MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists. In addition, an organist may play liturgical music; the majority of organists and professional, are principally involved in church music, playing in churches and cathedrals. The pipe organ still plays a large part in the leading of traditional western Christian worship, with roles including the accompaniment of hymns, choral anthems and other parts of the worship; the degree to which the organ is involved varies depending on the denomination. It may depend on the standard of the organist. In more provincial settings, organists may be more described as pianists obliged to play the organ for worship services; as most churches can afford to employ only one musician, the organist is also responsible for directing and rehearsing the choir. In the twentieth-century, many pipe organs were replaced by pipe-less electronic and digital organs as a low-cost alternative to rebuilding older pipe organs.
In the English cathedral tradition the organist is now called "Director of Music", although their function is in the training and direction of music rather than actual playing. Sometimes the organist will be assisted by an organ scholar; the post of organist at most of the great cathedrals includes choral training. Another function of an organist is as teacher to future players. Few organists hold special positions such as Carol Williams, the Civic Organist of San Diego, the last true Civic Organist position still active in the USA. Since the strengths and weaknesses of the organ are difficult to understand without a good deal of playing experience, most music composed for organ has been written by organists. Since the majority of pre-twentieth-century organs were installed in churches, classical organ literature was exclusively written for liturgical use. Many composers, are known for their performance talents, some historical examples being Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré.
In Europe, the historical importance of churches as employers of musicians meant that many composers who now are seldom remembered for their association with the organ were engaged as professional organists: for example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Edward Elgar. In English churches and cathedrals the Organist may be known as Master of the Choristers, Choirmaster or Director of Music. A few carry on the tradition today. There are many organists employed in the production of jazz music. In the United States most of them play the Hammond organ, many are classically trained in piano rather than organ. In England and Japan, one of the most popular series of instruments is the Yamaha Electone; the Royal College of Organists in the United Kingdom is the oldest institution of organ studies. From that sprang the American Guild of Organists, the Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde in Germany, the Royal Canadian College of Organists; the Incorporated Association of Organists is an international society fulfilling a similar role.
All these institutions are oriented toward the organist involved in classical music rather than popular music. There is the American Theatre Organ Society. List of organists List of jazz organists Organ recital Organ shoes Organ playing and teaching in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada American Guild of Organists American Theatre Organ Society The Royal College of Organists Royal Canadian College of Organists Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde Incorporated Association of Organists in the UK
Le Boeuf sur le Toit (cabaret)
Le Boeuf sur le Toit is the name of a celebrated Parisian cabaret-bar, founded in 1921 by Louis Moysés, located at 28, rue Boissy d'Anglas in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It was notably the gathering place for the avant garde arts scene during the period between the wars. Maurice Sachs chronicled it in his 1939 book Au temps du boeuf sur le toit, it is at 34, rue du Colisée, having moved five times within the 8th arrondissement. The current building dates from the 18th century; the composer Darius Milhaud had been in Brazil where he had been impressed by the folklore and a popular song of the time, O Boi no Telhado. Back in Paris in 1919 Milhaud and his composer friends formed; the poet Jean Cocteau was an informal member of the group and would do the choreography for Milhaud's composition Le bœuf sur le toit—a direct translation of the Brazilian song name. This ballet farce became popular and Milhaud, joined by Georges Auric, Arthur Rubinstein could be heard playing a six handed version of it at La gaya, a bar at 17, rue Duphot owned by Louis Moysès.
The presence of Cocteau and his circle made the Gaya popular and in December 1921, when Moysès moved his bar to rue Boissy d’Anglas, he named the new bar Le Boeuf sur le Toit to be sure that Milhaud and their friends went with him. They did—and Le Boeuf was born. Over the years the bar became such an icon that the common belief in Paris was that Milhaud's ballet-farce had been named after the bar, the opposite of what happened. Le Boeuf sur le Toit was a success from the day, it became the center of Paris cabaret society and reigned throughout the twenties. On opening night pianist Jean Wiéner, who Moysès had brought with him from the Gaya, played Gershwin tunes with Cocteau and Milhaud providing accompaniment on the drums. According to Maurice Sachs, the opening night audience included Pablo Picasso, René Clair, Sergei Diaghilev, Maurice Chevalier. Artists of all kinds came to Le Boeuf. On the wall, reigning over the scene, was Francis Picabia’s now famous Dada work L’Oeil Cacodylate, but the bar was about music.
One could hear Jean Wiéner playing Bach, virtuoso pianist Clément Doucet playing Cole Porter, or Marianne Oswald singing the songs of Kurt Weill. You could run into Francis Poulenc, Catherine Sauvage, or Erik Satie. Frequent guests included the young American composer Virgil Thomson and other classical musicians from Le Six.. Jazz musicians from other Paris clubs would show up at Le Boeuf after hours and play long into the night—for Paris was above all the city of jazz. In France, the expression "faire un Boeuf" is used by musicians to this day to mean "to have a jam session" and derives from the name of this cabaret. In 1928, owner Louis Moysés was forced to move to a new location, this was followed by more moves, always within the 8th arrondissement. In 1922 Le Boeuf sur le Toit founded at 28 rue Boissy d'Anglas In 1928 moved to 33, rue Boissy d'Anglas In 1928 moved again to 26 rue de Penthièvre In 1936 moved to 41 bis avenue Pierre 1er de Serbie In 1941 moved to 34, de la rue du Colisée The many relocations proved ruinous to the effervescent spirit of the original cabaret.
Le Boeuf sur le Toit exists as a chic restaurant to this day. But the glamour, social cachet, avant-garde milieu, bohemian atmosphere—they are a distant memory. In 1938 Nazi propagandists reacted furiously to the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a young Jewish man, but according to historian Hans-Jürgen Döscher, the shooting was not politically motivated, as believed, but the result of a homosexual love affair gone wrong. Grynszpan and Vom Rath had become intimate after they met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a popular hangout for gay men at the time. From the day it opened, Le Boeuf was the epicenter of the Paris of the Roaring Twenties and was always thronged by the beau monde and the cream of the avant-garde. People to be seen at Le Boeuf included: Notes SourcesAppignanesi, The Cabaret: The First Hundred Years, London: Studio Vista, 1975, ISBN 0-289-70612-2 Sachs, Maurice, Au temps du boeuf sur le toit, Paris: Grasset, 2005, ISBN 2-246-38822-8 Richardson, John & McCully, Marilyn, A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007, ISBN 0-375-71151-1 Official website Alexandre Tharaud, "Le Boeuf sur le toit" - Swinging Paris 22 August 2012 Video Entrez chez Jean Cocteau
Jeanne Marie-Madeleine Demessieux, was a French organist, pianist and pedagogue. Born in Montpellier, Jeanne Demessieux was the second child of Marie-Madeleine Demessieux and Étienne Demessieux. After taking private piano lessons with her elder sister, Jeanne entered the Montpellier Conservatoire in 1928. Four years she obtained first prizes in solfège and piano. In 1933, she began her studies at the Paris Conservatoire; the same year, she was appointed titular organist at a post she held for 29 years. From 1936-39, Demessieux studied organ with Marcel Dupré, whose organ class at the Conservatoire she joined in 1939. After receiving a first prize in organ performance and improvisation in 1941, Demessieux studied with Dupré in Meudon for five more years, before she played her début concert at Salle Pleyel in Paris in 1946; this was the beginning of her career as an international concert organist. Demessieux gave more than 700 concerts in France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States.
She had memorized more than 2,500 works, including the complete organ works of Bach, Franck and Mendelssohn, all of Dupré's organ works up to Opus 41. A prolific recording artist, she was awarded the Grand Prix du Disque Award in 1960 for her complete recording of Franck's organ works. In 1962, Demessieux was appointed as titular organist at La Madeleine in Paris, she combined this with demanding academic duties, serving as professor of organ both at the Nancy Conservatoire and at the Conservatoire Royal in Liège. In 1967, she signed a contract with Decca for a recording of the complete organ works by Olivier Messiaen, which she did not live to finish. Jeanne Demessieux died on November 11, 1968 in Paris of cancer, at age 47, she was buried in the Demessieux family tomb in the Cimetière du Grau-du-Roi, not far from Aigues-Mortes. Demessieux wrote more than 30 compositions. Many of these were written for the organ, but she produced pieces for piano numerous songs, a handful of choral works, orchestral works.
About half of her output has been published to date. The Dutch label Festivo has re-released on CD several of her LP recordings, including the above-mentioned 1958 recording of Franck's complete organ works. Nativité, op. 4 Six Études, op. 5 Pointes Tierces Sixtes Accords alternés Notes répétées Octaves Sept Méditations sur le Saint-Esprit, op. 6 Veni Sancte Spiritus Les eaux Pentecôte Dogme Consolateur Paix Lumière Triptyque, op. 7 Prélude Adagio Fugue Twelve Choral-Preludes on Gregorian Chant Themes, op. 8 Rorate Caeli Adeste Fideles Attende Domine Stabat Mater Vexilla Regis Hosanna filio David O Filii Veni Creator Spiritus Ubi caritas In manus tuas Tu es Petrus Domine Jesu Andante Te Deum, op. 11 Répons pour le temps de pâques: Victimae paschali laudes Répons pour les temps liturgiques Répons pour le temps du Très-Saint-Rosaire: Ave Maria Répons pour le temps d'Advent: Consolamini Répons pour le temps du Saint-Sacrement: Lauda Sion Répons pour le temps du Saint-Sacrement: Lauda Sion Prélude et fugue en ut, op. 13 Poème, op. 9 7 Pièces inédites Le chant des petits oiseaux Berceuse et impromptu Romance sans paroles Allegro Mazurka Valse n° 1 Murmure des bois Berceuse Suite Prélude Scherzetto Menuet Toccata Étude in F# major Trois préludes D# minor B minor D minor Le moulin Soudainement contre les vitres Sonnet de Michel-Ange Action de grâce Cavalier Le vase brisé Sonata for violin and piano Allegro moderato Adagio cantabile Thème et variations Ballade, op.
12, for horn and piano String quartet Cantate pour le jeudi Saint for chorus and organ. Te Deum op. 11, Répons pour le temps de Pâques, 12 Choral-Préludes op. 8, Triptyque op. 7, Prélude et Fugue en Ut op. 13, Sept Méditations sur le Saint-Esprit op. 6, Six Etudes op. 5. Pierre Labric: Hommage à Jeanne Demessieux. Pierre Labric, Organist. Recorded in Ju
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC