Order of King Abdulaziz
The Order of King Abdulaziz is a Saudi-Arabian order of merit. The order was named after founder of the modern Saudi state. In 1971, the introduction of orders was announced in a decree, it was instituted by King Faisal on 20 March 1971. However, the order had been awarded before that date unsystematically; these earliest versions were produced by Bichay in Egypt. The early version of the order was called Great Chain of Badr; the Saudi king, Fons honorum of the orders, confirmed the decree in his Royal decree. The collar is regarded as a separate order, it confers the highest rank in the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud, unlike the Great Chain of Badr, is awarded to non-Muslim heads of state. The order is awarded to citizens of Saudi Arabia and foreigners for meritorious service to the Kingdom; the Council of Ministers makes the nominations but the King confers awards to foreigners himself when he determines it to be appropriate. Awardees enter in the 4th class of the order, with the exception of ministers and appointees for bravery, who can enter the order in a higher class.
Members of the order can advance to the next higher class every five years. The number of Saudi conferments is limited annually; the statutes of the order stipulate no more than 20 grand sashes of the distinguished class. Up to 40, 60, 80 and 100 awards can be granted to members of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th classes, respectively; the Classes include: Special Class. A sash with pendant is worn on the right shoulder, plus a star on the left chest; the insignia is worn on a necklet, plus a golden star on the left chest. The insignia is worn on a necklet, plus a silver star on the left chest; the insignia is worn on a necklet. A badge is worn on a ribbon with a rosette on the left chest. A badge is worn on a ribbon on the left chest; the Saudis avoid words like "cross" and "knight". The order is sometimes referred to as the: King Abdulaziz Order of Merit King Abdulaziz Al Saud Excellence Medal King Abdulaziz Medal Bandar bin Sultan Al Saud Fahd bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Saud Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Medal Sara bint Faisal bin Abdulaziz – King Abdulaziz Medal Sattam bin Abdulaziz Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Medal Khalid bin Bandar Al Saud Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Medal Turki bin Nasser Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Medal Al Waleed bin Talal Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Medal Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud – King Abdulaziz Sash Petro Poroshenko – President of Ukraine, Donald Trump – President of the United States of America, Collar of Abdulaziz Al Saud Theresa May – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Narendra Modi – Prime Minister of India, Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud Jacob Zuma – President of South Africa Xi Jinping – President of the People's Republic of China, Medal of King Abdulaziz Enrique Peña Nieto – President of Mexico, Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud Joko Widodo – President of Indonesia, Medal of King Abdulaziz Abdel Fattah el-Sisi – President of Egypt, Medal of King Abdulaziz François Hollande – Former President of France, David Cameron – Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Najib Tun Razak – Prime Minister of Malaysia, Medal of King Abdulaziz Silvio Berlusconi – Former Prime Minister of Italy, Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud Bashar al-Assad – President of Syria, Medal of King Abdulaziz Barack Obama – Former President of the United States, King Abdul Aziz Order of Merit Mohammad Al Jasser – Saudi minister, Medal of King Abdulaziz George W. Bush – Former President of the United States, Medal of King Abdulaziz Mohammed VI – King of Morocco, Shinzō Abe – Prime Minister of Japan, Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud Vladimir Putin – President of Russia Sabah Al Khalid Al Sabah – Kuwaiti royal and politician, Medal of King Abdulaziz Edmond Leburton – Former Prime Minister of Belgium Bill Clinton – Former President of the United States Manmohan Singh - Former Prime Minister of India Tariq Majid – Pakistan's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Lt General James Ahmann – US Air Force Commander USMTM Pervez Musharraf – Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff Raheel Sharif – Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff Ali Shamkhani – Former Defence Minister of Iran Sir Alan William John West – Chief of British Naval Staff, Medal of King Abdulaziz Katsutoshi Kawano – Chief of Staff of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Stephane Abrial – Former SACT Denis Mercier – Former Chief of Staff of the French Air Force Necdet Özel – Chief of Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces Zubair Mahmood Hayat – Pakistan's Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Admiral Tan Sri Ahmad Kamarulzaman - Chief of Royal Malaysian Navy, Muhammad Zakaullah – Chief of the Naval Staff, Pakistan Navy Sohail Aman - Chief of Air Staff, Pakistan Air Force Abu Belal Muhammad Shafiul Haq - Chief of Army Staff, Bangladesh Army Aziz Ahmed - Chief of Army Staff, Bangladesh Army Ziyad bin Mohammad Alshahrani – King Abdulaziz
Prytanée National Militaire
The Prytanée National Militaire Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand or Collège Henri-IV de La Flèche, is a French military school managed by the French military, offering regular secondary education as well as special preparatory classes, equivalent in level to the first years of university, for students who wish to enter French military academies. The school is located in western France in the city of La Flèche. At first founded in 1604 by the King Henri IV the school was given to the Jesuits in the aim to "instruct the young people and make it fall in love of sciences and virtue, in order to be able to serve", it became the "Prytanée" wanted by Napoleon in 1800. Françoise d'Alençon, who had become a widow in 1537, decided to retire in her land of La Flèche, which she had received as a gift from her husband Charles de Bourbon; the old feodal castle Château des Carmes, was too old and with no comfort, Françoise d'Alençon ordered the construction of a new building. The "Château-Neuf" was erected between 1539 and 1541 outside of the city, in the place of the Prytanée Militaire and following the plans of the architect Jean Delespine.
Some recent new elements give a better idea of the original garden. In 1550, after her death, her son Antoine of Navarre inherits of her possessions. With his wife Jeanne d'Albret, inheriter of the Kingdom of Navarre, he stays in La Flèche multiple times, as in February 1552 and in May 1553, a few months before their son's birth, the future king Henri IV. On 3 December 1603, by letters patent sent from Rouen, Henri IV authorised the return of the Jesuits, banned by the parliament of Paris in 1594 after the failed attack against the King made by one of their latter pupils, Jean Châtel; the King allows them to live in the places where they were before their departure and in other cities. Henri IV recommends them to stay in his house of La Flèche in order to establish their college; the first Jesuits priests arrive to La Flèche in the beginning of November 1603, led by Pierre Barny, named rector of the college. In January 1604, the college welcomes its first students. From its first year, the college counts around 1 000 pupils.
Their number grows fast in the following years. The first Jesuits left Pont-à-Mousson on 16 October 1603, reached La Flèche on 2 January 1604, they started to teach grammar, Latin, Hebrew, philosophy and theology. A foundation edict was issued at Fontainebleau in May 1607, in which the building started to take its present shape. René Descartes was one of the first and most illustrious students of the school from 1607 to 1615, introduced the school in his Discourse on Method under the phrase "I was in one of the most famous schools of Europe"; the College continued to expand, upon the death of Henry IV, a vast church was built, in which the hearts of Henry IV and his wife queen Marie de Medicis were enshrined. Many of the Jesuit missionaries who went to the Americas or China during the 17th century had been trained at the College. Among them were Énemond Massé, who became an early missionary to Canada and became Minister of the College upon his return in 1614; when he went back to Canada, he was accompanied by another alumni of the school.
Paul Le Jeune a student of the College, is considered as the "father of the Jesuit missions in New France", was the Superior of the Jesuits in Quebec from 1632 to 1639. Others were Erard Bille, Jacques Buteux, Nicolas Adam, Barthélemy Vimont, Paul Ragueneau, Claude de Quentin, Isaac Jogues. In China numerous students of the College became active participants to the missions. Three of the five Jesuits sent by Louis XIV to China were from the Collège: Jean de Fontaney, the Superior of the mission, a professor of mathematics there and became Rector of the school until 1710 after his return from China. Others included Guillaume le Couteux, Pierre Foureau, Charles de Broissia, Emeric de Chavagnac, Jean-François Fouquet, Joseph Labbe. Around 1650, the College became a center of cosmopolistic learning, as "Americans, Tartars and Chinese visited it". In 1751, two Chinese students were enrolled: Yang Dewang, Gao Ren. In 1764 following the expulsion of the Jesuits, after a lapse of two years, the school was transformed by Louis XV and Choiseul into a military institution designed to train young cadets for admission to the École Militaire, the "École de Cadets ou École Militaire préparatoire à l’École Militaire du Champ de Mars".
These efforts at creating military institutions followed military defeats in the Seven Years' War. The school was reserved to 250 students of noble extraction, as well as sons of officers who were wounded or died in combat, the sons of the Chevaliers de Saint-Louis. In 1776 the Count of St Germain attempted to close the school, but it was re-established by Louis XVI, who gave its management to the "Fathers of the Christian Doctrine". Among others, they educated the future General Bertrand, who accompanied Napoléon to Saint Helena, the two Chappe brothers, who invented the aerial telegraph; the College was closed in 1793 following the advent of the French revolution. For a while, the buildings were used for a variety of purposes, such as becoming a cordonery for the Army of the Republic. On 24 March 1808, Napoléon renamed the school "Prytanée Militaire", in a classic reference to the Greek prytaneis, an executive body acting as the religious and political heart of ancient Greek
National Order of Merit (France)
The National Order of Merit is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle. The reason for the order's establishment was twofold: to replace the large number of ministerial orders awarded by the ministries, it comprises about 187,000 members worldwide. The National Order of Merit replaced the following ministerial and colonial orders: Ordre de l'Étoile d'Anjouan Ordre du Nichan El-Anouar Ordre de l'Étoile Noire Ordre du Mérite social Ordre de la Santé publique Ordre du Mérite commercial et industriel Ordre du Mérite artisanal Ordre du Mérite touristique Ordre du Mérite combattant Ordre du Mérite postal Ordre de l'Économie nationale Ordre du Mérite sportif Ordre du Mérite du travail Ordre du Mérite militaire Ordre du Mérite civil Ordre du Mérite Saharien French citizens as well as foreign nationals and women, can be received into the order for distinguished military or civil achievements, though of a lesser level than that required for the award of the Legion of Honour.
The President of the French Republic is the Grand Master of the order and appoints all its members by convention on the advice of the Government of France. The order has a common Chancery with the Legion of Honour; every Prime Minister of France is made a Grand cross of the order after 24 months of service. The Order has five classes, the same as the Légion d’honneur: Three ranks: Knight: to be of a minimum age of 35, have a minimum of 10 years of public service, "distinguished merits" Officer: minimum of 5 years in the rank of Knight Commander: minimum of 5 years in the rank of Officer Two dignities: Grand Officer: minimum 3 years in the rank of Commander Grand Cross: minimum 3 years in the rank of Grand Officer Knight - wears the Medal on the left chest Officer - wears the Medal with rosette on the left chest Commander - wears the necklet on the neck for men and women Grand Officer - wears the Medal with rosette on the left chest, plus the Star on the right side of the stomach; the medal and the plaque of the Order were designed by the French sculptor Max Leognany.
The medal of the order is a six-armed Maltese asterisk in gilt enamelled blue, with laurel leaves between the arms. The obverse central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française; the reverse central disc has a set of crossed tricolores, surrounded by the name of the order and its foundation date. The badge is suspended by a laurel wreath; the star is worn by Grand Officier respectively. The central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française and the name of the Order, in turn surrounded by a wreath of laurel; the ribbon for the medal is a solid blue field. For the grade of Officier and above, a rosette is centered in the field. For the grades of Commandeur, Grand Officier, Grand-Croix, the rosette is centered bar of silver; the individuals listed below have been admitted as members of the National Order of Merit: List of Foreign recipients of the Ordre national du Mérite Order Ribbons of the French military and civil awards State decoration Sources France Phaléristique
Ordre des Palmes Académiques
The Ordre des Palmes académiques is a national order bestowed by the French Republic to distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education. Established in 1808 by Emperor Napoleon as a decoration to honour eminent members of the University of Paris, it was changed into its current form as an order of merit on 4 October 1955 by President René Coty; the early Palmes académiques was instituted on 17 March 1808 and was bestowed only upon teachers or professors. In 1850, the decoration was divided into two known classes: Officier de l'Instruction Publique. In 1866, the scope of the award was widened to include major contributions to French national education and culture made by anyone, including foreigners, it was made available to any French expatriates making major contributions to the expansion of French culture throughout the rest of the world. Since 1955, the Ordre des Palmes académiques has comprised three grades, each grade having a fixed number of recipients: Commander — gold cross of 60 mm with a coronet worn on necklet.
Officer — gold cross of 55 mm worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Knight — silver cross of 50 mm worn on ribbon on left breast. Decisions on nominations and promotions are decided by the Minister of National Education. For those not connected to state-sponsored public education, or the Ministry of National Education, these honours are announced on 1 January, New Year's Day. For all others, they are made on 14 July, French National Day. Bruno Bernard, Belgian author dictionary French foreign languages Louis Dewis, born Isidore Louis Dewachter in Belgium. Successful merchant and a Post-Impressionist painter, he was honored for his civic endeavors in the early 1900s. Allan L. Goldstein, American biochemist and co-discoverer of the Thymosins John Kneller, English-American professor and fifth President of Brooklyn College Francis L. Lawrence, classical drama and baroque poetry scholar, President of Rutgers University Alice Lemieux-Lévesque, Canadian-American writer Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian littérateur Léopold Sédar Senghor Ali-Akbar Siassi, Iranian intellectual and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's Foreign Minister, Minister of Education, Chancellor of University of Tehran, Minister of State without portfolio.
Javad Tabatabai, Iranian thinker Buddy Wentworth, Namibian politician, for his contributions to the Namibian independence struggle Andrea Zitolo, Italian physical-chemist and material scientist Mirabel-Sérodes, Françoise. Les palmes académiques. Paris: NANEditions. ISBN 9782843680724. OCLC 377991989. Association des Membres de l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques France: Order of the Academic Palms Medals of the World
Aspet is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Order of Bernardo O'Higgins
The Order of Bernardo O'Higgins is an award issued by Chile. It is the highest civilian honor awarded to non-Chilean citizens; this award was established in 1965 and named after one of the founders of the Chilean state, general Bernardo O'Higgins, the leader of the struggle for independence of the Spanish colonies in the Americas from 1810 to 1826. Emilio Álvarez Montalván Margot Benacerraf Rafael Bielsa Maria Cavaco Silva Artur Chilingarov Jack Dutton Clark Hewett Galloway Rajesh Hukku Antonio López-Istúriz White Adam Michnik Alois Mock Óscar Osorio Christopher Reeve Ada Rogato Maxime Verhagen Max Westenhöfer Jan Peter Balkenende Maria Cavaco Silva Tim Fischer Piet de Jong Roberto Kozak Mohammed VI of Morocco Tunku Naquiyuddin Jan Pronk Simon Wiesenthal Robert Werlich: Orders and Decorations of all Nations – Ancient and Modern – Civil and Military. Washington 1990
United States Army Command and General Staff College
The United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers. The college was established in 1881 by William Tecumseh Sherman as the School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, a training school for infantry and cavalry officers. In 1907 it changed its title to the School of the Line; the curriculum expanded throughout World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and continues to adapt to include lessons learned from current conflicts. In addition to the main campus at Fort Leavenworth, the college has satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; the satellite campuses provide non-residential distance learning opportunities. The United States Army Command and General Staff College educates and develops leaders for full spectrum joint and multinational operations; the college consists of four schools: Command and General Staff School provides Intermediate Level Education for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers.
ILE is a ten-month graduate-level program. There is one ILE class per year. About 1,200 US military and international officers make up the class. In addition to the ILE curriculum, a graduate masters program exists for students who may qualify to complete a thesis-level research paper and receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences degree at the School of Advanced Military Studies; the Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. ILE students are mid-career field-grade officers preparing for battalion command or staff positions at the division, brigade, or battalion level. In addition to CGSS at Fort Leavenworth, the school operates satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Students at the satellite campuses complete the ILE Common Core, a condensed ninety-day program without the MMAS option, in lieu of the traditional ten-month program. School of Advanced Military Studies provides post-ILE instruction on complex military issues at the strategic and operational levels.
Students who complete the curriculum receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences and are assigned as high-level military planners. The Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. School for Command Preparation provides instruction for colonels, lieutenant colonels, command sergeants major who have been selected for brigade or battalion command. Courses are three to four weeks and focus on special topics unique to assumption of command at the levels indicated. School of Advanced Leadership and Tactics provides officer continuing education towards developing the Scholar-Warrior-Leader from first lieutenant to selection for major; the result is mastery of branch-specific technical and tactical skills, staff processes in battalions and brigades, direct leadership and command competencies, initial broadening opportunities. During World War I, the CGSC at Ft. Leavenworth was closed, from 1916 until 1920.
Most of the school staff was sent to Langres, France, to open and conduct the Army General Staff College, which operated from November 1917 to December 1918. This compressed-curriculum school was needed to provide command and staff officers for the exponentially growing number of Army units; the college reports that 7,000 international students representing 155 countries have attended CGSC since 1894 and that more than 50 percent of CGSC International Military Student graduates attain the rank of general. Prime Minister and General Kriangsak Chomanan of Thailand General Alfredo M. Santos of the Philippines Lieutenant General Rafael Ileto of the Philippines Major General Edmund E. Dillon of Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force Prime Minister and General Tran Thien Khiem of South Vietnam General Do Cao Tri of South Vietnam Colonel Le Huy Luyen of South Vietnam General Hau Pei-tsun of the Republic of China President Paul Kagame of Rwanda General Katumba Wamala of Uganda Brigadier General Muhoozi Kainerugaba son of Ugandan president, 2007–08.
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan General Rahimuddin Khan of Pakistan General Jehangir Karamat of Pakistan General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani of Pakistan Brigadier Abdul Shakur Malik, Force Commander for the Northern Areas, Acting Director-General Military Training, of Pakistan General Eiji Kimizuka of Japan General Hisham Jaber of Lebanon General Krishnaswamy Sundarji of Indian Army Prime Minister and Brigadier-General Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore General Dieudonné Kayembe Mbandakulu of the Democratic Republic of the Congo President Gaafar Nimeiry of Sudan Lt. Col Anastasio Somoza Portocarrero of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua General Nguyễn Hợp Đoàn of South Vietnam General Nguyễn Khánh of South Vietnam General Phạm Văn Đồng of South Vietnam Ministry/Chief of Army General Staff and General Ahmad Yani of Indonesia President and General Susilo