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Jean-Marie Pardessus

Jean Marie Pardessus, was a French lawyer. He was born at Blois, educated by the Oratorians studied law, at first under his father, a lawyer at the Presidial, a pupil of Robert Joseph Pothier. In 1796, after the Reign of Terror, Pardessus married. A widower at the age of twenty-seven, he refused to give his children a stepmother, his Traité des servitudes went through eight editions, his Traité du contrat et des lettres de change pointed him out as fitted for the chair of commercial law formed at the faculty of law at Paris. The emperor, had insisted that the position should be open to competition. Pardessus entered and was successful over two other candidates, André MJJ Dupin and Persil, who afterwards became brilliant lawyers, his lectures were published under the title Cours de droit commercial. In 1815 Pardessus was elected deputy for the department of Loir-et-Cher, from 1820 to 1830 was re-elected. After the publication of the first volume of his Collection des lois maritimes antérieures au XVIIIème siècle he was elected a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.

He continued his collection of maritime laws, published Les us et coutumes de la mer. He brought out two volumes of Merovingian diplomas. In 1843 Pardessus published a critical edition of the Loi salique, followed by 14 dissertations, which advanced the knowledge of the subject, he died at Pimpeneau near Blois. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pardessus, Jean Marie". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press

Bowes & Bowes

Bowes & Bowes was a bookselling and publishing company based in Cambridge, England. It was established by a nephew of Daniel Macmillan; the company became known as ‘Bowes & Bowes’ only in 1907, following George Brimley Bowes’s becoming a partner in the firm in 1899. The firm continued as a family business until 1953 when it was acquired by W H Smith, who continued to operate it under the original name until 1986. In that year the business's name was changed to Hughes; the Bowes & Bowes site at 1, Trinity Street, Cambridge has a claim to be the oldest bookshop in the country, books having been sold there since 1581. Since the closure of Sherratt & Hughes in 1992, the site has been the home of the Cambridge University Press bookshop; the firm’s backlist included titles by Erich Heller, the general editor of a series of books published by Bowes & Bowes. By far their most prestigious author was Edwin Keppel Bennett. Macmillan Publishers Our Price Book trade in the United Kingdom Books in the United Kingdom Bowes & Bowes book labels National Archives Robert Bowes CUP

Retusa truncatula

Retusa truncatula is a species of small head-shield sea snail or barrel-bubble snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family RetusidaeThe subspecies Retusa truncatula var. mammilata: is a synonym of Retusa mammillata The shell is minute with a flattened spire and longitudinal striations. The colour of the living animal is white; the adult length is less than 4 mm. This species occurs from False Bay to Durban in shallow estuaries, it is known from northern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands. This small sea snail lives from the intertidal zone to just below the low water mark, it burrows in the mud or sand of tidal marshes, feeds on foraminiferans. Gofas, S.. Mollusca. in: Costello, M. J. et al.. European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: pp. 180–213

Armoured Bestial Hell

Armoured Bestial Hell is the fourth album by the Belgian black metal band, Enthroned. The cover artwork is by ROK. "Humanicide 666 / Intro" – 1:41 "Wrapped In Fire" – 4:25 "Armoured Bestial Hell" – 4:46 "Enslavement Revealed" – 4:52 "Spells From The Underworlds" – 4:37 "Spheres Of Damnation" – 2:59 "The Face Of Death" – 2:37 "When Hell Freezes Over" – 8:53 "Premature Satanicremation" – 2:28 "Terminate Annihilation" – 2:12 "Untitled Outro" - 4:45 Lord Sabathan – lead vocals, bass guitar Nornagest - guitars, backing vocals, keyboards Nerath Daemon - guitars, keyboards Namroth Blackthorndrums

Francis Gleeson (priest)

Father Francis Gleeson was an Irish Roman Catholic priest who served as a British Army chaplain during Ireland's involvement in the First World War. Educated at seminaries near Dublin, Gleeson was ordained in 1910 and worked at a home for the blind before volunteering for service upon the outbreak of war. Commissioned into the Army Chaplains' Department and attached to the 2nd Battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers he served with them at the First Battle of Ypres. During this battle Gleeson is said to have taken command of the battalion after all the officers were incapacitated by the enemy, he was regarded by his men for tending to the wounded under fire, visiting the frontline trenches, bringing gifts. On 8 May 1915, on the eve of the Battle of Aubers Ridge, Gleeson addressed the assembled battalion at a roadside shrine and gave the general absolution; the battalion suffered in the battle and when paraded again afterwards only 200 men were assembled. Gleeson's absolution was the subject of a painting by Fortunino Matania, made at the request of the widow of the battalion's commanding officer.

At the end of his year's service in 1915 Gleeson returned to Dublin and became a curate but rejoined the army as a chaplain in 1917 and remained for a further two years. After the war he returned once more to Ireland, becoming a priest at churches near to Dublin and being elected canon of the Metropolitan Chapter of the Archdiocese of Dublin before his death on 26 June 1959. Gleeson was born on 28 May 1884 in Main Street, County Tipperary in Ireland and was one of thirteen children. Gleeson decided to become a Catholic priest and was educated at the Holy Cross College in Dublin and St Patrick's College in Maynooth, he was ordained as a priest by the Archbishop of Dublin, William Walsh, on 19 June 1910 at St Mary's Pro-Cathedral. Gleeson was appointed chaplain to St. Vincent's Male Orphanage in Glasnevin in October 1910 and lived nearby before being sent as chaplain to St. Mary's Home for the Blind, Dublin in March 1912. Gleeson was a nationalist and a speaker of Irish Gaelic. On the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914 Gleeson volunteered for service with the British Army, one of only 17 priests to do so.

He was commissioned as a Chaplain to the Forces, 4th Class in the Army Chaplains' Department on 18 November 1914 and joined the 2nd battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers who were in action on the Western Front in France. The battalion, pre-war regular troops who formed part of the 3rd Infantry Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division, were amongst the first British troops to be deployed to France; the unit fought at the Battle of Mons and after Gleeson joined them they participated in the First Battle of Ypres. British officer and poet Robert Graves recalled in his autobiography Good-Bye to All That that during this battle Gleeson found himself the only unwounded officer of the battalion and, having removed his chaplain's insignia that indicated his non-combatant status, took command of the unit and held until relieved. In December that year he joined the battalion in a counterattack at the Battle of Givenchy. On Christmas Day the Munsters were in part of the front line unaffected by the Christmas Truce and Gleeson chose to conduct a Mass in one of the front line trenches, under fire.

The mass was in memory of the seven officers and 200 men of the Munsters who had died in a failed attack on 22 December. Gleeson was an advisor to men of all faiths in the regiment and kept careful records of their names and addresses so that he could write to the families of those that died, he ended each letter with the words "They paid a great sacrifice", used as the title of a book published in 2010 that details the wartime service records of men from Cork. Much of his time was spent answering letters from families in Ireland concerned about the wellbeing of their sons and husbands. At times the task overwhelmed him and this is evident in his personal diary when he wrote, in June 1915, "I got 12 letters today. What answering they will take tomorrow. I like to give these poor people all the solace I can, but still there’s no limit to the sorrowing inquiries; the tragedy of these letters". Gleeson made frequent visits to the front lines and conducted burial services there with wooden grave marker crosses that he made himself or entering no man's land to comfort dying soldiers.

His men said that they were always sure of a cup of tea from him when he visited the trenches late at night and he was certain to check that they were not short of ammunition. Gleeson sent requests to Ireland for hymn books for the men in the field and bought mouth organs for their entertainment. One of Gleeson's men said "He's no mistake. There's no man at the Front more brave or cooler. Why, it is in the hottest place up in the firing line he do be to give comfort to the boys that are dying." His work as a chaplain was renowned, one war correspondent stated that "If you meet a man of the 2nd Munsters, just mention the name of Father Gleeson and see how his face lights up". Quotes from Gleeson were used in Irish recruiting leaflets. Whilst moving forwards to the trenches on 8 May 1915, in preparation for the Battle of Aubers Ridge, Lieutenant-Colonel Victor Rickard ordered the battalion to halt at a roadside shrine in Rue du Bois, near Fleurbaix; the shrine was in fact the altar of the Chapel of Notre Dame de Seez, destroyed by shells earlier in the war.

Gleeson, who had ridden at the front of the column, addressed the assembled 800 men and gave them the general absolution whilst still mounted on his horse. The men sang the hymns Hail, Queen o

Joseph Pilling

Sir Joseph Grant Pilling, KCB is a retired British civil servant serving on the boards of the Koestler Trust and Macmillan Cancer Support. He was educated at King's College London and Harvard University. Pilling served as the Director-General of the Prison Service from 1991 to 1993, Director of Resources and Services in the Department of Health, before being appointed as Permanent Secretary of the Northern Ireland Office in 1997, where he served until 2005 when he retired, but not for too long: in 2009 he accepted appointment by the Home Secretary as the UK's first and only Identity Commissioner, a role having independent oversight of the National Identity Service government database and its controversial mission of recording and processing the personal details of everyone in the UK. He took office on 1 October 2009. In 2012 and 2013, Pilling chaired the House of Bishops of the Church of England Working Group on Human Sexuality; the group was commissioned by the House of Bishops in January 2012.

It was chaired by Pilling. In November 2013, the group submitted its report to the archbishops of Canterbury and York who published it; the archbishops recognised Pilling's comment that "disagreements have been explored in the warmth of a shared faith". He is married to Ann, Lady Pilling, an author, was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 2001 Birthday Honours, having been a Companion of the Order of the Bath, he is a member of the Athenaeum Club