Verdun is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is Bar-le-Duc, smaller than Verdun, it is well known for giving its name to a major battle of the First World War. Verdun was founded by the Gauls, it has been the seat of the bishop of Verdun since the 4th century, with interruptions. In 486, following the decisive Frankish victory at the Battle of Soissons, the city refused to yield to the Franks and was thus besieged by King Clovis I; the 843 Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire into three parts. The city has been famous for sugared almonds from 1200 onwards. Verdun was part of the middle kingdom of Lotharingia, in 1374 it became a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire; the Bishopric of Verdun formed together with Tull and Metz the Three Bishoprics, which were annexed by France in 1552. From 1624 to 1636, a large bastioned citadel was constructed on the site of the Abbey of Saint Vanne.
In 1670, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban visited Verdun and drew up an ambitious scheme to fortify the whole city. Although much of his plan was built in the following decades, some of the elements were not completed until after the Napoleonic Wars. Despite the extensive fortifications, Verdun was captured by the Prussians in 1792 during the War of the First Coalition, but abandoned by them after the Battle of Valmy. During the Napoleonic War, the citadel was used to hold British prisoners of war. In the Franco-Prussian War, Verdun was the last French fortress to surrender in 1870. Shortly afterwards, a new system of fortification was begun; this consisted of a mutually supporting ring of 22 polygonal forts up to 8 kilometres from the city, an inner ring of 6 forts. The Battle of Verdun was fought on August 20, 1792 between French Revolutionary forces and a Prussian army; the Prussians were victorious. This therefore opened the path to Paris. Norwich Duff visited Verdun in 1819, shortly after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars.
He wrote: Verdun is prettily situated in a valley surrounded by hills. The River Meuse runs through the town and forms several canals and ditches round the town, fortified and, I believe, by the great Marshal Vauban; the citadel and were at work on them. Though there is little to see at Verdun, every part of it felt interesting from the number of our countrymen confined here during the war. Verdun is famous for its sweetmeats, sugar plums, confits etc. which are said to be the best in France. They made. Verdun was the site of a major battle, the longest-lasting, of the First World War. One of the costliest battles in military history, Verdun exemplified the policy of a "war of attrition" pursued by both sides, which led to an enormous loss of life and large casualty lists. Following the failure of the Schlieffen Plan in 1914 and the solidifying of the Western Front, Germany remained on the strategic defensive in the west throughout most of 1915. In the winter of 1915–16, German General Erich von Falkenhayn, the chief of the German General Staff made plans for a large offensive on the Western Front that aimed to break the French Army through the application of firepower at a point that the French had to hold for reasons of national prestige.
As Falkenhayn recalled it, his so-called "Christmas memorandum" to Kaiser Willhelm II envisioned a massive but limited attack on a French position'for the retention of which the French Command would be compelled to throw in every man they have'. Once the French army had bled to death, Britain could be brought down by Germany's submarine blockade and superior military strength; the logic of initiating a battle not to gain territory or a strategic position but to create a self-sustaining killing ground—to bleed the French army white—pointed to the grimness of military vision in 1916. Recent scholarship by Holger Afflerbach and others, has questioned the veracity of the Christmas memo. No copy has surfaced and the only account of it appeared in Falkenhayn's post-war memoir, his army commanders at Verdun, including the German Crown Prince, denied any knowledge of an attrition strategy. It is possible that Falkenhayn did not design the battle to bleed the French army but used this supposed motive after the fact in an attempt to justify the Verdun offensive, despite its failure.
Verdun was the strongest point in pre-war France, ringed by a string of powerful forts, including Douaumont and Fort Vaux. By 1916, the salient at Verdun jutted into the German lines and lay vulnerable to attack from three sides; the historic city of Verdun had been an oppidum of the Gauls before Roman times and a key asset in wars against Prussia, Falkenhayn suspected that the French would throw as many men as necessary into its defence. France had weakened Verdun's defences after the outbreak of the war, an oversight that would contribute to the removal of Joseph Joffre from supreme command at the end of 1916; the attack was slated to begin on 12 February 16 February, but the snow forced repeated postponements. Falkenhayn massed artillery to the north and east of Verdun to precede the infantry advance with intensive artillery bombardment, his attack would hit the French positions on the right bank of the Meuse. Although F
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
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Paul Carnot was a French physician. He served as médecin des hôpitaux in Paris, becoming a professor of therapeutic medicine in 1918 to the Paris medical faculty. In 1922 he was elected as a member to the Académie de Médecine. In 1906 he coined the term hémopoïétine to define a humoral factor he believed was responsible for regulation of red blood cell production; this being based on experiments with laboratory rabbits that he conducted with his graduate student Clotilde-Camille DeFlandre. They noticed that an increase of reticulocytes in normal rabbits occurred following the injection of blood plasma taken from anemic donor rabbits who had earlier been subject to bloodletting. Findings from their research were published in a paper titled Sur l'activité hémopoïétique du sérum au cours de la régénération du sang. Carnot was the author of numerous treatises on a wide array of medical subjects. With Paul Brouardel, Augustin Nicolas Gilbert and others, he published the multi-volume Nouveau traité de médecine et de thérapeutique.
The following are a few of his better known writings: Les régénerations d'organes, 1899 Maladies microbiennes en général, 1905 Médications histopoiétiques et médications histolytiques, 1911 Precis de therapeutique, 1925 La clinique medicale de l'Hôtel-Dieu et l'oeuvre du Pr Gilbert 1927 His great-grand-father was Lazare Carnot, a French general, his father, Marie Adolphe Carnot was an engineer, head of the French École des Mines de Paris. IDREF.fr
Augustin Nicolas Gilbert
Augustin Nicolas Gilbert was a French physician. He was born in the town of Buzancy and died in Paris, he received his doctorate from the University of Paris and became an interne at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. He was a professor of therapeutics and clinical medicine at Hôtel-Dieu. In 1907 he became a member of the Académie de Médecine He published many articles and books on a wide array of medical subjects. With Jean Alfred Fournier he published Bibliothèque rouge de l'étudiant en médecine, with Paul Brouardel and others, he published the multi-volume Traité de médecine et de Thérapeutique. With neurologist Maurice Villaret, he conducted extensive research of portal hypertension. Gilbert described a hereditary cause of increased bilirubin. Formulaire:. Doin, Paris 23e Ed. 1911 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Augustin Nicolas Gilbert @ Who Named It
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease through analysis of tissue and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases, the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist; as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development, structural alterations of cells, the consequences of changes.
In common medical practice, general pathology is concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types and physiological systems, as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination. Pathology is a significant field in medical research; the study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Rudimentary understanding of many conditions was present in most early societies and is attested to in the records of the earliest historical societies, including those of the Middle East and China. By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway, with many notable early physicians having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases.
The medical practices of the Romans and those of the Byzantines continued from these Greek roots, but, as with many areas of scientific inquiry, growth in understanding of medicine stagnated some after the Classical Era, but continued to develop throughout numerous cultures. Notably, many advances were made in the medieval era of Islam, during which numerous texts of complex pathologies were developed based on the Greek tradition. So, growth in complex understanding of disease languished until knowledge and experimentation again began to proliferate in the Renaissance and Baroque eras, following the resurgence of the empirical method at new centers of scholarship. By the 17th century, the study of microscopy was underway and examination of tissues had led British Royal Society member Robert Hooke to coin the word "cell", setting the stage for germ theory. Modern pathology began to develop as a distinct field of inquiry during the 19th Century through natural philosophers and physicians that studied disease and the informal study of what they termed “pathological anatomy” or “morbid anatomy”.
However, pathology as a formal area of specialty was not developed until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the advent of detailed study of microbiology. In the 19th century, physicians had begun to understand that disease-causing pathogens, or "germs" existed and were capable of reproduction and multiplication, replacing earlier beliefs in humors or spiritual agents, that had dominated for much of the previous 1,500 years in European medicine. With the new understanding of causative agents, physicians began to compare the characteristics of one germ’s symptoms as they developed within an affected individual to another germ’s characteristics and symptoms; this realization led to the foundational understanding that diseases are able to replicate themselves, that they can have many profound and varied effects on the human host. To determine causes of diseases, medical experts used the most common and accepted assumptions or symptoms of their times, a general principal of approach that persists into modern medicine.
Modern medicine was advanced by further developments of the microscope to analyze tissues, to which Rudolf Virchow gave a significant contribution, leading to a slew of research developments. By the late 1920s to early 1930s pathology was deemed a medical specialty. Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine; the term pathology comes from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos, meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia, "study of". The modern practice of pathology is divided into a number of subdisciplines within the discrete but interconnected aims of biological research and medical practice. Biomedical research into disease incorporates the
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC