Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript mRNA into processed, mature mRNA; this mature mRNA is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology. As in DNA, mRNA genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each; each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis. This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA, that mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, ribosomal RNA, the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery; the existence of mRNA was first suggested by Jacques Monod and François Jacob, subsequently discovered by Jacob, Sydney Brenner and Matthew Meselson at the California Institute of Technology in 1961.
It should not be confused with mitochondrial DNA. The brief existence of an mRNA molecule begins with transcription, ends in degradation. During its life, an mRNA molecule may be processed and transported prior to translation. Eukaryotic mRNA molecules require extensive processing and transport, while prokaryotic mRNA molecules do not. A molecule of eukaryotic mRNA and the proteins surrounding it are together called a messenger RNP. Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed; this process is similar in prokaryotes. One notable difference, however, is that eukaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed after the start of transcription; the short-lived, unprocessed or processed product is termed precursor mRNA, or pre-mRNA. Processing of mRNA differs among eukaryotes and archea. Non-eukaryotic mRNA is, in essence, mature upon transcription and requires no processing, except in rare cases.
Eukaryotic pre-mRNA, requires extensive processing. A 5' cap is a modified guanine nucleotide, added to the "front" or 5' end of a eukaryotic messenger RNA shortly after the start of transcription; the 5' cap consists of a terminal 7-methylguanosine residue, linked through a 5'-5'-triphosphate bond to the first transcribed nucleotide. Its presence is critical for recognition by the protection from RNases. Cap addition is coupled to transcription, occurs co-transcriptionally, such that each influences the other. Shortly after the start of transcription, the 5' end of the mRNA being synthesized is bound by a cap-synthesizing complex associated with RNA polymerase; this enzymatic complex catalyzes the chemical reactions. Synthesis proceeds as a multi-step biochemical reaction. In some instances, an mRNA will be edited, changing the nucleotide composition of that mRNA. An example in humans is the apolipoprotein B mRNA, edited in some tissues, but not others; the editing creates an early stop codon, upon translation, produces a shorter protein.
Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule. In eukaryotic organisms most messenger RNA molecules are polyadenylated at the 3' end, but recent studies have shown that short stretches of uridine are common; the poly tail and the protein bound to it aid in protecting mRNA from degradation by exonucleases. Polyadenylation is important for transcription termination, export of the mRNA from the nucleus, translation. MRNA can be polyadenylated in prokaryotic organisms, where poly tails act to facilitate, rather than impede, exonucleolytic degradation. Polyadenylation occurs during and/or after transcription of DNA into RNA. After transcription has been terminated, the mRNA chain is cleaved through the action of an endonuclease complex associated with RNA polymerase. After the mRNA has been cleaved, around 250 adenosine residues are added to the free 3' end at the cleavage site; this reaction is catalyzed by polyadenylate polymerase. Just as in alternative splicing, there can be more than one polyadenylation variant of an mRNA.
Polyadenylation site mutations occur. The primary RNA transcript of a gene is cleaved at the poly-A addition site, 100–200 A's are added to the 3’ end of the RNA. If this site is altered, an abnormally long and unstable mRNA construct will be formed. Another difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is mRNA transport; because eukaryotic transcription and translation is compartmentally separated, eukaryotic mRNAs must be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm—a process that may be regulated by different signaling pathways. Mature mRNAs are recognized by their processed modifications and exported through the nuclear pore by binding to the cap-binding proteins CBP20 and CBP80, as well as the transcription/export complex. Multiple mRNA export pathways have been identified in eukaryotes. In spatially complex cells, some mRNAs are transported to particular subcellar destinations. In mature neurons, certain mRNA are transported from the soma to dendrites. One site of mRNA translation is at polyribosomes selectively localized beneath synapses.
The mRNA for Arc/Arg3.1 is induced by synaptic activity and localizes selectively near active synapses based on signals generated by NMDA receptor
Université libre de Bruxelles
The Université Libre de Bruxelles, abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium. The Free University of Brussels was established in 1834 by Belgian lawyer Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and split into the French-speaking ULB and Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 1970, it is one of the most important Belgian universities. A major research center open to Europe and the world, it has about 24,200 students, 33% of whom come from abroad, an cosmopolitan staff. In 2018, ULB was globally ranked 175th by 151th by Shanghai Ranking. Brussels has two universities whose names mean Free University of Brussels in English: the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Neither uses the English translation; when the Belgian State was formed in 1830 by nine breakaway provinces from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it had three state universities, in Ghent, Liège and Leuven, but no university in the new capital, Brussels.
Since the government was reluctant to fund another state university, a group of Freemasons and intellectuals led by Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and Auguste Baron planned to create a private university, permitted under the Belgian Constitution. After the Catholic Church sponsored the foundation of the Catholic University of Mechlin in 1834, the Université Libre de Belgique opened on 20 November 1834. In 1836, it changed its name to Université Libre de Bruxelles; the school's football team won the bronze medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics. As part of its commitment to academic freedom, the ULB closed down in 1941 rather than collaborate with the Nazi occupation of Belgium. Since 1935, some courses have been taught in both Dutch. Beginning in 1963, all faculties offered courses in both languages. In October 1969, shortly after the language dispute at the Catholic University of Leuven, the French and Dutch entities of the ULB separated into two distinct universities. With the act of 28 May 1970, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université Libre de Bruxelles became two separate legal and scientific entities.
November 20, called Saint Verhagen for Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen, is a holiday for students of both the Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The ULB comprises three main campuses: the Solbosch campus, on the territories of Brussels and Ixelles municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region, the Plaine campus in Ixelles, the Erasmus campus in Anderlecht, beside the Erasmus Hospital; the main and largest campus of the university is the Solbosch, which hosts the administration and general services of the university. It includes most of the faculties of the humanities, the École polytechnique, the large library of social sciences, among the museums of the ULB, the Museum of Zoology and Anthropology, the Allende exhibition room and the M. De Ghelderode Museum; the Plaine campus hosts the Faculty of Pharmacy. There are the Experimentariums of physics and chemistry, the Museum of Medicinal Plants and Pharmacy and student housing; this site is served by the metro station: Delta.
The Erasmus campus houses the Erasmus Hospital and the Pôle Santé, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Public Health and the Faculty of Motor Sciences. There is the School of Nursing, the Museum of Medicine and the Museum of Human Anatomy and Embryology; this site is served by the metro station: Erasmus. The university has buildings and activities in the Brussels municipality of Auderghem, outside of Brussels, in Charleroi on the Aéropole Science Park and Nivelles. Institute for European Studies Interfacultary School of Bio-Engineering School of Public Health High Institute of Physical Education and Kinesiotherapy Institute of Work Sciences Institute of Statistics and Operational Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Université de Montréal, Waseda University, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, BeiHang University, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Université de Lausanne, Université de Genève, University Ouaga I Pr.
Joseph Ki-Zerbo, University of Lubumbashi Henri La Fontaine: Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913. Jules Bordet: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1919. Albert Claude: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. Ilya Prigogine: Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977. François Englert: Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. Denis Mukwege: Nobel Prize for Peace in 2018. Aéropole Science Park Atomium Culture BioVallée Institut Jules Bordet Science and technology in Brussels Solvay Business School Top Industrial Managers for Europe University Foundation Vrije Universiteit Brussel Royal Statistical Society of Belgium Despy, A. 150 Ans De L‘Ulb Universite Libre De Bruxelles, Brussels, 1984 Noel, F. 1894 Universite Libre De Bruxelles En Crise, Brussels, 1994 The ULB, a university born of an idea ULB, at a glance Official home page
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, along with lipids and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA to convey genetic information that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome; some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes; this process uses transfer RNA molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA links amino acids together to form proteins.
Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices. Analysis of these RNAs has revealed that they are structured. Unlike DNA, their structures do not consist of long double helices, but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis. For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome—an RNA-protein complex that catalyzes peptide bond formation—revealed that its active site is composed of RNA; each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, in general, cytosine, guanine, or uracil. Adenine and guanine are purines and uracil are pyrimidines. A phosphate group is attached to the 5' position of the next; the phosphate groups have a negative charge each. The bases form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil.
However, other interactions are possible, such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge, or the GNRA tetraloop that has a guanine–adenine base-pair. An important structural component of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar; the presence of this functional group causes the helix to take the A-form geometry, although in single strand dinucleotide contexts, RNA can also adopt the B-form most observed in DNA. The A-form geometry results in a deep and narrow major groove and a shallow and wide minor groove. A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule, it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone. RNA is transcribed with only four bases, but these bases and attached sugars can be modified in numerous ways as the RNAs mature. Pseudouridine, in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C–N bond to a C–C bond, ribothymidine are found in various places.
Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine. Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code. There are more than 100 other occurring modified nucleosides; the greatest structural diversity of modifications can be found in tRNA, while pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose present in rRNA are the most common. The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not understood. However, it is notable that, in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-transcriptional modifications occur in functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function; the functional form of single-stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements that are hydrogen bonds within the molecule; this leads to several recognizable "domains" of secondary structure like hairpin loops and internal loops.
Since RNA is charged, metal ions such as Mg2+ are needed to stabilise many secondary and tertiary structures. The occurring enantiomer of RNA is D-RNA composed of D-ribonucleotides. All chirality centers are located in the D-ribose. By the use of L-ribose or rather L-ribonucleotides, L-RNA can be synthesized. L-RNA is much more stable against degradation by RNase. Like other structured biopolymers such as proteins, one can define topology of a folded RNA molecule; this is done based on arrangement of intra-chain contacts within a folded RNA, termed as circuit topology. Synthesis of RNA is catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription. Initiation of transcription begins with the binding of the enzyme to a promoter sequence in the DNA; the DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme progresses along the template strand in the 3’ to 5’ direction, synthesizing a complementary RNA molecule with elongation occ
Haldan Keffer Hartline
Haldan Keffer Hartline was an American physiologist, a co-recipient of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision. Hartline received his undergraduate education from Lafayette College in Easton, graduating in 1923, he began his study of retinal electrophysiology as a National Research Council Fellow at Johns Hopkins University, receiving his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1927. After attending the universities of Leipzig and Munich as an Eldridge Johnson traveling research scholar from the University of Pennsylvania, he returned to the US to take a position in the Eldridge Reeves Johnson Foundation for Medical Physics at Penn, under the directorship of Detlev W. Bronk at that time. In 1940–1941, he was Associate Professor of Physiology at Cornell Medical College in New York City, but returned to Penn and stayed until 1949, he became professor of biophysics and chairman of the department at Johns Hopkins in 1949. One of Hartline's graduate students at Johns Hopkins, Paul Greengard, who won the Nobel Prize.
Hartline joined the staff of Rockefeller University, New York City, in 1953 as professor of neurophysiology. Hartline investigated the electrical responses of the retinas of certain arthropods and mollusks, because their visual systems are much simpler than those of humans and thus easier to study, he concentrated his studies on the eye of the horseshoe crab. Using minute electrodes, he obtained the first record of the electrical impulses sent by a single optic nerve fibre when the receptors connected to it are stimulated by light, he found that the photoreceptor cells in the eye are interconnected in such a way that when one is stimulated, others nearby are depressed, thus enhancing the contrast in light patterns and sharpening the perception of shapes. Hartline thus built up a detailed understanding of the workings of individual photoreceptors and nerve fibres in the retina, he showed how simple retinal mechanisms constitute vital steps in the integration of visual information. Hartline was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1966.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1967
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent