A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse; the item is delivered to its addressee. Always featuring the name of the issuing nation, a denomination of its value, an illustration of persons, institutions, or natural realities that symbolize the nation's traditions and values, every stamp is printed on a piece of rectangular, but sometimes triangular or otherwise shaped special custom-made paper whose back is either glazed with an adhesive gum or self-adhesive; because governments issue stamps of different denominations in unequal numbers and discontinue some lines and introduce others, because of their illustrations and association with the social and political realities of the time of their issue, they are prized for their beauty and historical significance by stamp collectors whose study of their history and of mailing systems is called philately.
Because collectors buy stamps from an issuing agency with no intention to use them for postage, the revenues from such purchases and payments of postage can make them a source of net profit to that agency. Throughout modern history, numerous methods were used to indicate that postage had been paid on a mailed item, so several different men have received credit for inventing the postage stamp. William DockwraIn 1680, William Dockwra, an English merchant in London, his partner Robert Murray established the London Penny Post, a mail system that delivered letters and small parcels inside the city of London for the sum of one penny. Confirmation of paid postage was indicated by the use of a hand stamp to frank the mailed item. Though this'stamp' was applied to the letter or parcel itself, rather than to a separate piece of paper, it is considered by many historians to be the world's first postage stamp. Lovrenc KoširIn 1835, the Slovene civil servant Lovrenc Košir from Ljubljana in Austria-Hungary, suggested the use of "artificially affixed postal tax stamps" using "gepresste papieroblate", but although civil bureaucrats considered the suggestion in detail, it was not adopted.
Rowland HillIn 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, gave Sir Rowland Hill numerous books and documents about the postal service, which Hill described as a "half hundred weight of material". After a detailed study, on 4 January 1837 Hill submitted a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, marked "private and confidential," and not released to the general public, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Spring Rice; the Chancellor summoned Hill to a meeting at which he suggested improvements and changes to be presented in a supplement, which Hill duly produced and submitted on 28 January 1837. Summoned to give evidence before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry on 13 February 1837, Hill read from the letter he wrote to the Chancellor that included a statement saying that the notation of paid postage could be created "...by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, covered at the back with a glutinous wash...". This would become the first unambiguous description of a modern adhesive postage stamp.
Shortly afterward, Hill's revision of the booklet, dated 22 February 1837, containing some 28,000 words, incorporating the supplement given to the Chancellor and statements he made to the Commission, was published and made available to the general public. Hansard records that on 15 December 1837, Benjamin Hawes asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer "whether it was the intention of the Government to give effect to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the Post-office, contained in their ninth report relating to the reduction of the rates of postage, the issuing of penny stamps?"Hill’s ideas for postage stamps and charging paid-postage based on weight soon took hold, were adopted in many countries throughout the world. With the new policy of charging by weight, using envelopes for mailing documents became the norm. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope-making machine that folded paper into envelopes enough to match the pace of the growing demand for postage stamps. Rowland Hill and the reforms he introduced to the United Kingdom postal system appear on several of its commemorative stamps.
James ChalmersIn the 1881 book The Penny Postage Scheme of 1837, Scotsman Patrick Chalmers claimed that his father, James Chalmers, published an essay in August 1834 describing and advocating a postage stamp, but submitted no evidence of the essay's existence. Until he died in 1891, Patrick Chalmers campaigned to have his father recognized as the inventor of the postage stamp; the first independent evidence for Chalmers' claim is an essay, dated 8 February 1838 and received by the Post Office on 17 February 1838, in which he proposed adhesive postage stamps to the General Post Office. In this 800-word document concerning methods of indicating that postage had been paid on mail he states: "Therefore, of Mr Hill’s plan of a uniform rate of postage... I conceive that the most simple and economical mode... would be by Slips... in the hope that Mr Hill’s plan may soon be carried into operation I would sugg
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Postage stamp design error
A postage stamp design error is a mistake made during the design phase of the postage stamp production process. Design errors most occur as minor mistakes, such as a missing letter in the binomial name of an organism depicted on the stamp, but some have been major gaffes, such as a map appearing to lay claim to another country's territory, or the depiction of the wrong person on the stamp. A design error caught during the production process may disappear with copies of the error only getting into the public's hands via unscrupulous employees. Design errors are caught during the distribution process, when large numbers of postal workers are scrutinizing the new stamp; the exact circumstance are important, because once the stamp is sold to a customer, whether or not against the postal service's rules, it is considered to be legitimate. The Legends of the West sheet was a difficult case. Shortly before the release of this commemorative series, a claim was made that the image of Bill Pickett used for his stamp's painting was an image of his brother Ben.
The United States Postal Service decided to recall the stamps and re-issue them with Pickett's stamp based on an image known with certainty to be him. The USPS sold the entire run of erroneous stamps at face value by lottery. Somewhat rarer is a design error, first noticed by a member of the public; this happens within a few days of the stamp first going on sale, ends up as the subject of newspaper articles. A recent example of this is the Maya Angelou stamp issued by the U. S. Postal Service on April 7, 2015; the stamp contains a quotation, attributed to Ms. Angelou, but was written by Joan Walsh Anglund. In this circumstance, the Postal Service was unaware of the real author until it was brought to their attention by The Washington Post; the response of postal officials may include withdrawal of all the stamps, or the suspension of printing and distribution, pending revision and reprinting. If the stamps are withdrawn the ones out there become instant rarities, as happened with the PRC's "All China is Red" stamp of 1968.
The withdrawn stamps may be overprinted if the design can be repaired that way. Design errors occurring during chaotic times such as revolutions will become a topic of discussion for future philatelists. For errors occurring in technical aspects, such as the spelling of a scientific name of a plant or animal, may not be noticed during the stamp's period of use. Pagsanjan Falls stamp, Philippines 1932 Franz Schubert/Robert Schumann error, East Germany 1956 Gronchi Rosa, Italy 1961 The Whole Country is Red, China 1968 Legends of the West, United States 1993 Queen Elizabeth II error, Malta 2008 Predator Free 2050, New Zealand 2018 The largest run of an error on a postage stamp is the 2011 United States'Statue of Liberty Forever stamp'; the stamp shows the replica of the Statue of Liberty in Las Vegas rather than the original in New York. The stamp was released in December 2010 and the error was not noticed until March 2011 when it was identified by Sunipix, a stock photo agency in Texas. Ten and a half billion of the error stamps were produced.
Errors and oddities Inverted Jenny Jean-Pierre Mangin, Guide mondial des timbres erronés. Errors on stamps, ed. Yvert, Amiens. Bilingual books. D. E. G. Irvine and M. Seshold, Errors in Postage Stamp Design Published by National Philatelic Society, 1979, ISBN 0-906291-01-1
Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. It refers to the collection and research activities on stamps and other philatelic products. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, which does not involve the study of stamps, it is possible to be a philatelist without owning any stamps. For instance, the stamps being studied may be rare, or reside only in museums; the word "philately" is the English translation of the French "philatélie", coined by Georges Herpin in 1864. Herpin stated that stamps had been collected and studied for the previous six or seven years and a better name was required for the new hobby than timbromanie, disliked, he took the Greek root word φιλ- phil-, meaning "an attraction or affinity for something", ἀτέλεια ateleia, meaning "exempt from duties and taxes" to form "philatelie". The introduction of postage stamps meant that the receipt of letters was now free of charge, whereas before stamps it was normal for postal charges to be paid by the recipient of a letter.
The alternative terms "timbromania", "timbrophily" and "timbrology" fell out of use as philately gained acceptance during the 1860s. Traditional philately is the study of the technical aspects of stamp production and stamp identification, including: The stamp design process The paper used The method of printing The gum The method of separation Any overprints on the stamp Any security markings, underprints or perforated initials The study of philatelic fakes and forgeries Thematic philately known as topical philately, is the study of what is depicted on individual stamps. There are hundreds of popular subjects, such as birds, ships, presidents, maps, space craft and insects on stamps. Stamps depicted on stamps constitute a topical area of collecting. Interesting aspects of topical philately include design alterations. Postal history studies the postal systems and how they operate and, or, the study of postage stamps and covers and associated material illustrating historical episodes of postal systems both before and after the introduction of the adhesive stamps.
It includes the study of postmarks, post offices, postal authorities, postal rates and regulations and the process by which letters are moved from sender to recipient, including routes and choice of conveyance. A classic example is the Pony Express, the fastest way to send letters across the United States during the few months that it operated. Covers that can be proven to have been sent by the Pony Express are prized by collectors. Aerophilately is the branch of postal history. Philatelists have observed the development of mail transport by air from its beginning, all aspects of airmail services have been extensively studied and documented by specialists. Astrophilately is the branch of postal history that specializes in the study of stamps and postmarked envelopes that are connected to the outer space. Postal stationery includes stamped envelopes, postal cards, letter sheets, aérogrammes and wrappers, most of which have an embossed or imprinted stamp or indicia indicating the prepayment of postage.
Erinnophilia is the study of objects that are not postal stamps. Examples include Easter Seals, Christmas Seals, propaganda labels, so forth. Philatelic literature documents the results of philatelic study and includes thousands of books and periodicals. Revenue philately is the study of stamps used to collect taxes or fees on such things as, legal documents, court fees, tobacco, alcoholic drinks and medicines, playing cards, hunting licenses and newspapers. Maximaphily is the study of Maximum Cards. Maximum Cards can be defined as a picture post card with postage stamp on the same theme and a cancellation, with a maximum concordance between all three. Youth philately is the study of stamps with colorful characters, it is aimed at getting kids to be interested in stamp collecting. Philately uses a number of tools, including stamp tongs to safely handle the stamps, a strong magnifying glass and a perforation gauge to measure the perforation gauge of the stamp; the identification of watermarks is important and may be done with the naked eye by turning the stamp over or holding it up to the light.
If this fails watermark fluid may be used, which "wets" the stamp to reveal the mark. Some tools are available online; these are collector clubs, enthusiast forums and trading platforms. Other common tools include stamp stock books and stamp hinges. Philatelic organisations sprang up soon after people started studying stamps, they include local and international clubs and societies where collectors come together to share the various aspects of their hobby. One of the most known organizations is the American Philatelic Society. List of notable postage stamps List of philatelic topics List of philatelists Postal history Stamp collecting Sefi, A. J. An Introduction to Advanced Philately, with special reference to typical methods of stamp production. London: Rowley & Rowley, 1926. Sutton, R. J. & K. W. Anthony; the Stamp Collector's Encyclopaedia. 6th edition. London: Stanley Paul, 1966. Williams, L. N. & M. Fundamentals of Philately. State College: The American Philatelic Society, 1971. Can Plastic Films