Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
American Machine and Foundry
American Machine and Foundry was one of the United States' largest recreational equipment companies, with diversified products as disparate as garden equipment, atomic reactors, yachts. The company was founded in 1900 by Rufus L. Patterson, inventor of the first automated cigarette manufacturing machine. Incorporated in New Jersey but operating in Brooklyn, the company began by manufacturing cigarette and stitching machines. AMF moved into the bowling business after World War II, when AMF automated bowling equipment and bowling centers became profitable business ventures. Bicycle production was added in 1950; the company was once a major manufacturer of products from tennis racquets to research reactors for the US' "Atoms for Peace" program. AMF became a major part of what would soon be referred to by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower as "the military-industrial complex" after World War II. In the late 1950s, the company's vice-chairman was Walter Bedell Smith, he was a US major general, Eisenhower's wartime chief-of-staff, Harry Truman's Ambassador to the Soviet Union.
He became the fourth Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Until the mid-1980s, AMF's range of consumer goods included powered model airplanes, snow skis and garden equipment, Ben Hogan golf clubs, Voit inflatable balls and exercise equipment, Hatteras Yachts, Alcort Sailboats, Nimble bicycles, motorized bicycles, SCUBA gear. For a time, AMF owned Harley-Davidson motorcycles. Aging production facilities and increasing quality control problems in some product lines caused sales declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s; the company's vast diversified output proved difficult to efficiently manage, after suffering a series of losses, the company sold off its operations. AMF made pool tables for AMF bowling alleys In 1943, Rufus Patterson's son, Morehead Patterson, took over AMF. After World War II ended, Patterson determined that the company had to'grow or die'. One of AMF's post-World War II ventures was "AMF Atomics": a division that made "low-dose irradiation equipment" for "the US Army Quartermaster Corps’ bulk-food irradiation program".
In a masterstroke of top executive recruitment, Patterson hired top US government Cold Warrior Walter Bedell Smith, whose leadership positions at the Pentagon, US State Department and CIA made AMF one of the pillars of the US military-industrial complex during the 1950s and 1960s. In the late 1950s the company won a contract for designing and constructing "a small 1 MW swimming pool-type reactor" at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center in Israel, which for a short time helped the Israelis conceal the fact that they were building a much larger reactor for military purposes elsewhere in the country with French assistance during the same time. Patterson encountered a prototype of an automatic bowling pin setter in the 1940's. To get the cash to develop the invention, Patterson swapped AMF stock to acquire eight small companies with fast-selling products. After incorporating key features developed by Leslie L. LeVeque, the AMF Pinspotter and put on the market in 1952, helped to turn bowling into the most popular US participative, competitive sport.
AMF became a major manufacturer of pinsetters, bowling pins, bowling balls, other bowling equipment, owned and operated numerous bowling centers. In 1950, after purchasing the Roadmaster line of children's and youth bicycles from the Cleveland Welding Company, American Machine and Foundry entered the bicycle manufacturing business with its newly formed AMF Wheel Goods Division. In 1953, after a prolonged labor strike, AMF moved bicycle manufacturing from a UAW-organized plant in Cleveland, Ohio to a new facility in Little Rock, Arkansas; the new plant was automated and featured more than a mile of part conveyor belts in six separate systems, including an electrostatic induction painting operation. Taking advantage of the increase in its target markets in the aftermath of the baby boom, AMF was able to diversify its product line, adding exercise equipment under the brand name Vitamaster in 1950; as demand for bicycles continued to expand, the company needed a new manufacturing facility to keep up with demand.
In 1962, the company moved its operations to Olney, where it built a new factory on a 122-acre site that would remain the company's principal bicycle manufacturing location into the 1990s. After two decades of consistent growth, the AMF Wheel Goods Division stalled under the long-distance management of a parent company bogged down in layers of corporate management and marginally profitable product lines. Manufacturing quality as well as the technical standard of the Roadmaster bicycle line - once the pride of the company - had fallen to an all-time low. Bicycles made at the Olney plant were manufactured so poorly that some Midwestern bike shops refused to repair them, claiming that the bikes would not stay fixed no matter how much labor and effort was put into them; the division's problems with quality and outside competition were neatly summed up in a 1979 American film, Breaking Away, in which identical secondhand AMF Roadmaster track bicycles were used by competitors in the Little 500 bicycle race.
Despite this product placement, the film's protagonist expressed a decided preference for his lightweight Italian Masi road racing bike, deriding the elderly Roadmaster as a'piece of junk'. In 1997, the Roadmaster bicycle division was sold to the Brunswick Corporation. However, it had become evident that production of low-cost, mass-market bicycles in the US was not viable in the face of foreign competition, in 1999, all U. S. production of Roadmaster bicycles ceased. Brunswick sold its bicycle division and the Roadmaster brand to Pacific Cycle, whic
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are organic polymers of high molecular mass and contain other substances, they are synthetic, most derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft, they have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, metal and ceramic, in some products left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ—42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least from plastic; the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics"; the success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules.
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling. The word plastic derives from the Greek πλαστικός meaning "capable of being shaped or molded" and, in turn, from πλαστός meaning "molded"; the plasticity, or malleability, of the material during manufacture allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes, such as: films, plates, bottles, amongst many others. The common noun plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic; the adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. For example, aluminum, stamped or forged exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the common sense. By contrast, some plastics will, in their finished forms, break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. Most plastics contain organic polymers; the vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms,'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units; the backbone is the part of the chain, on the "main path", linking together a large number of repeat units. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from this backbone; these pendant units are "hung" on the monomers, before the monomers themselves are linked together to form the polymer chain. It is the structure of these side chains; the molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. Plastics are classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains. Plastics can be classified by: the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as: condensation and cross-linking. Plastics can be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents and ionizing radiation.
In particular, most plastics will melt upon heating to a few hundred degrees celsius. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for product design. Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers. One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that, when heated, do not undergo chemical change in their composition and so can be molded again and again. Examples include: polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. Thermosets, or thermosetting polymers, can melt and take shape only once: after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs, irreversible.
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California. The products and brands it produces include Fisher-Price, Monster High, Ever After High, Polly Pocket, Hot Wheels and Matchbox, Masters of the Universe, American Girl, board games, WWE. In the early 1980s, Mattel produced video game systems, under its own brands and under license from Nintendo; the company has presence in 40 countries and territories and sells products in more than 150 countries. The company operates through three business segments: North America and American Girl, it is the world's second largest toy maker in terms of revenue, after The Lego Group. In 2014, it ranked #403 on the Fortune 500 list. On January 17, 2017, Mattel named former Google executive Margo Georgiadis as CEO. Georgiadis stepped down as CEO of Mattel on April 19, 2018, her last day was on April 26, 2018. Ynon Kreiz is now the new CEO of Mattel; the name Mattel is a portmanteau of Elliot Handler, the company's founders.
Harold "Matt" Matson and Elliot Handler founded Mattel in 1945. The company sold picture frames, dollhouse furniture. Matson sold his share to Handler due to poor health, Handler's wife Ruth took Matson's role. In 1947, the company had its first hit toy, a ukulele called "Uke-A-Doodle"; the company incorporated the next year in California. Mattel became the first year-round sponsor of the Mickey Mouse Club TV series in 1955; the Barbie doll debuted in 1959. In 1960, Mattel introduced Chatty Cathy, a talking doll revolutionizing the toy industry, which led to pull-string talking dolls and toys flooding the market throughout the 1960s and 1970s; the company went public in 1960, the New York Stock Exchange listed them in 1963. Mattel acquired a number of companies during the 1960s. In 1965, the company built on its success with the Chatty Cathy doll to introduce the See'n Say talking toy, spawning a line of products, they released Hot Wheels to the market on May 18, 1968. In May 1970, Mattel formed a joint venture film production company Radnitz/Mattel Productions with producer Robert B.
Radnitz, entered a multimillion-dollar partnership with Mehra Entertainment, whose CEO, Dr. Nishpeksh Padmamohan Mehra, is one of Mattel's Inc.'s main directors for Barbie. Mattel purchased The Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1971 for $40 million from the Feld family, whom Mattel kept as management. Mattel sold the circus corporation by December 1973, despite its profit contributions, as Mattel showed a $29.9 million loss in 1972. In 1974, an investigation found Mattel guilty of issuing false and misleading financial reports, banishing Elliot and Ruth Handler from their own company. Arthur S. Spear, a Mattel vice president, took control of the company in 1975, who returned the company to profitability in 1977. Ruth Handler sold her stock in 1980; the Mattel Electronics line debuted in 1977 with an all-electronic handheld game. The success of the handheld led to the expansion of the line with game console the line becoming its own corporation in 1982. Mattel Electronics forced Mattel to take a $394 million loss in 1983 and filed for bankruptcy.
In 1979, through Feld Productions, Mattel purchased the Holiday on Ice and Ice Follies for $12 million. Acquired that year was Western Publishing for $120 million in cash and stock; the Felds bought the circus in 1982 for $22.8 million. New York venture capital firms E. M. Warburg, Pincus & Co. and Drexel Burnham Lambert invested a couple hundred million in Mattel in 1984 to help the company survive. However, the Master of the Universe action figure line sales dropped, causing a $115 million loss in 1987. Chairman John W. Amerman improved the company's financial performance in 1987 by focusing on core brands. Mattel returned to working with the Disney company in 1988. In 1991, Mattel moved its headquarters from California to El Segundo, California. Mattel entered the game business in 1992 with the purchase of International Games, maker of Uno and Skip-Bo. Mattel purchased Fisher-Price, Inc. in 1993, Tyco Toys, Inc. in 1997, Pleasant Company in 1998. Mattel sold it in 2000 at a loss; the company had a $430.9 million net loss that year.
Mattel earned the first grant for Disney Princess doll licenses in 2000. In December 2000, Mattel sued the band Aqua, saying their song "Barbie Girl" violated the Barbie trademark and turned Barbie into a sex object, referring to her as a "blonde bimbo." The lawsuit was rejected in 2002. In 2000, Mattel signed a deal with Warner Bros to became the master licensee for Harry Potter-branded toys. In 2002, the companies extended their partnership, with Mattel becoming master licensee for Batman, Justice League and the Looney Tunes toys for all markets except Asia. In 2002, Mattel closed its last factory in the United States part of the Fisher-Price division, outsourcing production to China, which began a chain of events that led to a lead contamination scandal. On August 14, 2007, Mattel recalled over 18 million products; the New York Times covered Mattel's multiple recalls. Many of the products had exceeded the US limits set on surface coatings. Surface coatings cannot exceed.06% lead by weight. Additional recalls were because it was possible that some toys could pose a danger to children due to the use of strong magnets that could detach.
Mattel re-wrote its policy on magnets issuing a recall in August 2007. The recall included 7.1 million Polly Pocket toys produced before November 2006, 600,0
ITT Inc. ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York; the company produces specialty components for the aerospace, transportation and industrial markets. ITT’s three businesses include Industrial Process, Motion Technologies, Connect and Control Technologies. ITT has 10,000 employees in more than 35 countries and serves customers in well over 100 countries; the company’s long-standing brands include Goulds Pumps, Cannon connectors, KONI shock absorbers and Enidine energy absorption components. The company was founded in 1920 as International Telegraph. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the leadership of CEO Harold Geneen, the company rose to prominence as the archetypal conglomerate, deriving its growth from hundreds of acquisitions in diversified industries. ITT divested its telecommunications assets in 1986, in 1995 spun off its non-manufacturing divisions purchased by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide. In 1996, the current company was founded as a spinoff of ITT as Inc..
It changed its name to ITT Corporation in 2006. In 2011, ITT spun off its defense businesses into a company named Exelis, its water technology business into a company named Xylem Inc. ITT Corporation changed its name to ITT Inc. in 2016. International Telephone & Telegraph was formed in 1920, created by brokers Colonel Sosthenes Behn and his brother Hernan Behn; the brothers had acquired the Puerto Rico Telephone Company in 1914 along with the Cuban-American Telephone and Telegraph Company and a half-interest in the Cuban Telephone Company. ITT's first major expansion was in 1923 when it consolidated the Spanish Telecoms market into what is now Telefónica. From 1922 to 1925 it purchased a number of European telephone companies. In 1925, ITT purchased several companies from Western Electric, as Bell has agreed to "divest" itself of its international operations, they included the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Antwerp, which manufactured rotary system switching equipment, the British International Western Electric, renamed Standard Telephones and Cables.
Compagnie Générale d'Electricité purchased BTM. In the 1930s, ITT purchased German electronic companies Standard Elektrizitätsgesellschaft and Mix & Genest, both of which were internationally active companies and Romanian telecommunications monopoly Societatea Anonima Română de Telefoane, its only serious rival was the Theodore Gary & Company conglomerate, which operated a subsidiary, Associated Telephone and Telegraph, with manufacturing plants in Europe. In the United States, ITT acquired the various companies of the Mackay Companies in 1928 through a specially organized subsidiary corporation, Postal Telegraph & Cable; these companies included the Commercial Cable Company, the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Postal Telegraph, the Federal Telegraph Company. On 3 August 1933 Hitler received in one of the first meetings with US businessmen Sosthenes Behn the CEO of ITT, his German representative, Henry Mann. Antony C. Sutton, in his book Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, makes the claim that ITT subsidiaries made cash payments to SS leader Heinrich Himmler.
ITT, through its subsidiary C. Lorenz AG, owned 25% of Focke-Wulf, the German aircraft manufacturer, builder of some of the most successful Luftwaffe fighter aircraft. In the 1960s, ITT Corporation won $27 million in compensation for damage inflicted on its share of the Focke-Wulf plant by Allied bombing during World War II. In addition, Sutton’s book uncovers that ITT owned shares of Signalbau AG, Dr. Erich F. Huth, which produced for the German Wehrmacht radar equipment and transceivers in Berlin and other places. While ITT - Focke-Wulf planes were bombing Allied ships, ITT lines were passing information to German submarines, ITT direction finders were saving other ships from torpedoes. In 1943 ITT became the largest shareholder of Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH for the remainder of the war with 29%; this was due to Kaffee HAG's share falling to 27% after the death in May of Kaffee HAG chief, Dr Ludwig Roselius. OMGUS documents reveal that the role of the HAG conglomerate could not be determined during WWII.
In 1951, ITT purchased Philo Farnsworth's television company to break into that market. At the time Farnsworth was developing the Fusor fusion reactor, funded by ITT until 1967. In 1951, ITT bought a majority interest in the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company, founded in 1897 as a pioneer in "divided-multiple" telephone switchboards, bought the remaining shares the next year. ITT changed the company's name to ITT Kellogg. After merging Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation into ITT Kellogg and combining manufacturing operations the name was again changed to ITT Telecommunications reverting to ITT Kellogg. One prominent subsidiary of this was the American Cable and Radio Corporation, which operated the transatlantic cables of the Commercial Cable Company, among other ventures, it bought Philadelphia based air conditioning manufacturer John J. Nesbitt Inc.. In 1968 the company purchased Levittown homebuilder Sons for a reported $90 million. In 1972, the KONI Group, manufacturer of shock absorbers was added to the list of acquisitions and remains a leader worldwide as the quality shock absorber specialist, focusing on high performing suspension-damping technology for Cars, Specialty Trucks, Trailers and Railway Rolling Stock.
International telecommunications manufacturing subsidiaries included STC in Britain and Australia, SEL and Intermetall Gesellschaft für Metallurgie und Elektronik mbH (acqu
Le Trait is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandie region in north-western France. An ex-shipbuilding town, nowadays involved in farming, light industry and port activity. Technip produces flexible pipes for the offshore oil industry in Le Trait and is the biggest employer. Le Trait is situated by the banks of some 15 miles west of Rouen on the D 982 road; the church of St. Nicolas, dating from the thirteenth century; the ruins of a twelfth-century castle. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Maurice Quemin, Le Trait, berceau de 200 navires, que sont-ils devenus?, 1988 ISBN 2-9502241-0-5. Official website of the commune Le Trait photographers club website Le Trait on the Quid website