Paul Vecchiali is a French filmmaker and author. He spent his childhood in Toulon, his family, suspected of collaboration, preferred to leave this city after the war. His cinema takes as a starting point the French cinema of the 1930s, with an experimental and autobiographical tone, his best-known films are arguably Rosa la Encore. His films are notably low-budget. In 1987, he became the first director to link AIDS to homosexuality in a French film with his film Encore. That's Life At the Top of the Stairs Rosa la rose, fille publique Encore / Once More The Guys in the Cafe Wonder Boy Zone Franche Love Reinvented Tears of AIDS A Vot' Bon Cœur A Diagonal Portrait of Paul Vecchiali Le Cancre Vesperales Paul Vecchiali on IMDb
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Gaston III, Count of Foix
Gaston Fébus was the eleventh count of Foix and viscount of Béarn from 1343 until his death. Gaston was born either in Orthez or Foix, the eldest son of Gaston II/IX; as the lord's eldest son, he was given Gaston. He adopted Fébus as a nickname. In its classic spelling, Phoebus, it is one of the names of the sun-god, is apt because of Gaston Fébus's golden hair, his native language was Gascon, but he was fluent in French. He wrote a treatise on hunting in French, an Occitan song, Se Canta, has been ascribed to him. One contemporary chronicler, Jean Froissart, records that he "very willingly spoke to me not in his native Gascon but in proper and elegant French". Béarn had passed to the county of Foix in 1290. Fébus paid homage to the French king for his own county, but starting in 1347 he refused to give homage for Béarn, which he claimed as an independent fief, with its chief seat his stronghold at Pau, a site, fortified by the 11th century, made the official capital of Béarn in 1464, he was succeeded as count of Foix by Mathieu of Foix-Castelbon.
The House of Béarn-Foix was engaged in a long running feud with the House of Armagnac. In 1362, a battle was fought between the two noble houses at Launac. Fébus was victorious and succeeded in capturing his chief rivals, whom he ransomed for a vast fortune of at least 600,000 florins; this money was stored in the Moncade tower in Orthez, where Fébus created a gallery of portraits and military trophies to commemorate the event. In late 1388, the chronicler, Jean Froissart, visited the County of Foix and recorded the splendour of Fébus' court at Orthez, he noted that Fébus describes the three "special delights" of his life as "arms and hunting". Fébus was one of the greatest huntsmen of his day, hunted his entire life – he died of a stroke while washing his hands after returning from a bear hunt, his Livre de chasse was written between 1387–1389 and dedicated to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Recorded in the book are different stages of hunting different animals, as well as describing animal behavior, offering advice to less well-off gentry about how to enjoy hunting without bankrupting themselves, is sympathetic to the peasant poacher because he too has the hunting instinct.
It is the classic treatise on Medieval hunting, was described by scholar, Hannele Klemettilä, as "one of the most influential texts of its era". Some forty-four 15th and 16th century illuminated manuscripts survive, the most famous being that held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, which has exquisite miniatures, illustrating the hunt. Fébus married Agnès of Navarre, daughter of Joan II of Navarre and Philip III of Navarre in 1348, they had a son: Gaston, married Béatrice d'Armagnac, daughter of John II of Armagnac. He was the father of four illegitimate children: Garcia de Béarn, viscount of Ossau, husband of Anne de Lavedan; as Jean Froissart records, Fébus was betrayed by his son who bore the dynastic name and who tried to kill his father using poison given to him by Charles II of Navarre. Fébus imprisoned him. In a subsequent violent quarrel, Fébus stabbed his son. Following Gaston's death, Fébus had no legitimate descendants. In 1393, in Paris at a masquerade given by the Queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, one of Gaston Fébus's four recorded illegitimate sons, Yvain de Foix, was burned to death when his costume, along with the costumes of four others, caught fire from a torch at the Bal des Ardents.
Castle of Foix Château de Mauvezin
The Breach (film)
The Breach is a 1970 film written and directed by Claude Chabrol, based on the novel The Balloon Man by Charlotte Armstrong. The film was known as The Breakup at times in its release in the United States; the film had a total of 927,678 admissions in France. Hélène Régnier's mentally ill husband Charles injures their son Michel in a violent rage. Charles is forced to move back in with his wealthy and manipulative parents, who use Hélène as a scapegoat for their son's mental state and decide to take over custody of Michel by any means necessary. While the boy is recovering in a local hospital, Hélène moves to a boarding house nearby; the Régniers hire Paul Thomas, an impoverished family acquaintance, to find out something about Hélène which would help them in their custody battle. Paul moves into the boarding house and, with the help of his girlfriend Sonia, plots to ruin Hélène's reputation and possibly kill her. Vincent Canby of The New York Times: Dave Kerr of The Chicago Reader: The Breach on IMDb The Breach at AllMovie