Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent funded institution led by eminent artists and architects, its purpose is to promote the creation and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions and debate. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition; the motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest among the public based on recognised canons of good taste. Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works.
From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, provided an early venue for contemporary artists in Britain. The success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were exhibiting societies; the combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a national school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies; the origin of the Royal Academy of Arts lies in an attempt in 1755 by members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, principally the sculptor Henry Cheere, to found an autonomous academy of arts. Prior to this a number of artists were members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, including Cheere and William Hogarth, or were involved in small-scale private art academies, such as the St Martin's Lane Academy.
Although Cheere's attempt failed, the eventual charter, called an'Instrument', used to establish the Royal Academy of Arts over a decade was identical to that drawn up by Cheere in 1755. It was Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect and head of the British government's architects' department, the Office of Works, who used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support for the Academy in 1768; the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president, Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788. The instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40; the founder members were Reynolds, John Baker, George Barret, Francesco Bartolozzi, Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Augustino Carlini, Charles Catton, Mason Chamberlin, William Chambers, Francis Cotes, George Dance, Nathaniel Dance, Thomas Gainsborough, John Gwynn, Francis Hayman, Nathaniel Hone the Elder, Angelica Kauffman, Jeremiah Meyer, George Michael Moser, Mary Moser, Francis Milner Newton, Edward Penny, John Inigo Richards, Paul Sandby, Thomas Sandby, Dominic Serres, Peter Toms, William Tyler, Samuel Wale, Benjamin West, Richard Wilson, Joseph Wilton, Richard Yeo, Francesco Zuccarelli.
William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members. Among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, two sets of brothers; the Royal Academy was housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, designed by Chambers, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy's first treasurer; the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the completed National Gallery. These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions. In 1868, 100 years after the Academy's foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, used rent-free by the Royal Academy; the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769.
136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its exhibition programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters, following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition at the British Institution; the range and frequency of these loan exhibitions have grown enormously since that time, making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance. Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as another way to fulfil its mission. Led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, J. M. W. Turner; the last three were all graduates of the RA School, which for a long time was the only established art school in the Royal Academy. In 2018, the Academy's 250th anniversary, the results of a major refurbishment were unveiled.
The project began on 1 January 2008 with the appointment of David Chipperfield Architects. Heritage Lottery
Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans was a French novelist and art critic who published his works as Joris-Karl Huysmans. He is most famous for the novel À rebours, he supported himself by a 30-year career in the French civil service. Huysmans' work is considered remarkable for its idiosyncratic use of the French language, large vocabulary, satirical wit and far-ranging erudition. First considered part of Naturalism, he became associated with the decadent movement with his publication of À rebours, his work expressed his deep pessimism. In years, his novels reflected his study of Catholicism, religious conversion, becoming an oblate, he discussed the iconography of Christian architecture at length in La cathédrale, set at Chartres and with its cathedral as the focus of the book. Là-bas, En route and La cathédrale are a trilogy that feature Durtal, an autobiographical character whose spiritual progress is tracked and who converts to Catholicism. In the novel that follows, L'Oblat, Durtal becomes an oblate in a monastery, as Huysmans himself was in the Benedictine Abbey at Ligugé, near Poitiers, in 1901.
La cathédrale was his most commercially successful work. Its profits enabled Huysmans to live on his royalties. Huysmans was born in Paris in 1848, his father Godfried Huysmans was Dutch, a lithographer by trade. His mother Malvina Badin Huysmans had been a schoolmistress. Huysmans' father died. After his mother remarried, Huysmans resented his stepfather, Jules Og, a Protestant, part-owner of a Parisian book-bindery. During childhood, Huysmans turned away from the Roman Catholic Church, he completed his coursework and earned a baccalauréat. For 32 years, Huysmans worked as a civil servant for the French Ministry of the Interior, a job he found tedious; the young Huysmans was called up to fight in the Franco-Prussian War, but was invalided out with dysentery. He used this experience in an early story, "Sac au dos". After his retirement from the Ministry in 1898, made possible by the commercial success of his novel, La cathédrale, Huysmans planned to leave Paris and move to Ligugé, he intended to set up a community including Charles-Marie Dulac.
He had praised the young painter in La cathédrale. Dulac died a few months before Huysmans completed his arrangements for the move to Ligugé, he decided to stay in Paris. In addition to his novels, Huysmans was known for his art criticism in L'Art Certains, he was a founding member of the Académie Goncourt. An early advocate of Impressionism, he admired such artists as Odilon Redon. In 1905 Huysmans was diagnosed with cancer of the mouth, he was interred in the Cimetière de Montparnasse, Paris. Huysmans never had children, he had a on-and-off relationship with Anna Meunier, a seamstress. He used the name Joris-Karl Huysmans when he published his writing, as a way of honoring his father's ancestry, his first major publication was a collection of prose poems, Le drageoir aux épices, which were influenced by Baudelaire. They revealed flashes of the author's distinctive style. Huysmans followed it with the novel, Histoire d'une fille; the story of a young prostitute, it was closer to Naturalism and brought him to the attention of Émile Zola.
His next works were similar: sombre and filled with detailed evocations of Paris, a city Huysmans knew intimately. Les Soeurs Vatard, dedicated to Zola, deals with the lives of women in a bookbindery. En ménage is an account of a writer's failed marriage; the climax of his early work is the novella À vau-l'eau, the story of a downtrodden clerk, Monsieur Folantin, his quest for a decent meal. Huysmans' novel À rebours notorious, it featured the character of an aesthete, des Esseintes, decisively broke from Naturalism. It was seen as an example of "decadent" literature; the description of des Esseintes' "alluring liaison" with a "cherry-lipped youth" was believed to have influenced other writers of the decadent movement, including Oscar Wilde. It is now considered an important step in the formation of "gay literature". À rebours gained notoriety as an exhibit in the trials of Oscar Wilde in 1895. The prosecutor referred to it as a "sodomitical" book; the book appalled Zola. Huysmans began to drift away from the Naturalists and found new friends among the Symbolist and Catholic writers whose work he had praised in À rebours.
They included Villiers de L'Isle Adam and Léon Bloy. Stéphane Mallarmé was so pleased with the publicity his verse had received from the novel that he dedicated one of his most famous poems, "Prose pour des Esseintes", to its hero. Barbey d'Aurevilly told Huysmans that after writing À rebours, he would have to choose between "the muzzle of a pistol and the foot of the Cross." Huysmans, who had received a secular education and abandoned his Catholic religion in childhood, returned to the Catholic Church eight years later. Huysmans' next novel, En rade, an unromantic account of a summer spent in the country, did not sell as well as its predecessor, his Là-bas attracted considerable attention
Graham Macdonald Robb FRSL is a British author and critic speciaized in French literature. Born in Manchester in the historic county of Lancashire, he attended the Royal Grammar School, before going up to Exeter College, Oxford to read Modern Languages and graduating with first-class honours in 1981. In 1982, Robb entered Goldsmiths' College, London to undertake teacher training, before pursuing postgraduate studies at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee where he received a PhD in French literature, he was awarded a junior research fellowship at Exeter College in the University of Oxford, before leaving academia. He won the 1997 Whitbread Best Biography Award for Victor Hugo, was shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize for Rimbaud in 2001. Unlocking Mallarmé had won the Modern Language Association Prize for Independent Scholars in 1996. All three of his biographies became New York Times "Best Books of the Year"; the Discovery of France by Robb won the Duff Cooper Prize in 2007 and the RSL Ondaatje Prize in 2008.
In The Discovery of Middle Earth: Mapping the Lost World of the Celts, he ventures that the ancient Celts organized their territories, determined the locations of settlements and battles, set the trajectories of tribal migrations by establishing a network of solstice lines based on an extension of the Greek system of klimata. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1998, Robb was appointed a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2009. Following the publication of his French translation of Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris, he was awarded the Grande Médaille de la Ville de Paris in 2012. Robb married an academic, Margaret Hambrick, in 1986. Le Corsaire-Satan en Silhouette: le milieu journalistique de la jeunesse de Baudelaire Baudelaire lecteur de Balzac, ISBN 2-7143-0279-3 Baudelaire, ISBN 0-241-12458-1, translation of 1987 French text by Prof. Claude Pichois La Poésie de Baudelaire et la poésie française, 1838–1852, ISBN 2-7007-1657-4, criticism Balzac: A Biography, ISBN 0-330-33237-6 Unlocking Mallarmé, ISBN 0-03-000648-1 Victor Hugo, ISBN 0-330-33707-6 Rimbaud, ISBN 0-330-48282-3 Strangers: Homosexual Love in the 19th Century, ISBN 0-330-48223-8 The Discovery of France.
A Historical Geography from the Revolution to the First World War, illustrated, 454 pp. W. W. Norton ISBN 0-393-05973-1 Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris, W. W. Norton ISBN 978-0-393-06724-8 The Ancient Paths: Discovering the Lost Map of Celtic Europe, ISBN 0-330-53150-6.
La Nouvelle Athènes
The Nouvelle Athènes was a café in the Place Pigalle in Paris, France. It was a meeting place including Matisse, Van Gogh and Degas. Degas painted L'Absinthe in this place. Another notable denizen was the eccentric composer Erik Satie, who played the piano in the cafe, was there introduced to a fifteen-year-old Maurice Ravel by Ravel's father. During the 1940s, the café was known as the Sphynx. In the 1980s and 1990s, it was known as the New Moon, a rock venue where Mano Negra, the French Lovers, Noir Désir, Calvin Russel, the Naked Apes of Reason, Les Wampas, many other groups performed; the café building was destroyed by fire in 2004. Musée de la Vie romantique, Hôtel Scheffer-Renan, Paris The Nouvelle Athènes in 1925
Paul-Marie Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry. Born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte in Paris and took up a post in the civil service, he began writing poetry at an early age, was influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader, Leconte de Lisle. Verlaine's first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, a publication founded by poet Louis-Xavier de Ricard. Verlaine was a frequenter of the salon of the Marquise de Ricard at 10 Boulevard des Batignolles and other social venues, where he rubbed shoulders with prominent artistic figures of the day: Anatole France, Emmanuel Chabrier, inventor-poet and humorist Charles Cros, the cynical anti-bourgeois idealist Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Théodore de Banville, François Coppée, Jose-Maria de Heredia, Leconte de Lisle, Catulle Mendes and others. Verlaine's first published collection, Poèmes saturniens, though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality.
Verlaine's private life spills over into his work, beginning with his love for Mathilde Mauté de Fleurville. Mathilde became Verlaine's wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the same year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale, turning Communard on 18 March 1871, he became head of the press bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, went into hiding in the Pas-de-Calais. Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first letter from Arthur Rimbaud, who admired his poetry, he urged Rimbaud to come to Paris, by 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, abandoned her and their son, preferring the company of his new lover. Rimbaud and Verlaine's stormy affair took them to London in 1872. In Brussels in July 1873 in a drunken, jealous rage, he fired two shots with a pistol at Rimbaud, wounding his left wrist, though not injuring the poet.
As an indirect result of this incident, Verlaine was arrested and imprisoned at Mons, where he underwent a re-conversion to Roman Catholicism, which again influenced his work and provoked Rimbaud's sharp criticism. The poems collected in Romances sans paroles were written between 1872 and 1873, inspired by Verlaine's nostalgically colored recollections of his life with Mathilde on the one hand and impressionistic sketches of his on-again off-again year-long escapade with Rimbaud on the other. Romances sans. Following his release from prison, Verlaine again traveled to England, where he worked for some years as a teacher, teaching French and Greek, drawing at a grammar school in Stickney in Lincolnshire. From there he went to teach in nearby Boston, before moving to Bournemouth. While in England he produced another successful collection, Sagesse, he returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, fell in love with one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois, who inspired Verlaine to write further poems.
Verlaine was devastated when Létinois died of typhus in 1883. Verlaine's last years saw his descent into drug addiction and poverty, he lived in slums and public hospitals, spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafes. However, the people's love for his art was able to resurrect support and bring in an income for Verlaine: his early poetry was rediscovered, his lifestyle and strange behaviour in front of crowds attracted admiration, in 1894 he was elected France's "Prince of Poets" by his peers, his poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, served as a source of inspiration to composers. Gabriel Fauré composed many mélodies, such as the song cycles Cinq mélodies "de Venise" and La bonne chanson, which were settings of Verlaine's poems. Claude Debussy set to music Clair de lune and six of the Fêtes galantes poems, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier. Reynaldo Hahn set several of Verlaine's poems, his drug dependence and alcoholism took a toll on his life.
Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 51 on 8 January 1896. Much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as "decadent" for its lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Verlaine used the expression poète maudit in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Aloysius Bertrand, Comte de Lautréamont or Alice de Chambrier, who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or were ignored by the critics, but with the publication of Jean Moréas' Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, it was the term symbolism, most applied to the new literary environment. Along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as "Symbolists." These poets would share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will and unconscious forces, used themes of sex, the city, irrational phenomena, sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. I
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times. Toulouse-Lautrec is among the best-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period, with Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin. In a 2005 auction at Christie's auction house, La Blanchisseuse, his early painting of a young laundress, sold for US$22.4 million and set a new record for the artist for a price at auction. Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa was born at the Hôtel du Bosc in Albi, Tarn, in the Midi-Pyrénées region of France, the firstborn child of Alphonse Charles Comte de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa and his wife Adèle Zoë Tapié de Celeyran; the last part of his name means. His younger brother died the following year. If he had outlived his father, Toulouse-Lautrec would have succeeded to the family title of Comte.
After the death of his brother, Toulouse-Lautrec's parents separated and a nanny took care of him. At the age of eight, Toulouse-Lautrec went to live with his mother in Paris where he drew sketches and caricatures in his exercise workbooks; the family realized that his talents lay in drawing and painting. A friend of his father, René Princeteau, visited sometimes to give informal lessons; some of Toulouse-Lautrec's early paintings are of horses, a speciality of Princeteau, a subject Lautrec revisited in his "Circus Paintings". In 1875, Toulouse-Lautrec returned to Albi, he took thermal baths at Amélie-les-Bains, his mother consulted doctors in the hope of finding a way to improve her son's growth and development. Toulouse-Lautrec's parents, the Comte and Comtesse, were first cousins, he suffered from congenital health conditions sometimes attributed to a family history of inbreeding. At the age of 13, Toulouse-Lautrec fractured his right femur. At 14, he fractured his left; the breaks did not heal properly.
Modern physicians attribute this to an unknown genetic disorder pycnodysostosis, or a variant disorder along the lines of osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, or osteogenesis imperfecta. Rickets aggravated by praecox virilism has been suggested. Afterwards, his legs ceased to grow, so that as an adult he was short, he developed an adult-sized torso, while retaining his child-sized legs. Additionally, he is reported to have had hypertrophied genitals. Physically unable to participate in many activities enjoyed by males his age, Toulouse-Lautrec immersed himself in art, he became an important Post-Impressionist painter, art nouveau illustrator, lithographer, through his works, recorded many details of the late-19th-century bohemian lifestyle in Paris. Toulouse-Lautrec contributed a number of illustrations to the magazine Le Rire during the mid-1890s. After failing college entrance exams, he passed his second attempt and completed his studies. During a stay in Nice, his progress in painting and drawing impressed Princeteau, who persuaded Toulouse-Lautrec's parents to let him return to Paris and study under the portrait painter Léon Bonnat.
Toulouse-Lautrec's mother had high ambitions and, with the aim of her son becoming a fashionable and respected painter, used their family's influence to get him into Bonnat's studio. He was drawn to Montmartre, the area of Paris famous for its bohemian lifestyle and the haunt of artists and philosophers. Studying with Bonnat placed Toulouse-Lautrec in the heart of Montmartre, an area he left over the next 20 years. After Bonnat took a new job, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to the studio of Fernand Cormon in 1882 and studied for a further five years and established the group of friends he kept for the rest of his life. At this time he met Vincent van Gogh. Cormon, whose instruction was more relaxed than Bonnat's, allowed his pupils to roam Paris, looking for subjects to paint. During this period, Toulouse-Lautrec had his first encounter with a prostitute, which led him to paint his first painting of a prostitute in Montmartre, a woman rumoured to be Marie-Charlet. With his studies finished, in 1887 he participated in an exposition in Toulouse using the pseudonym "Tréclau", the verlan of the family name "Lautrec".
He exhibited in Paris with Van Gogh and Louis Anquetin. The Belgian critic Octave Maus invited him to present eleven pieces at the Vingt exhibition in Brussels in February. Van Gogh's brother Theo bought Poudre de Riz for 150 francs for the Cie gallery. From 1889 until 1894, Toulouse-Lautrec took part in the Independent Artists' Salon on a regular basis, he made several landscapes of Montmartre. Tucked deep into Montmartre in the garden of Monsieur Pere Foret, Toulouse-Lautrec executed a series of pleasant plein-air paintings of Carmen Gaudin, the same red-headed model who appears in The Laundress; when the Moulin Rouge cabaret opened, Toulouse-Lautrec was commissioned to produce a series of posters. His mother had left Paris and, though he had a regular income from his family, ma