René Garcia Préval was a Haitian politician and agronomist who twice served as President of Haiti, from February 7, 1996, to February 7, 2001, again from May 14, 2006, to May 14, 2011. He was Prime Minister from February 1991 to October 11, 1991. Préval was the first elected head of state in Haitian history to peacefully receive power from a predecessor in office, the first since independence to serve a full term in office, the first to be elected to non-successive full terms in office, the first to peacefully hand over power, the first former prime minister to be elected president. Préval promoted privatization of government companies, agrarian reform, investigations of human rights abuses, his presidencies were marked by domestic tumult and attempts at economic stabilization, with his latter term saw the destruction wrought by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Préval was born on 17 January 1943 in Port-au-Prince and was raised in his father's hometown of Marmelade, a village town in the Artibonite department.
He studied agronomy at the College of Gembloux and the University of Leuven in Belgium and studied geothermal sciences at the University of Pisa in Pisa, Italy. He left Haiti with his family in 1963. Préval's father, an agronomist had risen to the position of Minister of Agriculture in the government of Général Paul Magloire, the predecessor of Duvalier. Leaving Haiti because his political past presented him as a potential opponent, Preval's father found work with UN agencies in Africa. After spending five years in Brooklyn, New York working as a restaurant waiter, Préval returned to Haiti and obtained a position with the National Institute for Mineral Resources. In 1988, he opened a bakery in Port-au-Prince with some business partners. While operating his company, he continued to be active in political circles and charity work, such as providing bread to the orphanage of Salesian Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, with whom he developed a close relationship. After the election of Aristide as president in 1990, Préval served as his Prime Minister from February 13 to October 11, 1991, going into exile following the September 30, 1991 military coup.
On December 6, 2009, Preval married Elisabeth Débrosse Delatour — one of his economic advisors and widow of Leslie Delatour, the former governor of Haiti's central bank. Preval's first and second marriages, to Guerda Benoit and Solange Lafontant both ended in divorce. In 1996, Préval was elected as president with 88 % of the popular vote. Upon his 1996 inauguration, Préval became the second democratically elected head of state in the country's 191-year history as an independent nation. In 2001, he became the first elected President of Haiti to leave office as a result of the natural expiration of an uninterrupted term; as president, Préval instituted a number of economic reforms, most notably the privatization of various government companies. By the end of Préval's term, unemployment rates had fallen. Préval instituted a program of agrarian reform in Haiti's countryside, his presidency, was marked by fierce political clashes with a parliament dominated by opposition party members and an vocal Fanmi Lavalas which opposed the structural adjustment and privatization program of Préval's government.
Préval was a strong supporter of investigations and trials related to human rights violations committed by military and police personnel. He dissolved the parliament in 1999 and ruled by decree for the duration of the final year of his presidency. Préval ran again as the Lespwa candidate in the presidential election of 2006; the election took place after two years of international peacekeeping. Partial election results, released on February 9, indicated that he had won with about 60% of the vote, but as further results were released, his share of the vote slipped just below the 50% required majority to be elected outright – thus making a run-off necessary. Several days of popular demonstrations in favour of Préval followed in Port-au-Prince and other cities in Haiti. Préval claimed that there had been fraud among the vote counts, demanded that he be declared the winner outright of the first round. Protesters paralyzed the capital with burning barricades and stormed a luxury hotel — Hotel Montana, located in the affluent suburb of Pétion-Ville — to demand results from Haiti's nearly week-old election as the ex-President Préval fell further below the 50% needed to win the presidency.
On February 16, 2006, Préval was declared the winner of the presidential election by the Provisional Electoral Council with 51.15% of the vote, after the exclusion of "blank" ballots from the count. Préval was sworn in following Haiti's legislative run-off vote in April; when he was sworn in, Préval emphasized the importance of unity, saying that division was Haiti's "main problem" and that Haitians had to "work together". On May 17, he nominated Jacques-Édouard Alexis, who had served as Prime Minister during Préval's first term, as Prime Minister again. After taking office, Préval signed an oil deal with Venezuela and traveled to the United States and France. Préval drew much of his support from Haiti's poorest people. However, many of the poor demanded that the former President Aristide be allowed to return and that civil enterprise workers fired by the Latortue government be reinstated; this caused increasing tension in the slums of Port-au-Prince. Préval promised to build a massive road system which would boost trade and transportation around the country.
Haiti under Préval cooperated dipl
Yvon Neptune was Prime Minister of Haïti from 2002 to 2004. He was appointed by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, took office on March 15, 2002, he had served as President of the Senate from 2000 to 2002. On March 2, 2004, shortly after Aristide's removal, a mob attempted to arrest Neptune on corruption charges, but it was not successful; the mob was organized by Guy Philippe after Neptune gave an interview to Kevin Pina of KPFA Flashpoints in California and the Black Commentator, Andrea Nicastro of the Italian daily Corriere della Sera. In the interview Neptune claims he was not present when interim-president Boniface Alexandre was sworn into office, he referred to himself as a prisoner in his own office and backed Aristide's claims that he was forced out of office under duress. U. S. Marines guarding his residence killed two gunmen there. Neptune was replaced on March 12, 2004, by an unelected provisional government, led by Gérard Latortue, appointed three days earlier. On March 27, 2004, the provisional government banned Neptune from leaving the country, along with 36 other senior officials of the Aristide administration, in order to more investigate corruption allegations.
On June 27, 2004, after hearing about a warrant for his arrest on the radio, Neptune turned himself in to the Haitian police and was held without charge. According to the Haitian constitution, a hearing before a judge is required within 48 hours for anyone arrested, but Neptune was not given such a hearing. On May 4, 2005, Thierry Fagart, the chief of the human rights division at the UN's Haiti mission, called Neptune's detention illegal. On February 19, 2005, Neptune was taken into protective custody by United Nations peacekeeping forces and handed himself back to Haitian authorities after a Port-au-Prince penitentiary breakout. On April 18, 2005, Neptune began a hunger strike, refusing hospitalization and offers of medical attention abroad. On May 5 he was reported as being "near death". On June 23, Juan Gabriel Valdes - the UN's special envoy to Haïti - criticized the Haitian government's handling of Neptune and called for his release from prison. On September 14, 2005, 14 months after Neptune was first imprisoned, a formal statement of charges against him appeared.
He was accused of participating in the "La Scierie Massacre," an alleged attack by Lavalas supporters in the La Scierie neighborhood of St. Marc. Subsequent investigations, including by the United Nations, revealed the massacre to be a struggle between two armed groups, with casualties on both sides; the Haitian Appeals Court prosecutor found that there was no credible evidence of Neptune’s involvement. Lawyers at the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights said that the statement of charges "contain no indication that Mr. Neptune directly perpetuated the crimes alleged against him nor is there a defined connection between Mr. Neptune and those who are alleged to have perpetrated the crimes... The mental and factual elements necessary to establish Mr. Neptune’s responsibility…remain unclear.” In May 2006, the Haitian prosecutor recommended dropping the charges against Neptune, because there was no credible evidence to support them. After spending two years in prison and never having been tried, he was released on July 28, 2006.
The charges against him were not dropped. Hundreds of other members or supporters of the deposed Aristide administration remained in custody without trial. On April 13, 2007, the Appeals Court of Gonaives ruled that the courts had never had jurisdiction to try Neptune. Under Haiti’s Constitution, regular courts in Haiti cannot try high public officials unless they have been convicted by the High Court of Justice, a special court formed by the legislature, similar to impeachment in the United States. In September 2009, the Haitian Government served this decision on the other parties; when the appeal period elapsed a few days the dismissal of all charges became official. In April 2005, the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti, the Bureau des Avocats Internationaux and the Hastings Human Rights Project for Haiti filed a petition on Neptune's behalf with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Washington. In July 2006, the Commission ruled that the Government of Haiti's treatment of Neptune violated his international human rights.
The Commission referred the case to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, an autonomous judicial institution of the Organization of American States based in San José, Costa Rica, for further proceedings. On May 6, 2008, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the State of Haiti violated 11 different provisions of the American Convention on Human Rights by illegally imprisoning former Prime Minister Yvon Neptune for two years and allowing the case to drag on in the courts for two more; the IACHR ordered Haiti to end what it called Mr. Neptune’s continuing “judicial insecurity” and to pay him $95,000 in damages and costs; the Court ordered Haiti to start bringing its inhumane prisons in line with minimum international standards within two years. “From the beginning, the State failed its obligation to protect Mr. Neptune’s right to be heard by a court competent to hear the charges against him…as well as to an effective recourse,” the IACtHR said in a 60-page judgment issued publicly on June 6.
The Court denounced the State’s continued failure to bring Neptune before a qualified judge, thereby leaving him in a situation of “absolute judicial uncertainty.” The IACtHR criticized nearly every aspect of Haiti’s prosecution of Neptune, which began in June 2004 and continues today. It found Neptune’s 25-month-long detention illega
A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative holds a ceremonial position, although with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament; as well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was Minister of Defence and in the current cabinet of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu serves as Minister of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation and Interior; the term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624.
The title was however informal and used alongside the informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use; the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy. Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century; the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed by the monarch, the monarch presided over its meetings; when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power. In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689; the monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government.
It is at this point. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign; as a prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Evans Paul known as Compère Plume. He was elected mayor of Port-au-Prince in the 1990 elections that brought Jean-Bertrand Aristide's National Front for Change and Democracy party to power, he made an unsuccessful run for President of Haiti in the 2006 elections under the Democratic Alliance Party banner. He was leader of the Convergence Démocratique prior to the 2004 Haitian coup d'état which overthrew Aristide. On December 25, 2014, President Michel Martelly announced Evans Paul as Haiti's new prime minister. On February 2, 2016, he resigned, he remained in his position due to an agreement signed on 6 February, until a prime minister could be reached by consensus and an interim president could be elected by Parliament for a 120-day term. He used to host the program "Plume" on Radio Caraïbes from 1974 to 1976, hence where he had gotten his nickname
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
Florence Duperval Guillaume
Florence Duperval Guillaume, a Haitian politician, is Haiti's Minister of Public Health and Population, was Acting Prime Minister of Haiti from 20 December 2014 to 16 January 2015
Dr. Garry Conille is a Haitian academic, development worker and former Prime Minister of Haiti, he submitted his resignation as prime minister on 24 February 2012 and was succeeded by Laurent Lamothe on 16 May 2012. Garry Conille is the second of a family of four brothers, he is the son of Marie Antoinette Darbouze and Dr. Serge Conille, former Minister of Sports and Youth in the Duvalier government, he is married to Betty Rousseau, the step daughter of Marc Bazin, a former Prime Minister of Haiti and has twin girls and Gaelle. Betty and her twin sister Kathy are Bazin's daughters from his wife Marie Yolène Sam) first mariage. At the age of 14, he played soccer in the 2nd division of Haiti, he is a music and arts master and performed at Carnegie Hall, in New York at the age of five. After graduating from Collège Canado-Haïtien and the Faculty of Medecine and Pharmacy of University of Haiti, Garry Conille obtained an MA in Political and Health Administration, as a fellow of the Fulbright Scholar Program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Afterwards, he received a certificate of specialty in Gynecology and Obstetrics at Isaïe Jeanty maternity and a PH. D. in Medicine at the University of Haiti. Between July 1994 and June 1998, at the Haitian Association for the National Development, he developed and implemented a primary care system that provided basic health care in poor areas of Haiti. In August 1999, as an evaluation consultant, Garry Conille was responsible for the impact assessment of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital, an NGO in the field of community development, providing community care to over 260,000 people in Artibonite. Between the years 2000 - 2004, he created and hosted at Radio Vision 2000 the first national interactive program focused on issues related to reproductive and sexual health. Garry Conille began his career with the United Nations in 1999, as project officer programme officer at United Nations Population Fund Haiti. Between October 2002 and May 2004, he was technical advisor at Population Services International Haiti.
In May 2004, he became an international official inside the United Nations system. Until January 2006, he was technical advisor of countries sub-regional technical advisor for UNFPA, Division Africa/Ethiopia. In this capacity, he was responsible for providing technical assistance and for ensuring capacity building in key areas of population and health reproduction. In January - December 2006 he worked in a different field of the UN, as Technical Advisor for the Project Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. In January 2007, Conille returned to UNFPA as Chief Technical Advisor for the Africa region and Global Program Coordinator for the security of inputs into reproductive health. From September 2008 until his special assignment in Haiti, Garry Conille worked as team leader of the MDG Unit. Here he organized jointly with UNDESA the process of preparing the report of the Secretary General on the MDGs, presented at the 2010 G8 Summit and with the International Monetary Fund, the preparation of Gleneagles scenarios in more than a dozen African countries.
In the wake of Haiti's 2010 earthquake, he was requested by the Administrator of UNDP and the UN Secretary General to assume the duties of head office of the Special Envoy of the Secretary General of the United Nations for Haiti. Conille worked with the Haitian government, the representation of the United Nations in Haiti and the main donors to develop and implement a strategic plan for the reconstruction of Haiti, he was involved in coordinating the humanitarian response and in the establishment of the Interim Haiti Recovery Commission, the central structure of the reconstruction. In June 2011 he resumed his work at UNDP as Resident Representative and Humanitarian Coordinator in Niger. By the end of August 2011, unofficial comments of Haitian politicians indicated that Garry Conille might be the next nomination for the post of Prime Minister. On 5 September, he received the official designation for this office from the President Michel Martelly; this would be the third nomination after Jean-Max Bellerive's resignation on 15 May 2011 and the subsequent rejections by the Senate of the nominees Daniel Rouzier and Bernard Gousse.
Conille's nomination faces questions regarding his recent residency, as to whether he fulfills the requirement, prescribed in the Constitution of Haiti, of having resided in the country for five consecutive years prior to ratification. The president countered this argument by saying that Conille was exempt from the residency requirement because he had been working for the United Nations, paying taxes to the United Nations for Haiti; the review and ratification process of his nomination began on 8 September 2011. Chamber Deputies approved his appointment in a unanimous vote. On October 5, 2011, the Haitian Parliament confirmed Garry Conille's appointment as Prime Minister, making him the 16th and the youngest Prime Minister under the current 1987 Constitution of the country. Conille resigned on February 2012, following a loss of confidence in him from his ministers, he had clashed with ministers and Martelly over several issues, most a parliamentary investigation into government officials who hold dual nationality, illegal in Haiti.
Martelly refused to comply with the investigation, stating the executive branch did not have to comply with the investigation. Some ministers cooperated with the investigation; when Conille called a meeting with ministers to discuss the matter, none appeared. That incident demonstrated their lack of confidence and triggered