Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre; until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure. 1790 - Creation of the Seine-Inférieure department The department was created from part of the old province of Normandy during the French revolution, on 4 March 1790, through the application of a law of 22 December 1789.1815 - Occupation After the victory at Waterloo of the coalition armies, the department was occupied by British forces from June 1815 till November 1818.1843 – Railways and industry In Rouen and Bolbec, the number of textile factories is increasing. Metallurgy and naval construction as well.1851 - A republican department Following the president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's 1851 Coup d'état, Seine-Inférieure was one of several departments placed under a state of emergency following fears of significant resistance to the new government. World War II In 1942, during occupation by Nazi Germany, at the channel coast of Seine-Inférieure took place two Allied raids, the Bruneval raid and Dieppe raid.2005 - Inhabitants renamed Previously lacking a demonym, the inhabitants of Seine-Maritime determined, following a public consultation, that they should be known in official documents as "Seinomarins" and "Seinomarines".
The department can be split into three main areas: The Seine valley. The Seine flows through the provincial capital Rouen; the chalk plateau Pays de Caux, with its abrupt coastline. The Norman Pays de Bray, with its hills and bocage landscape; the département was created in 1790 as Seine-Inférieure, one of five departements that replaced the former province of Normandy. In 1800 five arrondissements were created within the département, namely Rouen, Le Havre, Dieppe and Yvetot, although the latter two were disbanded in 1926. On 18 January 1955 the name of the département was changed to Seine-Maritime, in order to provide a more positive-sounding name and in-keeping with changes made in a number of other French departements. In 1843 the railway from Paris reached the region; the département is connected to the adjacent Eure department via the Tancarville and Pont de Normandie bridge crossings of the Seine. Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is set in Seine Maritime; the novel La Place by Annie Ernaux takes place in Seine-Maritime and describes events and changes that take place in relation to French society in the 20th century in relation to the rural population.
The first story of the long-running series Valérian and Laureline is set in Seine-Maritime, with the character Laureline originating from the area. Cauchois is the dialect of the Pays de Caux, is one of the most vibrant forms of the Norman language beyond Cotentinais. Cantons of the Seine-Maritime department Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Arrondissements of the Seine-Maritime department General Council website Communes 76 Prefecture website
Union for a Popular Movement
The Union for a Popular Movement was a centre-right political party in France, one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party. The UMP was formed in 2002 as a merger of several centre-right parties under the leadership of President Jacques Chirac. In May 2015, the party was succeeded by The Republicans. Nicolas Sarkozy the president of the UMP, was elected President of France in the 2007 presidential election, but was defeated by PS candidate François Hollande in a run-off five years later. After the November 2012 party congress, the UMP experienced internal fractioning and was plagued by monetary scandals which forced its president, Jean-François Copé, to resign. After his re-election as UMP president in November 2014, Sarkozy put forward an amendment to change the name of the party into The Republicans, approved and came into effect on 30 May 2015; the UMP enjoyed an absolute majority in the National Assembly from 2002 to 2012 and was a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union.
Since the 1980s, the political groups of the parliamentary right have joined forces around the values of economic liberalism and the building of Europe. Their rivalries had contributed to their defeat in the 1988 legislative elections. Before the 1993 legislative election, the Gaullist Rally for the Republic and the centrist Union for French Democracy formed an electoral alliance, the Union for France. However, in the 1995 presidential campaign they were both divided between followers of Jacques Chirac, elected, supporters of Prime Minister Edouard Balladur. After their defeat in the 1997 legislative election, the RPR and UDF created the Alliance for France in order to coordinate the actions of their parliamentary groups. Before the 2002 presidential campaign, the supporters of President Jacques Chirac, divided in three centre-right parliamentary parties, founded an association named Union on the Move. After Chirac's re-election, in order to contest the legislative election jointly, the Union for the Presidential Majority was created.
It was as such established as a permanent organisation. The UMP was the merger of the Gaullist-conservative Rally for the Republic, the conservative-liberal party Liberal Democracy, a sizeable portion of the Union for French Democracy, more the UDF's Christian Democrats, the Radical Party and the centrist Popular Party for French Democracy. In the UMP four major French political families were thus represented: Gaullism, Christian democracy and radicalism. Chirac's close ally Alain Juppé became the party's first president at the party's founding congress at the Bourget in November 2002. Juppé won 79.42% of the vote, defeating Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, the leader of the party's Eurosceptic Arise the Republic faction, three other candidates. During the party's earlier years, it was marked by tensions and rivalries between Juppé and other chiraquiens and supporters of Nicolas Sarkozy, the then-Minister of the Interior. In the 2004 regional elections the UMP suffered a heavy blow, winning the presidencies of only 2 out of 22 regions in metropolitan France and only half of the departments in the simultaneous 2004 cantonal elections.
In the 2004 European Parliament election on 13 June 2004, the UMP suffered another heavy blow, winning 16.6% of the vote, far behind the Socialist Party, only 16 seats. Juppé resigned the party's presidency on 15 July 2004 after being found guilty in a corruption scandal in January of the same year. Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would take over the presidency of the UMP and resign his position as finance minister, ending months of speculation. On 28 November 2004, Sarkozy was elected to the party's presidency with 85.09% of the votes against 9.1% for Dupont-Aignan and 5.82% for Christine Boutin, the leader of the UMP's social conservatives. Having gained control of what had been Chirac's party, Sarkozy focused the party machinery and his energies on the 2007 presidential election; the failure of the referendum on the European Constitution on 25 May 2005 led to the fall of the government of Jean-Pierre Raffarin and to the formation of a new cabinet, presided by another UMP politician, Dominique de Villepin.
However, during this time, the UMP under Sarkozy gained a record number of new members and rejuvenated itself in preparation of the 2007 election. On 14 January 2007, Sarkozy was nominated unopposed as the UMP's presidential candidate for the 2007 election. On the issues, the party under Sarkozy publicly disapproved of Turkey's proposed membership in the European Union, which Chirac had endorsed several times publicly, took a more right-wing position. On 22 April 2007 Nicolas Sarkozy won the plurality of votes in the first round of the 2007 presidential election. On 6 May he faced the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal in the second round and won, taking 53.06% of the vote. As a consequence, he resigned from the presidency of the UMP on 14 May 2007, two days before becoming President of the French Republic. François Fillon was appointed Prime Minister. On 17 June 2007, at a
Quimper is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France. Quimper is the prefecture of the Finistère department; the city was built on the confluence of the Steir and Jet rivers. Route National 165, D785, D765 and D783 were constructed to intersect here, 62 km northwest of Lorient, 181 km west of Rennes, 486 km west-southwest of Paris; the name Quimper comes from the Breton kemper, meaning "confluent". Quimper is the ancient capital of Cornouaille, Brittany’s most traditional region, has a distinctive Breton Celtic character, its name is the Breton word kemper, meaning "confluence". The town developed at the confluence of the rivers Le L'Odet. Shops and flags celebrate the region's Celtic heritage. Quimper was settled during Roman times. By AD 495, the town had become a Bishopric, it subsequently became the capital of the counts of Cornouailles. In the eleventh century, it was united with the Duchy of Brittany. During the War of the Breton Succession, the town suffered considerable ruin.
In 1364, the duchy passed to the House of Montfort. The town has a rustic atmosphere, with footbridges spanning the rivers; the Church of Locmaria, a Romanesque structure, dates from the eleventh century. The Cathedral of Saint-Corentin, with its Gothic-style façade, was constructed between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, it is the oldest Gothic structure in lower Brittany. Its two towers are 76 m; the fifteenth-century stained glass windows are exceptional. The cathedral is dedicated to Corentin. To the cathedral's west are the pedestrianized streets of Vieux Quimper, which have a wide array of crêperies, half-timbered houses, shops. Near the Episcopal palace, which now holds the Musée départemental Breton are the ruins of the town's fifteenth-century walls. Nearby is the Musée des beaux-arts de Quimper; the museum has a nineteenth-century façade and an rebuilt interior. It houses a collection of fourteenth to twenty-first century paintings that includes works by François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-Baptiste Oudry and Peter Paul Rubens, along with canvases by such Pont-Aven School painters as Émile Bernard, Maurice Denis, Georges Lacombe, Maxime Maufra and Paul Sérusier.
The town's best known product is Quimper tin-glazed pottery. It has been made here since 1690. Quimper has a museum devoted to faience; the town's eating establishments cider in Brittany. The town has been known for copper and bronze work, food items, galvanized ironware, leather and woolen goods, its inhabitants are called Quimpérois. The municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 6 February 2008, to revive the teaching and use of Breton, the historic Celtic language of the region. In 2008, 4.61% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. Quimper has several schools; these include two Diwan primary schools and one Diwan collège. In total, 287 students attended here a Diwan school in 2003–2004. Most French festivals are held in the summer season, but Quimper has a Winter Festival: Les Hivernautes. In the summer, you can find concerts on street corners, with pipers and accordion players. Quimper Cathedral; this cathedral has a remarkable bend in its middle. Churches an old town centre with mediaeval fortifications and houses Musée des Beaux-Arts Cornouaille Festival: traditional dance Faience museum Statue of Gradlon looking in the direction of Ys at Quimper Cathedral Public transport in Quimper is provided by QUB.
The network consists of 7 urban bus routes, 16 suburban bus routes. During the summer months of July and August, an additional "beach" bus route is open to service; the Gare de Quimper is the terminus of a TGV high-speed train line from Paris, which passes through Le Mans and Vannes. Journey duration is 04h25. In addition, the following destinations are served by the TER Bretagne: Quimper – Brest Quimper – Rennes Quimper – Cornouaille Airport has flights to Paris and London City. Quimper was the birthplace of: Guillaume Hyacinthe Bougeant, Jesuit author Louis Billouart de Kervaségan, chevalier de Kerlérec, last French governor of Louisiana Élie Catherine Fréron and controversialist Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, admiral, discoverer of the Kerguelen archipelago Rene-Marie Madec, Nawab of India. See René Madec René Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope Max Jacob, painter and critic Corentin Louis Kervran, scientist Philippe Poupon, sailor OBE Hélène Mansfield, Croesyceiliog Head Teacher Hélène Albert, Nobel Prize winner of Medicine William Stanger, footballer Jean Failler, writer Jacques Villeglé, mixed-media artist Jean-Claude Andro, novelist Jessica Cérival, athlete Jean-Michel Moal, accordionist of Red Cardell Dan Ar Braz, guitarist Quimper is twinned with: Limerick, Republic of Ireland Remscheid, Germany Falkirk, United Kingdom Ourense, Spain Yantai, China Foggia, Italy Ys Quimper faience Communes of the Finistère department François Bazin (sculpt
National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority; the assembly is presided over by a president from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years; this measure is becoming rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: a President has a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election, it would be useless for him/her to dissolve it for those reasons. Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat, the "right-wing" parties sit to the right, the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly.
The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the banks of the river Seine. It is guarded by Republican Guards; the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections; this is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is exercised; the last dissolution was by Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of prime minister Alain Juppé. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a motion of no confidence. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical.
Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. The government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the assembly was entirely set by the executive. This, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the assembly's "control" prerogatives, and the fourth one is set by the assembly. One day per month is set by a "minority" or "opposition" group. Members of the assembly can ask oral questions to ministers; the Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the Government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in Britain, it is a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government.
The history of national representation for two centuries is linked to history of the democratic principle and the uneven road that it had to go before finding in the French institutions the consecration, its own today. Although the French have periodically elected representatives since 1789, the mode of appointment and the powers of these representatives have varied according to the times, the periods of erasure of the parliamentary institution coinciding with a decline in public liberties. In this respect, the names are not innocent; the name of National Assembly, chosen in the fervor of 1789, just reappears - if we except the short parenthesis of 1848 - in 1946. In the meantime, more or less reductive appellations "Instituted by the Constitution of the year III in August 1795," Chamber of deputies of the departments "," House of Representatives "," Legislative body "," Chambers of deputies ", etc.) which show, to varying degrees, the reluctance or the declared hostility of some governments or governments to the principle
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC