National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Hôtel-Dieu de Paris
The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD is the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, is the most central of the Assistance publique - hôpitaux de Paris hospitals. The hospital is associated with the Faculté de Médecine Paris-Descartes, it still resides on the bank of the Île de la Cité, next to Notre-Dame, connected to the "Rive Gauche" by the pont au Double. Although the facility had been ravaged by disastrous fires on several occasions, the two buildings of the facility were built in the 7th and 17th centuries, it was built as a symbol of hospitality. It was the only hospital in Paris until the Renaissance; the Hôtel-Dieu was founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD, is considered to be the first hospital in the city and the oldest worldwide still operating. The history of Parisian hospitals dates from the Middle Ages. Poverty was widespread during that period, the Hôtel-Dieu became an opportunity for many of the bourgeois and nobility to come to its aid, their efforts allowed the construction of the Hôpital de la Charité, which linked piety and medical care.
Like many hospitals of that era, it started as a general institution catering for the poor and sick, offering food and shelter in addition to medical care. The creation of the Hôtel-Dieu continued this tradition of charity up until the 19th century, despite being called into question during the centuries which followed. In the 16th century the Hôtel-Dieu faced a financial crisis, as it was only financed by help, subsidies or privileges; this brought about the creation in 1505 of a council of laymen governors: the Presidents of Parliament, the Chambre des Comptes, the Cour des Aides and the Prévôt des Marchands. The state progressively intervened, firstly by the intermediary of the Lieutenant Général de Police, member of the Bureau de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris in 1690 by the intermediary of Jacques Necker, who created the roles of Inspecteur général des hôpitaux civils et des maisons de force and Commissaire du roi pour tout ce qui a trait aux hôpitaux. During this period, the image of the poor changed.
The 17th century elite created establishments to house the poor. Hospitals thus took the name of "Hôpital Général" or "Hôpital d'enfermement", of which the Hôtel-Dieu was one; the centralized approach to extreme poverty in France was based on the premise that medical care was a right for those without family or income, formalized the admission process in hospitals to prevent overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. In parallel to her husband's work on the management of hospitals, Madame Necker progressively modified the symbolism of hospitals: from charity to benevolence. In addition, the ideas advocated by the Siècle des Lumières allowed reflection on hospitals; however it was not until the end of the 18th century that hospitals became a "curing machine", where the patient is treated and leaves cured. Previous Paris hospitals were characterized with poor sanitation and treatment followed by high mortality rate; the Hôtel-Dieu had a mortality rate close to 25%. Testimonies revealed that at least 3 patients shared one hospital bed, attempts at isolating contagious diseases were and women would have to share beds while giving birth.
The 1,200 beds in the hospital were inadequate for housing its over 3,500 patients. Conditions enhanced in 1787, when the Hôtel-Dieu implemented a code of medical services that shifted the hospital from a curing machine run by nuns to a medical and surgical establishment run by doctors. By the 19th century hospitals became places of teaching and medical research in addition to practicing medicine; the Hôtel-Dieu, had received a high status as a surgical training institution by the late 18th century with the appointment of Pierre J. Desault as chef de service in 1785. Desault established an elaborate educational program for surgical interns when they had only informal training. In 1772 a fire destroyed a large part of the Hôtel-Dieu, not rebuilt until the reign of Napoléon; this fire sparked discussions over the conditions and possible reforms that would be made to the Hospital system. Other designs were built and numerous modifications made. King Louis XV ordered the demolition of Hôtel Dieu in 1773 after hearing of its poor patient conditions.
The execution of the order was delayed due to the King's death and the ascension of Louis XVI, persuaded of an alternate plan to reconstruct the damaged parts of the hospital. This scheme was submitted to the Academy of Sciences for review, debate regarding Hôtel Dieu extended until 1785 as it transformed into discussions about the reformation of Paris's hospital system. Before the revolution, Many problems had been identified and solutions had been proposed regarding France's medical services. Jacques Tenon's Mémoires sur les hôpitaux de Paris, discusses the horrendous sanitary conditions, overcrowding facilities and high mortality rates of the Paris hospitals, he mentions that Hôtel-Dieu had a mortality rate of 25 percent, making it "the most unhealthy and uncomfortable of all hospitals." Though it was the largest of Paris' hospitals with 1,200 beds, many beds held three or more patients– women gave birth in shared beds and there was no separation amongst patients with contagious diseases.
In 1801, the Parisian hospitals adopted a new administrative framework: the Conseil général des hôpitaux et hospices civils de Paris. This willingness to improve management brought a
Hôpital Saint-Louis is a hospital in Paris, France. It was built in 1611 by architect Claude Vellefaux at the request of Henry IV of France, it is part of the Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris hospital system, it is located at 1 avenue Claude-Vellefaux, in the 10th arrondissement near the metro station: Goncourt. Its address is 1 avenue Claude-Vellefaux, just north of rue Bichat, it was founded by King Henry IV on May 17, 1607 to decongest the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris during the plague. He named it St. Louis in memory of Louis IX, who died of the dysentery that devastated Tunis in 1270. Today, Hôpital Saint-Louis uses its historical premises for administrative functions. Following the 1980s new modern additions were made to house the current hospital and teaching hospital, its primary specialties are hematology, as well as oncology. The dermatology library was founded by Dr Henri Feulard; the hospital employs 2,500 people. It houses the INSERM Institute of Research on the René Touraine Foundation.
The south-west entrance to the hospital, located at the intersection of rue Bichat and avenue Richerand, is popularly known as the entrance to the police station in the hit French detective television series Navarro. Hôpital Saint-Louis was built at the beginning of the 17th century on the orders of King Henry IV of France, who signed an edict founding the hospital on May 17, 1607, it was intended to only serve as a temporary hospital during epidemic to quarantine afflicted Parisians who could be contagious. It was situated just outside the Wall of Charles V beyond Porte du Temple, it was constructed in the proximity of the Gibbet of Montfaucon, as seen by an engraving of the hospital by Claude ChastillonConstruction was quick, was carried out using plans by Claude Vellfaux or Claude Chastillon, with work starting on the chapel. On Friday, July 13, 1607, the king laid the first stone, Antoine Le Mercier lead the construction efforts; the hospital played an important role in the study of dermatology since the 19th century and holds a wax museum of dermatological diseases ·.
Website of the hospital
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close