Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The sand cat known as the sand dune cat, is the only cat living chiefly in true deserts. This small cat is distributed in the deserts of North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Starting in 2002, it was listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List because the population was considered fragmented and small with a declining trend, it was downlisted to least concern in 2016. Owing to long hairs covering the soles of its feet, the sand cat is well adapted to the extremes of a desert environment and tolerant of hot and cold temperatures, it inhabits both stony deserts, in areas far from water sources. The French soldier and naturalist Victor Loche first described a sand cat specimen found in the area of "Négonça" in the northern Algerian Sahara in 1858, he named it Felis margarita in recognition of Jean Auguste Margueritte, who headed the expedition into the Sahara. This holotype specimen appears to have been lost. In the 20th century, the following zoological specimens of sand cats were described: Eremaelurus thinobius was proposed as a species in 1926 by the Russian zoologist Sergej Ognew.
This specimen had been collected in the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan. In 1938, the British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock considered it a species, but subordinated it to the genus Felis using the scientific name Felis thinobius, he considered it a sand cat subspecies, which to date is recognised. F. m. meinertzhageni proposed by Pocock in 1938 was a sand cat skin from the Algerian Sahara. F. m. aïrensis proposed by Pocock in 1938 was a female specimen collected in the Aïr Mountains in 1937. F. m. scheffeli proposed by Hemmer in 1974 was described on the basis of seven sand cats, captured alive in Pakistan's Nushki desert. F. m. harrisoni proposed by Hemmer and Groves in 1976 was described on the basis of a skin and skull of an adult male sand cat captured in 1967 in Umm al Samim, Oman. In 1974, F. m. margarita, F. m. thinobia and F. m. scheffeli were temporarily recognized as valid taxa. At the time, it was considered possible that sand cats recorded in Afghanistan and Iran might constitute distinct subspecies.
In 2005, F. m. margarita, F. m. thinobia, F. m. scheffeli and F. m. harrisoni were recognized as valid, but F. m. meinertzhageni and F. m. aïrensis were considered synonyms of F. m. margarita. The Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group reviewed the existing information and since 2017 has recognized only two subspecies, namely: F. m. margarita is morphologically distinguished by its smaller size and more yellow-colored spotted or striped fur. F. m. thinobia is larger in size with greyer fur and fewer markings. Phylogenetic analysis of tissue samples from all Felidae species revealed that the sand cat is part of the domestic cat lineage, estimated to have genetically diverged from the leopard cat lineage between 6.7 and 6.2 million years ago. The sand cat diverged from the common ancestor of Felis species between 3.67 and 1.72 million years ago. The following cladogram shows the phylogenetic relationships of the sand cat as derived through analysis of nDNA: The sand cat's fur is of a pale, light brownish-yellow color.
Markings vary between individuals: some have neither spots nor stripes, some are faintly spotted, some have both spots and stripes. There are dark brown to blackish bars on the limbs, the tail has a black tip with two or three dark rings alternating with buff bands; the head is sandy brown, whereas the lower and upper lips, chin and belly are white. Some individuals have a yellowish throat; the large, greenish-yellow eyes are ringed with white, the nose is blackish. The lower part of the face is whitish, a faint reddish line runs from the outer corner of each eye across the cheeks; the cat's whiskers are up to 8 cm long. The sand cat is a small cat, characterized by a flat, wide head, short legs, a long tail of 23–31 cm, it weighs 1.5 -- 3.4 kg. The head-and-body length ranges from 39–52 cm; the 5–7 cm long ears are set low, giving a broad, flat appearance to the head. The ears are tawny at the base and tipped with black, more pointed than those of the Pallas's cat. In Central Asia, the sand cat's winter coat is long and thick, with hairs reaching up to 2 in in length.
The sand cat’s claws on the forelimbs are short and sharp, claws on the hind feet are small and blunt. The undersides of its paws are protected from extreme temperatures by a thick covering of fur; the long hairs growing between its toes create a cushion of fur over the foot pads, helping to insulate them while moving over hot sand. This feature makes the cat's tracks difficult to identify and follow, its skull is arched in lateral outline with wide zygomatic arches. The pinnae of the ears are triangular, the ear canal is wide, giving the cat an enhanced sense of hearing; the auditory bullae and the passages from the external ears to the ear drums are enlarged compared to other small wild cats. The sand cat's outer ear is similar to that of a domestic cat, but its ear canal is about twice the size; the magnitude of acoustic input-admittance is about five times higher than of a domestic cat. Additionally, hearing sensitivity of the sand cat is about 8 decibels greater than that of the domestic cat.
It has a bite force quotient at the canine tip of 136.7. The sand cat inhabits both stony deserts, it is though not contiguously distributed in the deserts of North Afri
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Second French intervention in Mexico
The Second French Intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire. Supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez's two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French and Spanish creditors. To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade; the establishment of a friendly monarchy in Mexico would ensure European access to Latin American markets. To realize his imperial ambitions without other European interference, Napoleon III entered into a coalition with Britain and Spain, while the U. S. was occupied with the American Civil War, unable to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. On 31 October 1861, France and Spain agreed to the Convention of London, a joint effort to extract repayments from Mexico. On 8 December, the Spanish fleet disembarked troops at the port of Veracruz, Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico.
When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they withdrew from the military coalition agreed in London. The subsequent French invasion created the Second Mexican Empire, a client state of the French Empire. Besides the Continental empires involved, the Russian Empire acknowledged the political legitimacy of the Maximilian's Second Mexican Empire, when the Tsarist fleet saluted the imperial Mexican flag when sailing off the Pacific Ocean coastal state of Guerrero. In Mexican politics, the French intervention allowed active political reaction against the Liberal policies of racial and socio-economic reform of president Benito Juárez, thus the Roman Catholic Church, upper-class conservatives, much of the Mexican nobility, some Indian communities welcomed and collaborated with the French empire's installation of Maximilian I of Mexico as Emperor of the Mexicans. In European politics, the French intervention in Mexico reconciled the Second French Empire and the Austrian Empire, whom the French had defeated in the Franco–Austrian War of 1859.
French imperial expansion into Mexico counterbalanced the geopolitical power of the Protestant Christian U. S. by developing a powerful Catholic empire in Latin America, the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Mexican north-west. After much guerrilla warfare that continued after the Mexicans' Capture of Mexico City — the French Empire withdrew from Mexico and abandoned the Austrian emperor of Mexico; the British and French fleets arrived at Veracruz, between 8 and 17 December 1861 intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts. The Spanish fleet seized San Juan de Ulúa and subsequently the capital Veracruz on 17 December; the European forces advanced to Orizaba and Tehuacán, as they had agreed in the Convention of Soledad. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet on 27 February 1862, a French army, commanded by General Lorencez, arrived on 5 March; when the Spanish and British realised the French ambition was to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces on 9 April, their troops leaving on 24 April.
In May, the French man-of-war Bayonnaise blockaded Mazatlán for a few days. Mexican forces commanded by General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862; the pursuing Mexican army was contained by the French at Veracruz, on 14 June. More French troops arrived on 21 September, General Bazaine arrived with French reinforcements on 16 October; the French occupied the port of Tampico on 23 October, unopposed by Mexican forces took control of Xalapa, Veracruz on 12 December. The French bombarded Veracruz on 15 January 1863. Two months on 16 March, General Forey and the French Army began the siege of Puebla. On 30 April, the French Foreign Legion earned its fame in the Battle of Camarón, when an infantry patrol unit of 62 soldiers and three officers, led by the one-handed Captain Jean Danjou, was attacked and besieged by Mexican infantry and cavalry units numbering three battalions, about 3000 men, they were forced to make a defence in a nearby hacienda. Danjou was mortally wounded at the hacienda, his men mounted an suicidal bayonet attack, fighting to nearly the last man.
To this day, the anniversary of 30 April remains the most important day of celebration for Legionnaires. The French army of General François Achille Bazaine defeated the Mexican army led by General Comonfort in its campaign to relieve the siege of Puebla, at San Lorenzo, to the south of Puebla. Puebla surrendered to the French shortly afterward, on 17 May. On 31 May, President Juárez fled the city with his cabinet, retreating northward to Paso del Norte and to Chihuahua. Having taken the treasure of the state with them, the government-in-exile remained in Chihuahua until 1867. French troops under Bazaine entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863; the main army entered the city three days led by General Forey. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, by the Superior Junta; the Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 July. The crown was offered following pressures by Napoleon. Maximilian accepted the crown on 3 October, at the hands of the Comisión Mexicana, sent by the Superior J
Beauraing is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Namur. On January 1, 2006, Beauraing had a total population of 8,344; the total area is 174.55 km², giving a population density of 48 inhabitants per km². The municipality of Beauraing was created in 1977 from the fusion of Beauraing, Dion, Feschaux, Froidfontaine, Javingue, Martouzin-Neuville, Pondrôme, Vonêche, Wancennes and Winenne. Beauraing is a place of pilgrimage for Catholics since five children and young adults reported 33 apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary between November 29, 1932, January 3, 1933; the sobriquet applied to these apparitions is Our Lady of the Virgin of the Golden Heart. The apparitions are among those which are sanctioned by the Church. List of protected heritage sites in Beauraing Media related to Beauraing at Wikimedia Commons Sanctuary of Our Lady of Beauraing
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No